|List of cities in Russia|
Yekaterinburg ( Russian Екатеринбу́рг , ; 1924–1991 Sverdlovsk , Russian Свердло́вск , hist. Also Katharinenburg ) is an important industrial and university city in the Ural Mountains in Russia with 1,349,772 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010).
Yekaterinburg is located on the Isset River, almost 40 kilometers east of the imaginary dividing line between Europe and Asia , which runs to the west near the city of Pervouralsk . At this point there is a Europe-Asia pillar. The natural border is formed by the Urals. The time difference to Moscow is two hours and to Central Europe four hours (or three hours during Central European summer time).
After Moscow , Saint Petersburg and Novosibirsk , Ekaterinburg is the fourth largest city and the center of the third most important region in Russia. Several consulates general have settled in the city , including one US , one Czech , one British , one German (since 2005) and one Austrian (since 2006).
The region was opened up by the Novgorodians in the 11th century . Industrial development began at the end of the 17th century. The city was founded on November 7th . / November 18, 1723 greg. by Vasily Tatishchev together with the German-born officer and merchant in Russian service Georg Wilhelm Henning (1676–1750). The name of the city is derived from the Empress Catherine I (1684–1727).
Yekaterinburg was one of the first Russian factory towns to be built from the beginning of the 18th century on the tsar's decree to develop the metalworking industry. The core of the settlement of Yekaterinburg was formed by an ironworks and residential buildings arranged in a square. The core was surrounded by a fortification. Yekaterinburg was thus both a factory and a fortress city , from which the further development of the Urals should take place. During the Bashkir uprisings of 1735-1740, the forced baptized Bashkirs Toigildy Schuljakow in 1738 and Kissjabika Bairjassowa in 1739 were burned at the stake as apostates in Yekaterinburg .
With the connection to the so-called Siberian tract in 1763, which was one of the first major east-west axes in Russia from Moscow to Siberia , which is rich in natural resources , Yekaterinburg increasingly took on trading and intermediary functions between Europe and Asia (“window to Asia”). This was the beginning of the actual urban development and development of urban functions. The development gradually broke away from the requirements of iron production, the townscape increasingly determined social buildings and stone became the predominant building material for the more important buildings. In addition to factory owners and workers, small entrepreneurs, civil servants and merchants, clergymen and the military also settled here. In the meantime, the administration of the Ural smelters has been relocated from the governorate capital Perm to Yekaterinburg. In 1781 Catherine II named Yekaterinburg a city. In the same year it became the capital of Ujesd Yekaterinburg , a sub-administrative unit in Perm Governorate .
The city's industrial function remained decisive in the 19th century. Since 1840, Yekaterinburg has been the center of metal processing and by the beginning of the 19th century it was at the top of the Ural cities in terms of industrial production. From the middle of the 19th century, the local economic structure diversified as a result of a crisis in the metal sector. In the last quarter of the 19th century, numerous Russian banks settled in the city and Yekaterinburg increasingly took on supra-regional functions in banking and credit. The city also became the cultural center of the Urals region and in 1897 had 43,000 inhabitants. After the outbreak of the October Revolution , the city was occupied by Admiral Kolchak's White Guards . It was not until July 1919 that the Red Army managed to retake the city. She became known worldwide through the murder of the tsarist family during the Russian Civil War in 1918.
From 1914 there were plans to combine the parts of the Perm Governorate east of the Urals into a separate governorate with the capital Yekaterinburg. On July 5, 1919, the establishment of the Yekaterinburg Governorate was officially announced. Yekaterinburg became the capital of the Ural Oblast on November 3, 1923, when the governorates of Yekaterinburg, Perm , Tyumen and Chelyabinsk were incorporated. The elevation of the city to the supraregional administrative center (since the dissolution of the Ural Oblast in 1934, the capital of the Sverdlovsk Oblast, which still exists today ) and its increasing economic importance led to a sharp increase in population. Back then , public facilities and residential buildings built in the style of Constructivism still shape the cityscape today.
In honor of Yakov Sverdlov , the city was named Sverdlovsk from 1924 to 1991 . The Hermitage's art treasures were stored here during the Great Patriotic War . POW camps 377 and 531 existed in the city for German prisoners of war of the Second World War . The Uralmash plant , founded in 1928, became an important producer of armaments for the Red Army during World War II . In addition to other armaments factories, the plant manufactured the T-34 tank , the SU-85 , SU-100 and SU-122 self-propelled guns , and the M-30 howitzers .
Sverdlovsk was also an important production center of the military-industrial complex of the Soviet Union after the Second World War . There were tanks , nuclear missiles and other weapons produced. On April 2, 1979, the anthrax accident occurred in Sverdlovsk . In the Sverdlovsk-19 armaments plant , which was part of the Biopreparat network , biological weapons were manufactured. Due to a bug in the maintenance of the air filter came Anthrax - spores into the environment. At least 100 Soviet citizens were killed, the exact number is still unknown. The cause of the accident was denied by the Soviet leaders for years and the consumption of contaminated meat from the area was responsible for this outbreak of anthrax.
During the coup in 1991 the bunker with the “replacement government” of the Soviet Union was located here . Until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the city was inaccessible to foreigners. Soviet citizens could only enter with permission. A famous person associated with Ekaterinburg is Boris Yeltsin (1931–2007), the former president of Russia . He came from Butka in the Sverdlovsk Oblast, studied at the Sverdlovsk Polytechnic and was first secretary of the CPSU Oblast Committee from 1976–1985 .
The city was the venue for the 2018 World Cup .
In 2019, Yekaterinburg became the scene of protests by the Russian civil rights movement; The occasion was the authorities' plan to build an Orthodox cathedral in a park in the center of the city.
Note: census data
The region's climate is continental with large temperature fluctuations. Summers are up to 35 ° C warm, but shorter than in Central Europe . Spring and autumn are extremely short. The winters, on the other hand, can last up to 6 months and reach temperatures as low as −40 ° C.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Yekaterinburg
Administrative structure and population development
|No.||Administrative unit (Rajon)||2010||2002||1989|
|1||Verkh-Issetsky Rajon (Верх-Исетский район)||187.732||180.852||199.195|
|2||Zheleznodorozhny Rajon (Железнодорожный район)||147,686||143.167||143,490|
|3||Ordzhonikidsevsky Rajon (Орджоникидзевский район)||270,944||261,985||287,445|
|4th||Kirovsky Rajon (Кировский район)||211.271||212,587||234,461|
|5||Oktyabrsky Rajon (Октябрьский район)||135,346||119.286||135.293|
|6th||Chkalovsky Rajon (Чкаловский район)||240.486||222,690||187.681|
|7th||Leninsky Raion (Ленинский район)||156.307||152.970||177.056|
The city's most famous historical landmark is the Cathedral on the Blood . It stands on the spot where the Ipatiev House was located until 1977 , in the cellar of which the Bolsheviks murdered the last Tsar Nicholas II and his family on the night of July 16-17, 1918 . This place has become a place of pilgrimage for supporters of the Russian monarchy.
There are other architecturally valuable buildings in the city, in addition to the mountain chancellery built in 1739, several cathedrals in the Russian style, the most famous of which is the Ascension Cathedral (Vosnesenski sobor) built in the 19th century . The town hall was built in the style of socialist classicism , along with the university building and several institutes as well as the circus building from the 1980s and the magnificent opera from the beginning of the 20th century. A number of constructivist buildings are also noteworthy, such as the Hotel Issetj and the small Chekist town behind it. A landmark until it was blown up in 2018 was the unfinished television tower , one of the tallest unfinished structures in the world.
Economy and Infrastructure
The city of Yekaterinburg is the most important industrial metropolis in the Urals. The metal industry has settled in the city since the early 18th century. Industrialization intensified in the 1930s. Uralmash is the leading Russian heavy engineering company (steel mill and mining equipment, drilling rigs, excavators, cranes, etc.). The company was formed in 2007 from several predecessor companies with Uralmaschplant in Yekaterinburg as its core and was part of the OMS Group until 2015 . In addition to mechanical engineering, metal processing and smelting ( VSMPO-AVISMA headquarters ), food production, wood processing and the chemical industry are represented. With over 40 companies located there, one focus is on the production of armaments.
Yekaterinburg is also a center of Russian banking and finance.
Yekaterinburg is also one of the most important transport hubs in the central Urals. There is an international airport ( Kolzowo ). Yekaterinburg Central Station is the connection to the Trans-Siberian Railway , which runs from Moscow through the city and all of Siberia to Vladivostok on the Pacific . Here it is crossed by another main railway line from the northern Urals down to Chelyabinsk and Orsk . Yekaterinburg is the seat of the Sverdlovsk Regional Railway Directorate of Russia . The city is connected to the European part of Russia via the M5 Ural federal highway . The 354 km long federal trunk road R242 connects Yekaterinburg with Perm , the administrative center of the region of the same name . Other important highways lead to the neighboring Russian metropolises of Tyumen ( R351 ) and Kurgan ( R354 ).
On April 26, 1991, the shortest metro in Russia was opened as a supplement: The metro Yekaterinburg has a line of 12.7 km in length with (since 2012) nine stations and transports 150,000 passengers daily.
The Sverdlovsk Children's Railway is a narrow-gauge park railway in the Central Park for culture and recreation. Rail vehicles of the Yekaterinburg Narrow Gauge Railway Museum also run on its tracks .
Education and culture
Several theaters (opera, ballet, comedies), a philharmonic hall, a permanent circus, a zoo, an art gallery and a multitude of museums ensure the cultural life of the city. Above all, a large museum park for mining in the central Urals is known.
Several foreign cultural institutes are represented in the city. a. the British Council and the Alliance Française . The Goethe-Institut Moscow maintains a contact point in the city, promotes a German reading room in the regional library and cooperates with a language learning center for German lessons.
Further educational institutions:
- Department of the Russian School of Private Law
- Academy of State Service of the Urals Region
- Academy for Administration and Law
- Faculty of the State Institute of Sports
- Branch of the Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Informatics
- Branch of the Institute for Entrepreneurship and Law Moscow
- Financial Law Institute of the Urals Region
- Humanities University
- Humanities Institute of the Urals
- Institute of the Urals Market
- Institute of Commerce and Law of the Urals
- Institute for International Relations
- Institute for Economics, Administration and Law
- International Institute of Distance Education
- International center for distance learning of the Urals region
- Yekaterinburg Artillery Institute
- College of Foreign Languages Yekaterinburg
- Yekaterinburg State Theater Institute
- Legal Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia of the Urals region
- Ural Federal University (It emerged from the union of the Gorky State University of the Urals Region and the State Technical University of the Urals Region.)
- State Academy of Architecture and Art of the Urals
- State Academy of Geology and Mining of the Urals Region
- State Academy for Transport Connections of the Urals Region
- State University of Education of the Urals Region
- State Forest Technical Academy of the Urals Region
- State Law University of the Urals Region
- State Agricultural Academy of the Urals Region
- State Medical Academy of the Urals Region
- State Economic University of the Urals Region
- State Pedagogical University of the Urals Region
- State University of Transportation of the Urals
- State M. P. Mussorgsky Conservatory of the Urals region
- Ural State University of Economics
- The Urals Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The HK Awtomobilist Yekaterinburg , which was founded in 2006 as the successor to the disbanded hockey club HK Dinamo-Energija Yekaterinburg , takes part in the continental hockey league and plays its home games in the "Uralez" sports palace . The bandy club HK SKA Sverdlovsk took part in the game of the Superleague and won it in 1994.
The women's volleyball club VK Uralotschka-NTMK has played at the top of the Russian championship for years and is also successful in the European Cup. The women's basketball team UGMK Yekaterinburg , which plays in the Russian basketball Superleague and in the Euroleague Women , is hardly less successful . The men are in volleyball by the second-rate club Lokomotiv-Izumrud Yekaterinburg and in basketball in the second professional league by BK Ural Yekaterinburg . Volleyball and basketball games are played on a professional level in the Palace of Sports Games (DIVS) . This arena is also the home ground for the futsal club MFK Viz-Sinara . In the field of hockey , the city is represented by the Dinamo-Stroitel Yekaterinburg club . In August 2015, the U-19 handball world championship 2015 was held in Yekaterinburg in the "Uralez" sports palace .
The 2018 World Cup in Yekaterinburg
Four games of the 2018 World Cup took place in Yekaterinburg.
|Group A||06/15/18||14:00||Egypt - Uruguay|
|Group C||06/21/18||17:00||France - Peru|
|Group H.||06/24/18||20:00||Japan - Senegal|
|Group F.||06/27/18||19:00||Mexico - Sweden|
In the period from October 7, 2015 to December 29, 2017, the central stadium was rebuilt for the 2018 World Cup to meet FIFA requirements.
The Central Park for Culture and Recreation called WW Mayakovsky was also rebuilt. This is where the fans' festival took place. For this purpose, a stage with a huge screen, food stalls and sanitary areas were placed on an area of more than two hectares. A special stand was set up for people with disabilities.
For the World Cup, the platform and the second runway at Kolzowo Airport were renewed and equipped with the necessary equipment. In addition, all work to prepare the passenger terminal and modernize the technical infrastructure was done. The hangar for business aviation technology was also started. The airport's capacity increased to up to 2,000 people per hour.
9.22 billion rubles from the regional budget, one billion rubles from the municipal budget and 7.207 billion rubles from other sources were spent on renewing the road network.
Yekaterinburg lists the following twin cities :
- San Jose , United States, since 1992
- Wuppertal , Germany, since 1993
- Guangzhou , People's Republic of China, since 2002
- Ferentino , Italy
sons and daughters of the town
- nuclear submarine from the Russian project 667BDRM ( Delta IV ) bears the city's name; At the end of December 2011, after a fire on the wooden scaffolding in the dry dock in the Roslijakowo shipyard ( Murmansk ), a major fire broke out on his rubber casing.
- On May 1, 1960, an American Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft was shot down by a Russian SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile on a spy mission over the Urals south of Yekaterinburg (then: Sverdlovsk) . The pilot Francis Gary Powers was able to save himself by parachute, but was captured after landing near Yekaterinburg. Powers was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for espionage in the following trial, which was carried out with great international media interest, but was released early on February 10, 1962 through a prisoner exchange on Glienicke Bridge , during which he was exchanged for the Soviet spy Rudolf Abel , who was exposed and arrested in 1957 has been.
- Consulate General of the Federal Republic of Germany in Yekaterinburg
- English, German, Russian
- Ekaterinburg Online
- Urals Online
- Report on the third largest Russian city
- comprehensive information about Yekaterinburg in German
- Yekaterinburg & Sverdlovsk
- The city of Yekaterinburg and Ural Mountains
- Uralochka-NTMK volleyball club Yekaterinburg
- Video tour in Yekaterinburg
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- Europe-Asia column from Yekaterinburg , picture and description
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