The Tropaeum Alpium (also called Tropaeum Augusti ) is a Roman building that is located in today's La Turbie in the Maritime Alps above Monaco .
The construction started in 7/6 BC. Erected in honor of the emperor Augustus . The reason for the establishment was the Alpine campaign in 15 BC. BC, in which Drusus and Tiberius subjugated a total of 46 tribes - this restored inscription is important as a historical source, which is documented by Pliny the Elder . The building was reconstructed in the early 20th century by Jean Camille Formigé to such an extent that at least the original Roman structure was recognizable.
The building, a tropaion , a monument to victory, was designed according to the Vitruvian architectural model and consisted of a rectangular plinth with a side length of 38 m, on the western facade of which there was an inscription. The second floor bounced back behind the plinth. On this pedestal stood 24 Doric columns arranged in a circle, which were decorated with a surrounding metope-triglyphic frieze. Between the columns there were niches in which the statues of the commanders involved in the campaign, e.g. B. those of Drusus were established. The dome, supported by the columns, tapered upwards in steps and was crowned by a colossal statue of Augustus.
In ancient times the structure was probably 50 m high, today the remains only reach a height of 35 m. In the Middle Ages , the Victory Monument was converted into a fortification with a watchtower, the remains of which can still be seen on the highest part of the building; in later times it was also used as a quarry.
During the reconstruction and partial restoration, only four of the pillars could be completely erected and only the western facade of the base with the inscription has been almost completely rebuilt. The remaining fragments are kept in the local museum.
The block of inscriptions is framed by two large marble reliefs. On them you can see a tropaeum, i.e. the captured weapons that are hung on a tree trunk. At the foot of the tropaeum, a barbarian and a barbarian woman kneel on each side, both chained. Furthermore, a small goddess of victory floats next to the inscription on each side .
The inscription , which was only preserved in fragments, could be completely reconstructed through the natural history of Pliny the Elder (3, 136-137).
The names of a total of 46 tribes are listed that were defeated by the Romans in the Alpine campaign. The order in which the subjugated tribes are listed takes into account both the chronological order of the conquest and the geographical situation.
"IMPERATOR | CAESAR | DIV | FILIO AVGVSTO
PONT MAXIMP XIIII TRIB POT XVII
QVOD EIVS DVCTV AVSPICIISQVE GENTES alpinae OMNES QVAE A MARI SVPERO AD INFERVM PERTINEBANT SVB Imperivm PR SVNT REDACTAE
GENTES alpinae DEVICTAE.TRVMPILINI.CAMVNNI.VENNONETES.VENOSTES.ISARCI. BREVNI.GENAVNES.FOCVNATES
BRIXENTES..CLAVCONES. BRIXENTES.LI PONTI.VBERIGEDARVEDENNVALIES.LEPONTI.VBERI.CATVEDNENNVI LATES. BRODIONTI.NEMALONI.EDENATES.VESVBIANI.VEAMINI.GALLITAE.TRIVLLATI ECTINI
These tribes are Venetians , Etruscans and Ligurians , as well as Celtic - Illyrian tribes.
- Jules Formigé: Le Trophée des Alpes. La Turbie (= Gallia. Supplement 2, ISSN 0072-0119 ). Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 1949.
- Nino Lamboglia: The Tropaeum of Augustus in La Turbie (= Itinerari Liguri. Vol. 4, ZDB -ID 2619850-2 ). 3. Edition. Istituto Internazionale de Studi Liguri, Bordighera 1965.
- Philippe de Beauchamp: La Provence et la Corse pre-romaines et romaines. Alpes-Maritimes, Var, Bouches-du-Rhône, Vaucluse, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Corse. Beauchamp, Spéracédes 1994, ISBN 2-85744-734-5 .
- Marcus Junkelmann : The Legions of Augustus. The Roman soldier in an archaeological experiment (= cultural history of the ancient world . Vol. 33). 9th, expanded edition. von Zabern, Mainz 2003, ISBN 3-8053-0886-8 .
- Trophée d'Auguste à la Turbie. Monument website (French)
- Trophée d'Auguste. In: Ville la Turbie , July 16, 2016 (French)
- Samuele Rocca, Caroline Barron: Tropaeum Alpium - Trophy of the Alps (7/6 BCE). In: Judaism and Rome , March 12, 2017 (English)
- Christian Goudineau: Tropaeum Alpium (La Turbie) Alpes-Maritimes, France. In: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites , 1976, online at Tufts University (English)
- Lücke, S .: sv “Tropaeum Alpium”, in: VerbaAlpina-de 18/2, Methodologie, https://doi.org/10.5282/verba-alpina?urlappend=%3Fpage_id%3D493%26db%3D182%26letter%3DT % 2399
- Entry no.PA00080897 in the Base Mérimée of the French Ministry of Culture (French)
- Building entry for Tropaeum Alpium in the Arachne archaeological database
- ↑ CIL 5, 7817 . Inscription of the tropaeum by Pliny the Elder. See also Jules Formigé: La dédicace du Trophée des Alpes (La Turbie). In: Gallia. Volume 13, 1955, No. 1, pp. 101 f.
- ↑ See it: Triumpilini , Italian Wikipedia
- ↑ In Valcamonica on the Tonale Pass
- ↑ On the Hinterrhein
- ↑ In Vinschgau
- ↑ On the Eisack
- ↑ a b c In Tyrol ; Peter Anreiter : Breonen, Genaunen and Fokunaten. Pre-Roman namesake in the Tyrolean Alps (= Innsbruck contributions to cultural studies. Special issue 99, ISSN 0537-7269 = Archaeolingua. Series minor. Vol. 9). University of Innsbruck - Institute for Linguistics, Innsbruck 1997, ISBN 3-85124-181-9 .
- ↑ a b c Sabine Rieckhoff : Where did you go? - On the archaeological evidence of the Celts in southern Germany in the 1st century BC Chr. In: Helmut Birkhan (Ed.): Celtic incursions on the Danube. Files of the fourth symposium of German-speaking Celtologists. Philosophical - historical - archaeological evidence. Konrad Spindler (1939–2005) in memory. (Linz / Donau July 17-21, 2005) (= Austrian Academy of Sciences. Philosophical-Historical Class. Memoranda. Vol. 345). Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-7001-3670-5 , pp. 409–440.
- ↑ In the Bavarian Alpine Foreland and Northern Alps
- ^ In the Salzburg language
- ↑ On the Alpine Rhine
- ^ Ticino and Graubünden
- ↑ a b In Valais
- ↑ See as: Nantuaten , alemann. Wikipedia
- ↑ See. As: veragri , Alemann. Wikipedia
- ^ At the Dora Baltea
- ↑ Max Ihm : Acitavones . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume I, 1, Stuttgart 1893, Col. 261.
Coordinates: 43 ° 44 ′ 41.2 ″ N , 7 ° 24 ′ 6.5 ″ E