The Taurisker , Latin Taurisci (taur = Celtic for mountain) were from the 3rd to 1st century BC. A Celtic tribal association on the eastern edge of the Alps , whose settlement area is mostly limited to Carinthia and Slovenia . Your relationship with the Norikers is not entirely clear. The term for the Tauern Mountains is derived from the Tauris core.
The Tauriskans were probably in the battle of Telamon 225 BC. Part of the Celtic allies who suffered a heavy defeat against the Romans . The inferior Taurisks are likely to have settled near Turin ( Taurins ), while the parts of the Taurisks who were not involved in the battle settled on the Upper Sava and subsequently traded with the Romans mainly in gold.
The oldest explicit mention of the Taurisker comes from Polybios around 200 BC. BC, who reports of their gold finds near Aquileia . Gold production increased their political and economic power. At that time the population increased rapidly due to improved cultivation methods and technological progress (iron ploughshare ). The land shortage became 186 BC. BC so oppressive that 12,000 Taurisker and Boier moved to the Upper Adriatic . Rome was able to prevent a city from being founded in Friuli , but not that the Celts settled in the northern Italian lowlands and the coast of today's Veneto .
When the Germanic Cimbri besieged the Tauriskians, they called the Romans for help, which led to the Roman defeat in the Battle of Noreia in 113 BC. Led. Tribute had to be paid to the Romans for a long time.
Together with the Boiers, the Tauriskans repeatedly threatened Noricum and attacked Noreia . At that time the Tauriskians were likely to have been subordinate to the Boians. In the middle of the first century BC the allies were subject to the Dacians under Burebista . Then they had to allow other Celtic tribes, called Latobics , to settle on their territory in what was later to be Carniola , central Slovenia.
The western tribal area came under the influence of the Kingdom of Noricum, the eastern areas from around 35 BC. Depending on Rome. After the Roman conquest under Octavian by Publius Silius Nerva and Drusus 16–15 BC. BC, the Tauriskians were no longer mentioned in the wake of the Noric tribes. Strabon then mentioned it at the turn of the century , residing in Nauportus (Vrhnika, Oberlaibach), on the Roman road to the inner Balkans and the Roman Amber Road via the gate of Postojna , where the Illyrian at the Ocra Pass and Mountains ( Nanos , Birnbaumer Wald ) - Celtic Iapods were resident.
Taurisker and Noriker in research
In ancient Roman sources, Taurisker and Noriker are often mentioned vaguely and their names are usually used synonymously. Therefore there were different theories about the connection between the two tribes in ancient studies :
- Older views saw the Norikern and the Tauriskern as two terms for the same Celtic people.
- In some cases the Taurisci were not regarded as a separate people, but as a general name for every Celtic mountain dweller. The Taurini in Piedmont were cited as evidence for this theory. It would therefore be a popular name for the settlement group commonly known today as the Alpine Celts .
- Another theory saw the pre-Celtic population of Noricum in the Norics and the Celtic newcomers in the Tauris.
- According to Géza Alföldy , the Noriker were one of the Taurisk tribes. Taurisker would have been the collective name for the Celtic and Celtic peoples of the Eastern Alps, today referred to as the Noric-Pannonian culture , especially in contrast to the western Alpine, later Gallo-Roman . With their increase in power, the Noriker would have displaced the Tauriskans and their names. For Richard Heuberger, too, the term Taurisker is a collective term to which the Noriker also belong.
- For Peter Petru, the Noriks and Tauriskans were two peoples who settled in separate areas: The Noriks in the kingdom of Noricum , who were Tauriskans, had been since the 2nd century BC. BC as Celtic newcomers, their southeastern neighbors. This largely corresponds to the current state of research according to the Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde . The name Taurisker was therefore originally used as an undifferentiated collective term for the population of the Eastern Alps. At the same time, it is based on a regional naming tradition. The Noriker are now regarded as the northern neighbors of the Taurisk tribal community, while the Iapods lived in the west .
The first corps at what was later to become the Montan University of Leoben was named after the Tauris core .
- Karl Finsterwalder : The name of the Taurisker, the German-speaking term Tauern and Romanic remnants of Taurus names in the Eastern Alps. In: Innsbruck contributions to cultural studies 14, Amoe, Innsbruck 1968, pp. 339–356.
- Dragan Božič: The Taurisci . In: Sabatino Moscati (Ed.): The Celts. On the occasion of the Exhibition "The Celts, the Origins of Europe", Palazzo Grassi, Venice. Rizzoli, New York City 1999, ISBN 0-8478-2193-5 , pp. 496-502.
- Max River : Taurisci . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume VA, 1, Stuttgart 1934, Col. 1-14.
- Max Fluß : Teurisker . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume VA, 1, Stuttgart 1934, column 1136 f.
- Herbert Grassl : The Taurisker. An ancient ethnicon and its history. In: Hans Taeuber (Hrsg.): Files of the 7th Austrian Old History Conference. Phoibos, Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-901232-26-5 , pp. 19-26.
- Alexander Sitzmann, Klaus Tausend: Taurisker. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 30, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-018385-4 , pp. 311-318.
- ↑ Peter Petru: The East Alpine Taurisker and Latobiker . In: Hildegard Temporini (ed.): The rise and fall of the Roman world. Political history. Provinces and fringe peoples. Latin Danube-Balkan area . Verlag de Gruyter, Berlin 1977 ISBN 3-11-006735-8 , pp. 473-499, here: pp. 482 and 487.
- ^ A b John T. Koch: Celtic culture. A historical encyclopedia . ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara 2006, ISBN 1-85109-440-7 , p. 1662.
- ↑ Peter Petru: The East Alpine Taurisker and Latobiker. In: Hildegard Temporini (ed.): The rise and fall of the Roman world. Political history. Provinces and fringe peoples. Latin Danube-Balkan area. de Gruyter, Berlin 1977, ISBN 3-11-006735-8 , pp. 473-499, here: pp. 490f. and 495.
- ↑ Peter Petru: The East Alpine Taurisker and Latobiker . In: Hildegard Temporini (ed.): The rise and fall of the Roman world. Political history. Provinces and fringe peoples. Latin Danube-Balkan area . Verlag de Gruyter, Berlin 1977 ISBN 3-11-006735-8 , pp. 473-499, here: p. 483.
- ^ Strabo: Geographica 7, 5, 2.
- ^ Strabo: Geographica 4, 6, 10.
- ↑ Konrad Mannert: Geography of the Greeks and Romans presented from their writings . Hahn Verlag, Leipzig 1820, p. 487f.
- ↑ Peter Petru: The East Alpine Taurisker and Latobiker . In: Hildegard Temporini (ed.): The rise and fall of the Roman world. Political history. Provinces and fringe peoples. Latin Danube-Balkan area . Verlag de Gruyter, Berlin 1977 ISBN 3-11-006735-8 , pp. 473-499, here: p. 473f.
- ^ Richard Heuberger: Taurisker and Noriker . In: Johann Knobloch (Red), Hermann Ammann : Ammann-Festgabe . (= Innsbruck contributions to cultural studies 1/2) Institute of Linguistics at the University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck 1952, pp. 160–171.
- ↑ Real Lexicon of Germanic Archeology Volume 21: Naualia - Østfold . Verlag de Gruyter, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-11-017272-0 , p. 321.
- ↑ Mitja Guštin: On some figural motifs in the Taurisk region . In: Wolf-Rüdiger Teegen (Ed.): Studies on the world of the Iron Age. Festschrift for Rosemarie Müller . (= Supplementary volumes to the Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 53) Verlag de Gruyter, Berlin 2002, ISBN 978-3-11-019010-6 , pp. 115-132, here: p. 127.
- ↑ Tauriscia (VfcG)