Canary Island Date Palm ( Phoenix canariensis )
The palms or palms (Arecaceae or Palmae) are a family of the order of the palm-like (Arecales) within the monocotyledons (monocotyledons). Related species were widespread around 70 million years ago in the Cretaceous Period . The family contains 183 genera with about 2600 recent species .
The palm family includes the longest leaf (in palms of the genus Raphia with a length of up to 25 meters), the largest seed (from the Seychelles palm Lodoicea maldivica weighing up to 22 kilograms), and the longest inflorescence in the plant kingdom (in the Genus Corypha ) with a length of about 7.5 meters and an estimated 10 million flowers per inflorescence.
Description and ecology
The representatives of the palm family are very diverse. They can be small, medium-sized or large (up to 60 m trunk height for the Quindio wax palm ), stand individually or in groups (clusters), are reinforced or unreinforced. They can bloom several times in a lifetime (pleonanth) or only once in a lifetime ( hapaxanth ).
The trunk is "lignified". It is slim to massive, very short to very high, it can be creeping, underground, climbing or upright. Usually the trunk is unbranched in the aboveground area, rarely it is dichotomously branched. The trunk lacks a cambium , so palms have no secondary growth in thickness , which is why they are not counted among the trees . In some palms, however, a diffuse growth in thickness occurs. The internodes are short to long. The leaf scars are conspicuous to inconspicuous. Some palms have stilt roots .
The leaves are alternate and are in a spiral arrangement, rarely two-lined (distich). The leaf blade is initially always formed undivided, often it splits later. The leaves can be armed with spines or bristles, they are bare or variously covered with scales and / or hair. Sometimes they have a ligula- like appendage on both sides or in front of the petiole . The leaf sheaths sometimes form a crown shaft. The petiole is usually clearly developed. It is unreinforced or reinforced in various ways. A hastula can be formed or absent.
The shape of the leaf blade is fanned out (palmat, fan palm ), costapalmat, pinnate (pinnat), double-pinnate (bipinnat), two-part (bifid) or undivided, but then with pinnate-shaped veins. The leaf is folded in the bud. Later the blade tears either along the adaxial fold edges (induplicate) or along the abaxial edges (reduplicate). It seldom tears between the folds or does not tear at all. The resulting segments or leaflets are lanceolate or linear to rhombic or wedge-shaped. In cross-section, the leaflets are V-shaped in the induplicate leaves and A-shaped in the reduplicate leaves. They are single or multiple folded, usually they have a central rib and numerous parallel arteries. The segments seldom tear further between these secondary arteries. The blade can be hairy or scaled differently, spines and bristles are also present. The proximal leaflets can be transformed into thorns in climbing species ( acanthophylls ), the rachis can be transformed distally into a climbing aid ( tendril ) and can then also carry acanthophylls.
The inflorescences are usually on the side (or less often on) the tip. If the inflorescence is at the tip of the palm (terminal = terminal), then the plant specimen dies after flowering and seed formation; these species are hapaxanth , i.e. perennial , all others are persistent. The mostly well-branched inflorescences are covered with a spathe as protection when they are in bud . The flowers can be hermaphroditic, but mostly they are unisexual. There are monoecious ( monoecious ) and dioecious ( dioecious ) palm species. The flowers are always threefold and are mostly radial symmetry , rarely the flower structure is screwy. There are usually three sepals and petals; they are free or overgrown. There are usually six, rarely fewer, stamens ; some of them are often reduced to staminodes . The three carpels can be completely free or grown together at their base. Each carpel contains one or two ovules . You can rarely see a stylus and so the three stigmas per flower are usually seated. The pollination is done by insects ( Entomophilie ) or by the wind ( anemophily ).
Palms form closing fruits , mostly hard berries or stone fruits . The pericarp is smooth, hairy, covered with spines or scales. The fruits usually contain one or two to three, only rarely up to ten seeds.
Palm species are distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas. The greatest biodiversity is found in tropical rainforests; But palm trees also grow in some seasonal or semi-arid areas. An example of the latter is the palm-rich Cerrado in central Brazil.
In the north the area of the palm trees extends to about 44 ° north latitude in southern France ( Chamaerops humilis ), in the south a little over 44 ° on the Chatham Islands near New Zealand ( Rhopalostylis sapida ). In North America, Sabal minor extends to almost 36 ° north latitude in North Carolina, Washingtonia filifera in California to 37 °. In South America, Jubaea chilensis reaches in Chile to 35 ° south latitude. On the Asian mainland, Nannorrhops ritchiana extends to about 34 ° north latitude in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In Australia, Livistona australis extends over 37 °, in Africa Jubaeopsis caffra to about 31 °.
The family name Arecaceae was validly published in 1820 by Friedrich von Berchtold and Jan Svatopluk Presl in O Prirozenosti Rostlin , p. 266. The type genus of Arecaceae Bercht. & J. Presl nom. cons. is Areca L. The family name Palmae was first published in 1789 by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in Genera Plantarum , p. 37.
The Arecaceae form a monophyletic group. They are the sister group of the Dasypogonaceae . These relationships were unclear for a long time and it was not until 2016 that the Dasypogonaceae were placed in the Arecales order with the Arecaceae .
The systematics of the Arecaceae has been greatly changed by molecular genetic studies. In 2005 a classification of the family summarizing the various sub-works was published. This classification was adopted in Genera Palmarum in 2008 with updates.
The relationships between the five subfamilies have now been investigated quite well. They can be represented by the following cladogram :
In 2016, Baker and Dransfield published a further update of the classification based on the following system:
- Subfamily Calamoideae Griff. :
- Tribe Eugeissoneae WJBaker & J.Dransf.
- Eugeissona handle.
- Tribus Lepidocaryeae Mart. ex Dumort.
- Tribe Calameae Kunth ex Lecoq & Juill.
- Subtribe Korthalsiinae Becc.
- Korthalsia flower
- Subtribus Salaccinae Becc.
- Subtribe Metroxylinae
- Metroxylon Rottb.
- Subtribus Pigafettinae J. Transf. & NWUhl
- Pigafetta (flower) Becc.
- Subtribe Plectocomiinae J. Transf. & NWUhl
- Subtribe Calaminae Meisn.
- Subtribe Korthalsiinae Becc.
- Tribe Eugeissoneae WJBaker & J.Dransf.
- Subfamily Nypoideae:
- Nipa palm ( Nypa Steck )
- Subfamily Coryphoideae :
- Tribe Sabaleae
- Sabal Adans.
- Tribus Cryosophileae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Chelyocarpus Dammer
- Coccothrinax coffin.
- Cryosophila flower
- Itaya H.E. Moors
- Hemithrinax Hook. f.
- Leucothrinax C. Lewis & Zona
- Sabinaria R.Bernal & Galeano : There is only one type:
- Schippia Burret
- Thrinax Sw.
- Trithrinax Mart.
- Zombia L.H. Bailey
- Tribe Phoeniceae
- Date Palms ( Phoenix L. )
- tribe Trachycarpeae
- Subtribus Rhapidinae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Subtribe Livistoninae
- incertae sedis Trachycarpeae
- Tribus Chuniophoeniceae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Tribe Caryoteae
- Tribe Corypheae
- Corypha L.
- Tribe Borasseae
- Tribe Sabaleae
- Subfamily Ceroxyloideae
- Subfamily Arecoideae
- Tribe Iriarteeae
- Tribe Chamaedoreeae
- Tribus Podococceae J.Dransf. & NWUhl
- Podococcus G. Mann & H. Wendl.
- Tribe Oranieae
- Orania Zipp.
- Tribus Sclerospermeae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Sclerosperma G. Mann & H. Wendl.
- Tribus Roystoneae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Roystonea O.F. Cook
- Tribus Reinhardtieae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Reinhardtia Liebm.
- Tribe Cocoseae
- Subtribe attaleinae
- Beccariophoenix Jum. & H.Perrier : The three or so species only occur in Madagascar.
Jubaeopsis Becc. : There is only one type:
- Jubaeopsis caffra Becc. : It occurs in South Africa from the Cape to KwaZulu-Natal.
Voanioala J. Dransf. : There is only one type:
- Voanioala gerardii J. Transf . : It occurs only in north-eastern Madagascar.
- Allagoptera Nees
- Attalea Kunth
- Jelly palms ( Butia (Becc.) Becc. )
- Coconut palm ( Cocos L. )
- Honey palm ( Jubaea Kunth )
- Syagrus Mart. (including Lytocaryum Toledo )
- Parajubaea Burret : The three or so species occur in western South America.
- Subtribe Bactridinae
- Acrocomia Mart. : The eight or so species are widespread from Mexico to tropical South America.
- Astrocaryum G. Mey. : The 38 or so species are widespread from Mexico to tropical South America.
- Prickly Palms ( Aiphanes Willd. )
- Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.
- Desmoncus Mart. : The approximately 24 species are common in the Neoptropis.
- Subtribe Elaeidinae
- Subtribe attaleinae
- Tribus Manicarieae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Manicaria Gaertn.
- Tribus Euterpeae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Tribe Geonomateae
- Tribus Leopoldinieae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Leopoldinia Mart.
- Tribus Pelagodoxeae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Tribe Areceae
- Subtribus Archontophoenicinae J.Dransf. & NWUhl
- Actinorhytis H. Wendl. & Drude : There is only one type:
- Archontophoenix H. Wendl. & Drude
- Actinokentia Dammer : The only two species occur only in New Caledonia .
- Chambeyronia Vieill. : The only two species occur only in New Caledonia .
- Kentiopsis Brongn. : The four or so species occur only in New Caledonia.
- Subtribe Arecinae
- Subtribus Basseliniinae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Basselinia Vieill. : The approximately 14 species occur only in New Caledonia.
- Burretiokentia Pic. Serm. : The five or so species occur only in New Caledonia.
- Cyphophoenix H. Wendl . ex Benth. & Hook. f. : The four or so species occur only in New Caledonia.
- Cyphosperma H. Wendl . ex Benth. & Hook. f. : The five or so species occur on islands in the southwestern Pacific.
- Lepidorrhachis ( H. Wendl . & Drude) OFCook : There is only one type:
- Physokentia Becc. : The approximately seven species occur from the Bismarck Archipelago to the islands in the southwestern Pacific.
- Subtribus Carpoxylinae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJ Baker, MM Harley & C. Lewis
- Carpoxylon H. Wendl. & Drude : With only one kind:
- Satakentia H.E. Moore : There is only one type:
- Neoveitchia Becc.
- Subtribus Clinospermatinae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Subtribe Dypsidinae
- Dypsis Noronha ex Mart. : The approximately 168 species are found in Tanzania, the Comoros and Madagascar.
Lemurophoenix J. Dransf. : There is only one type:
- Lemurophoenix halleuxii J.Dransf. : It occurs only in north-eastern Madagascar.
- Marojejya Humbert : The only two species occur only in Madagascar.
- Masoala Jum.
- Subtribus Laccospadicinae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MM Harley & C. Lewis
- Calyptrocalyx flower : The approximately 26 species occur from the Moluccas to New Guinea.
- Linospadix Becc. ex Hook. f. : The seven or so species occur from New Guinea to eastern Australia.
- Howea Becc.
- Laccospadix Drude & H. Wendl. : There is only one type:
- Subtribe Oncospermatinae
- Subtribe Ptychospermatinae
- Ptychosperma Labill. : The approximately 29 species occur from the Moluccas to northern Australia.
- Ponapea Becc. : The fouror sospecies occur from the Bismarck Archipelago to the islands in the northwestern Pacific.
- Adonidia Becc. : The only two species occur from Borneo to the Philippines.
- Balaka Becc. (including Solfia Rech. ): The ten or so species occur on islands in the southwestern Pacific.
- Veitchia H. Wendl . : The eleven or so species occur from the Solomon Islands to the islands in the southwestern Pacific.
Carpentaria Becc. : There is only one type:
- Carpentaria acuminata (H. Wendl. & Drude) Becc. : It occurs in northern Australia.
Wodyetia A.K. Irvine : With only one species:
- Wodyetia bifurcata A.K.Irvine : It occurs only in northern Queensland.
- Drymophloeus Zipp. : The three species occur from the Moluccas to the islands in the southwestern Pacific.
- Normanbya F. Muell. ex Becc. : There is only one type:
- Brassiophoenix Burret : The only two species occur in New Guinea.
- Ptychococcus Becc.
- Jailoloa Heatubun & WJBaker : There is only one type:
Manjekia W.J. Baker & Heatubun : There is only one type:
- Manjekia maturbongsii (WJBaker & Heatubun) WJBaker & Heatubun : It occurs in western New Guinea.
- Wallaceodoxa Heatubun & WJ Baker
- Subtribus Rhopalostylidinae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Rhopalostylis H. Wendl. & Drude : The only two species occur in New Zealand, on the Norfolk Island , the Kermadec Islands and the Chatham Islands .
- Hedyscepe H. Wendl. & Drude : There is only one type:
- Subtribus Verschaffeltiinae J.Dransf., NWUhl, Asmussen, WJBaker, MMHarley & C.Lewis
- Subtribus Archontophoenicinae J.Dransf. & NWUhl
Incertae sedis Areceae
- Bentinckia Berry ex Roxb. : The only two species are found in India and the Nicobar Islands .
- Clinostigma H. Wendl. : The approximately eleven species occur from the Bismarck Archipelago to the islands in the western Pacific and on the Ogasawara Islands .
- Cyrtostachys flower : The seven or so species occur from Thailand to New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands.
- Dictyosperma H. Wendl. & Drude : There is only one type:
- Dransfieldia W.J.Baker & Zona
- Heterospathe Scheff. : The approximately 41 species occur from the Philippines to the islands in the western Pacific.
- Hydriastele H. Wendl. & Drude : With about 37 species that occur from Malesia to the islands in the western Pacific.
- Iguanura flower
- Loxococcus H. Wendl. & Drude : There is only one type:
- Rhopaloblasts Scheff.
The fruits of around 100 palm species are edible ( date palm , palmyra palm ), while the seeds of others ( coconut , betel nut , palmyra palm) are edible . The edible cone of vegetation is called the palm heart , and sago can be obtained from the pulp of the trunk of some species . In the Indomalayan region the sago palm is of great importance as a starch supplier. The sap of palm trees - especially the sugar palm - is used to make beverages, and sugar can also be extracted from it. By fermentation produced palm wine . Beverages can also be made by fermenting fruit pulp. Few palm blossoms attract bees, so palm honey is actually a palm syrup and is not produced by bees, but is made by boiling the palm sap, comparable to maple syrup . As an economically important oil producer, the oil palm from Africa is now cultivated in the tropics around the world.
In many countries, palm species are the basic material for building houses, the trunks of which are used as wood and the water-repellent leaves are used for roofing ( palapa ). From Rotangpalmen ( Calamus ) are rattan -Furniture made.
Ornamental plants and erosion control
Palm species are used both as a style element to convey a southern impression in public green spaces and gardens and as indoor plants .
In areas with little rain they are used to stabilize the soil on embankments and (possibly irrigated) green spaces. They are also much less sensitive to wind breakage than deciduous trees, so they can thrive well in places exposed to wind.
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