|Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore)
|District :||Bengaluru Urban|
|Location :||12 ° 59 ′ N , 77 ° 36 ′ E|
|Height :||920 m|
|Area :||741 km²|
- Agglomeration :
|Population density :||15,439 inhabitants / km²|
|Postal code :||560001-560106|
Bengaluru (official name since 2014; Kannada : ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು Bengaluru [ beŋɡəɭuːru ] ), English Bangalore (old) [ bæŋɡəlɔːr ] is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka in the south west of the subcontinent.
With 11.4 million inhabitants (2018) it is the third largest city in India after Mumbai and Delhi . Bengaluru is also the administrative seat of the Bengaluru Urban and Bengaluru Rural districts .
Bengaluru is a center of India's civil and military aerospace industry and research. More recently, it has also developed into one of the most important IT centers in the country. Because of the numerous parks, Bangalore is often referred to as the "garden city".
Geography and climate
Bengaluru is located in the Dekkan Tableland, in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, at about 900 m . As a result, despite the tropical location at around 13 degrees north latitude, the temperatures are mild - in winter the temperature drops to around 15 degrees Celsius at night, in summer it can rise to 37 degrees Celsius during the day. The monsoon rains last from May to October.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Bengaluru
Source: WMO ; wetterkontor.de
The largest body of water is Lake Bellandur .
Bengaluru was probably founded in 1537 by Kempe Gowda I (1510 to 1570). Kempe Gowda is said to have chosen the name Bengaluru for this new city , as his mother and wife come from a settlement of this name that still exists today as Halebengaluru (Old Bangalore) near Bangalore.
According to another version, in the 10th century an old woman gave boiled beans to King Veeraballa when he got lost in the forest. Out of gratitude, he named the place Benda Kaluru , the "city of boiled beans".
The British under Charles Cornwallis conquered the city in a battle with Tipu Sultan in 1799 and anglicized the name to "Bangalore".
In 1898, Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic that left a large number of victims. As a consequence, the sewage and health systems were modernized and regulations for sanitary facilities in the construction of new houses were issued. In 1900 the Victoria Hospital was opened.
After 1900, Bangalore expanded rapidly. By 1950 the districts of Basavanagudi, Malleshwaram, Kalasipalyam, Gandhinagar and Jayanagar were built.
Up until 1949, Bangalore was an important garrison town for the British, as evidenced by street names such as Brigade Road or Residency Road .
At the 2011 census, Bengaluru had 8,425,970 residents. This makes Bengaluru the third largest city in India after Mumbai and Delhi . For the agglomeration of Bengaluru a number of 8,499,399 inhabitants was determined. Among the metropolitan areas of India, Bengaluru ranks fifth behind Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta and Chennai . Due to its economic boom and the associated immigration, the Bengaluru area is experiencing significant population growth; between 2001 and 2011, the population of the agglomeration increased by almost 100 percent.
For 2050 a population of over 15.6 million people is expected in the metropolitan area.
More than half of the population of Bengaluru are immigrants from other parts of India and the world - to a large extent qualified IT specialists, which has given the city a cosmopolitan character. The linguistic variety is correspondingly large. The administrative and lingua franca in Bengaluru is Kannada , the main language of Karnataka. According to the 2001 census, the Kannada speakers make up only a relative majority of 36 percent of the residents of Bengaluru. Urdu is traditionally common among the Muslim population of Bangalore, and its speakers make up 15 percent of the city's population. The remainder is accounted for by languages spoken by immigrants from other parts of India: Tamil (21 percent), Telugu (14 percent), Hindi (4 percent), Malayalam (3 percent), Marathi (3 percent) and others (4 percent) ). As everywhere in India, English plays an important role as an educational and lingua franca.
In the past there have been repeated conflicts between Kannada speakers and immigrants. Severe anti-Tamil riots in 1991 claimed twenty lives. Tensions between these two sections of the population were also evident in the controversy surrounding the Tiruvalluvar statue , a memorial to the Tamil poet saint Tiruvalluvar , which was erected in 1992 but was not unveiled until 2009.
According to the 2011 census, of the population of Bengalurus, 79 percent are Hindus , 14 percent Muslim , 6 percent Christian and 1 percent Jain .
According to a study from 2014, the Greater Bengaluru region has a gross domestic product of 45.3 billion US dollars ( PPP ). It was one of the 300 economically strongest metropolitan regions in the world and ranked fifth in India behind Delhi , Mumbai , Calcutta and Chennai . The GDP per capita was US $ 5,051, making Bangalore the second lowest per capita income of all 300 cities studied. The GDP per capita rose by an average of 5.5 percent annually between 2000 and 2014.
An important factor for the economic boom in Bengaluru was that the Indian government - far away and therefore well protected from potential opponents such as Pakistan and the People's Republic of China - has invested heavily in research and heavy industry, especially in aerospace. Thus, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), which develops civil and military aircraft and builds its headquarters in Bangalore. In addition to the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is based in Bengaluru, which successfully develops and launches satellites and rockets.
In recent years, many domestic and foreign computer and high-tech companies have set up shop in Bengaluru, making the city a center of the Indian software industry and earning it the nickname “Indian Silicon Valley”. One reason for this is the comparatively pleasant climate, because, unlike in the humid coastal regions, there is usually a dry heat here in summer. In particular, large international companies such as Amazon , Amadeus , Intel , Accenture , IBM , Cisco Systems , Dell , Oracle , Continental , Bosch , HP , SAP , Société Générale , Software AG , Motorola , Fujitsu , Infosys Technologies Ltd. , Tata Consultancy Services , ABB , Siemens , Texas Instruments , Novell , McAfee , or Wipro Technologies as well as call centers have settled here in large "technology parks " such as Electronics City or International Technology Park (ITPL). As a result, a broad middle class of highly qualified and above-average income Indian computer scientists has formed in Bengaluru .
India is the world's largest exporter of IT services. The pressure to perform that programmers are exposed to is enormous. A connection is made with the fact that Bengaluru has had the highest suicide rate of any Indian city since 2007.
Biotechnology is another fast growing industry in Bengaluru. Almost 100 of the 240 Indian biotechnology companies are based in Bengaluru, including Biocon (currently ranked 16th in the list of the world's top-selling biotechnology companies) and Sartorius , which opened a new campus in 2009.
City life, tourism
Due to the relatively broad, affluent middle class surrounding the IT industry, a large, western-style consumer offering has developed with shopping centers , multiplex cinemas , restaurants, pubs and bars and a comparatively active nightlife - albeit not comparable to western standards. The city's youth are fashion and technology-conscious.
Restaurants mainly offer vegetarian dishes from different regions of India, some also offer Chinese and Western food. Western fast food is now available in many parts of the city - in October 2004 the first McDonald’s branch was opened in the then very modern “Forum” shopping center in the Koramangala district between Hosur Street and Marigowda Street, and there are now also KFC branches (The first branch was opened in 1996 amid protests from the population), Pizza Hut , Pizza Corner , Domino's Pizza and a Hard Rock Cafe in the city center . You can also stock up on “western” food in the city's countless supermarkets.
The proximity to extensive slums also documents the often extreme differences in Indian society. According to a census from 2001, about 346,000 people (about 8.1% of the population at the time) of Bangalore live in slums .
In a ranking of cities based on their quality of life for workers relocated abroad, Bengaluru ranked 149th out of 231 cities worldwide in 2019. In an Indian comparison, the city was behind Hyderabad and Pune (both 143rd place), but ahead of Mumbai (154th place), Calcutta (160th place) and Delhi (162th place).
Bengaluru is also known for its silk products and sandalwood carvings.
Bengaluru is also called the "garden city" because it has a large number of parks for Indian standards. The largest are Lal Bagh , an almost 100 hectare park with a beautiful glass house, flower beds and various artificially created water areas, and Cubbon Park . Other attractions include Vidhana Soudha (Parliament) and the Karnataka High Court - the headquarters of the state's highest court, as well as many temples, large and small, and several Christian churches. The largest temple is an ISKCON Krishna temple in the Rajajinagar district in the north of the city, near the Yeshwanthpur Junction train station .
The mud walls that Kempe Gowda had built when the fortress was built in 1537 were not enough for Hyder Ali . He had them replaced with stone walls and a ditch built. The gates and arches were built in the Islamic style. Since Hyder Ali tolerated people of different faiths, a small Ganesh temple was built within the fortress walls under his rule . Today parts of the walls have been torn down as a result of the road construction; A trench was filled in for the construction of the Victoria Hospital. Of the eight gates, only the Delhi Gate remains.
The Lal Bagh park south of the city center was founded by Hyder Ali in 1740. It is rich in tropical and subtropical plants, some of which were imported by the Tippu Sultan, and houses a botanical garden ( Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens ).
This magnificent building in Tudor style was built in 1887 on behalf of the Wadiyars.
Infrastructure and traffic
The city's infrastructure can hardly keep up with the rapid population growth of the last 20 years. In addition to completely overloaded buses with often antiquated technology and an armada of auto rickshaws - open tricycles based on scooter technology for two passengers - taxis are now also in use. Bengaluru is the city with the largest number of motorcycles and scooters in the world. In 2011 the first section of the Bengaluru Metro (Namma) was opened. Since June 2017, two lines (purple and green) with a total length of 42.3 kilometers (of which 8.8 km in the tunnel) and 40 stations have been in operation. Phase 2 of the expansion with two new lines and extensions of the existing ones, a total of 72 km of new lines, is under construction.
The roads are in poor condition by Western standards and can hardly handle the mass of vehicles. The city administration is trying to eliminate the worst weak points by widening the streets, regulating one-way traffic and building bridges, but so far with little success; traffic jams are part of the cityscape.
Since the local freight traffic is only carried out on the road, the garbage is often burned on the spot due to the lack of sustainable garbage disposal and, in addition, countless construction sites contribute to the accumulation of dust, air pollution is also high.
Power grids are often overloaded, and shutdowns of entire city districts are the order of the day. However, the energy-saving effect desired by switching off electricity is thwarted by the fact that most shops and better residential areas have emergency power generators, which in turn contribute to air pollution.
The Kempegowda International Airport Bengaluru (IATA code BLR ), which opened on May 24, 2008, is located about 40 kilometers north of the city center and replaced the Hindustan Airport (also HAL Bangalore International Airport ) located in the city, but increasingly congested . The BIAL project was criticized because the airfield is often difficult to reach due to chaotic traffic conditions and, depending on the time of day, several hours have to be expected for the journey from southern parts of the city. The new airport, with an area of 16.4 square kilometers and two runways in the final stage, is designed for 50 million passengers a year and should also be suitable for the Airbus A380 . The new airport building became necessary since the old Bangalore airport, actually the works airport of Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL) , was hopelessly overloaded in view of the rapidly growing air volume. There were only two gates and two passenger bridges, little more than a dozen check-in counters and only three baggage carousels. Since the expenses caused by large passenger aircraft from Europe could not be managed within normal day-to-day business, these machines were usually handled at night.
Air pollution and traffic problems have reached a level in Bengaluru that seriously threatens the further economic development of the city. Some IT companies were therefore considering moving to Hyderabad , but the city has continued to grow so far.
There has been a continuous drought in Bengaluru since 2012 (as of May 2017). The drinking water sources are exhausted, according to the responsible Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board , the groundwater levels are approaching zero. In the summer of 2016, the Indian Institute of Science said in a forecast that has since been withdrawn that the region will be uninhabitable by 2020.
The city's cricket team, the Royal Challengers Bangalore , play in the Indian Premier League .
A top-class street race, the World 10K Bangalore , has been taking place in May since 2008 .
sons and daughters of the town
- Lindsay Anderson (1923-1994), British director
- Ali Bongo (1929–2009), British magician and comedian
- Aaron D'Souza (* 1992), Indian swimmer
- Shakuntala Devi (1929–2013), Indian arithmetic artist
- Guru Dutt (1925–1966), film director, actor and producer
- Lara Dutta (* 1978), actress
- Udayraj Karpur , tabla player
- Algernon Kingscote (1888–1964), British tennis player
- Anil Kumble , former captain of India's national cricket team
- Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw (* 1953), Indian entrepreneur
- Dino Morea (* 1975), Indian actor
- Anaitha Nair (* 1984), Indian film and theater actress
- Prakash Padukone (* 1955), Indian badminton player
- Deepika Padukone (* 1986), Indian Bollywood actress
- Derek Prince , internationally known Bible teacher
- CNR Rao (* 1953), Indian chemist
- Agha Shahi , Pakistani diplomat and politician
- Sri Sri Ravi Shankar , founder of the International Art of Living Foundation
- Anup Sridhar , Indian badminton player
- Hannumappa Reddy Sudarshan , Indian doctor
- Bhogaraju Ramana Rao , Indian doctor
- Alfred Thomson , British painter
- Varijashree Venugopal (* 1991), musician
Other formative personalities
- TAS Mani , Indian percussionist, well-known mridangam player and founding director of the Karnataka College of Percussion
- RA Ramamani , Indian singer, composer and teacher
All of the following websites are in English.
- Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (City Council)
- Karnataka Official Website
- Official website of the Ministry of Information and Biotechnology of Karnataka
- GV Dasarathi: Bangalore: Silicon Valley or Coolie Valley? Rediff.com , March 4, 2004.
- How did Bangalore get its name? BangaloreBest.com, accessed February 12, 2015.
- Website Praktikum-Indien.de of Asia-Interns.com Pte. Ltd., accessed February 12, 2015.
- Frank Hoffmeier: Bengaluru - splendor and misery in India's growth city . Readers Edition Blogform Project , December 20, 2006; accessed on February 12, 2015.
- Krishnanand Kamat: My Own Private Bangalore: A Photographic Essay . April 17, 2002; Updates by January 1, 2015; accessed on February 12, 2015.
- ↑ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA): The World's Cities in 2018
- ^ Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Totals. Urban Agglomerations / Cities having population 1 lakh and above. (PDF; 141 kB)
- ↑ The World's Cities in 2018
- ↑ World Urbanization Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .
- ↑ Census of India 2011, India2 Table3: PR UA Cities 1 Lakh and Above , page 11 (PDF; 141 kB)
- ↑ World 101 largest Cities. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .
- ↑ Census of India 2001: C-16 City: Population by Mother Tongue (Karnataka) . Retrieved from Tabulations Plan of Census Year - 2001 .
- ^ Habib Beary: Bollywood ban in language fight . BBC News, Nov. 26, 2004.
- ^ Census of India 2011: C-1 Population By Religious Community. Karnataka.
- ^ Alan Berube, Jesus Leal Trujillo, Tao Ran, and Joseph Parilla: Global Metro Monitor . In: Brookings . January 22, 2015 ( brookings.edu [accessed July 19, 2018]).
- ↑ VabaMustkass, Winfried Rust: to be bangalored - or not to be. International division of labor in the software industry. In: iz3w 315, November / December 2009, pp. 25–27. - Vicky Nanjappa: Once again, Bangalore is India's suicide capital. Rediff India Abroad, June 26, 2008
- ↑ Rick Dolphijn: Capitalism on a Plate: The Politics of Meat Eating in Bangalore, India. In: Gastronomica, Vol. 6, No. 3, summer 2006, pp. 52-59
- ↑ Mercer's 2018 Quality of Living Rankings. Retrieved July 12, 2020 .
- ↑ Wired: India's Silicon Valley Is Dying of Thirst. Your City May Be Next , May 2, 2017