Anatomical position and direction designations
The position and direction designations of the body of most tissue animals (including humans) are used in anatomy to describe the position (situs), the location (versio) and the course of individual structures. Some of these terms are also part of anatomical names . While the standard language location designations such as "top" or "bottom" can change depending on the body position, the anatomical location designations are clear because they are relative to the body and thus independent of its position.
Except for the sponges and the radial symmetry " coelenterates " (coelenterates, Radiata ) all multicellular animals belong (95 percent) to the Bilateria (Bilateralia, "animals with two sides"), due to their bilateral body symmetry (except echinoderms : Pentamerie ) are called. A body is bilaterally symmetrical if it can be divided into two externally identical, mirror-image halves along the median plane (mirror plane, plane of symmetry). In contrast to radially symmetrical tissue animals, through which many planes of symmetry can be laid (polysymmetry), the bilateria have a clear plane of symmetry in the longitudinal direction of the body (monosymmetry), on the basis of which different planes and directions can be defined.
Sometimes it is necessary to resort to the basic anatomical position. In humans this is defined as follows: standing upright, eyes straight ahead, hands supinated (palms facing forward); the feet are parallel (see also the neutral-zero method ).
Main anatomical directions
- dorsal * (Latin dorsum , back '): on the back, located on the back
- ventral * (lat. venter 'belly'): on the belly side, located on the belly (represented in butterfly studies with the symbol kunde)
- cranial or cranial * (Latin cranium , skull '): towards the skull
- caudal or caudal * (Latin cauda , tail '): towards the tail (in tailless animals the buttocks or tailbone determine the direction here)
- proximal (Latin proximus , next '): towards the center of the body
- distal (lat. distare ' to be away'): removed from the center of the body (different meaning in dentistry, see below )
With regard to the median plane (mirror plane of body symmetry) one differentiates:
- median (Latin: medium , middle): located approximately in the median plane
- paramedian: (clearly) located next to the median plane
- medial * : towards the median plane
lateral * (Latin latus 'side'): away from the median plane, towards the side
- ipsilateral or homolateral: on the same side
- contralateral: on the opposite side
- dexter: right
- sinister: left
Other general location and directional descriptions
- vertical (lat. vertex , crown '): along the line from the crown to the sole
- postcranial or postcranial: 'behind the skull' (in humans: below), i.e. concerning the trunk and limbs
- profund (lat. profundus 'deep'): located in deeper, superficial tissues of the body (part)
- superfizial (lat. superficialis , superficial '): near or at the surface of the body (part) located s
- terminal: located at the end
- subterminal: not quite at the end
- apical * (Latin apex , tip '): located at the tip (cf. apex cordis "heart tip", apex linguae "tongue tip", apex nasi "nose tip")
- basal * : forming the base, at the base, fundamental
- intracorporeal (lat. intra 'within', corpus 'body'): within the body
- ectopic: located in the wrong place (→ ectopia )
- peripheral: far from the trunk
Position and direction designations on the fuselage
In addition to the usual names for the main directions , the terms are often used in human anatomy in the area of the trunk
- anterior (Latin ante 'in front of'): anterior, lying in front (in humans, identical with ventral )
- posterior (Latin post 'behind'): posterior, lying behind (in humans, identical with dorsal )
- inferior (Latin infra 'under'): lower, lying down (in humans, identical with caudal )
- superior (lat. super 'over'): upper, lying on top (in humans, identical with cranial )
In animal anatomy, the above terms are only allowed on the head.
In relation to the spine:
- prevertebral: in front of the spine
- paravertebral: next to the spine
In relation to the sternum :
- retrosternal: behind the breastbone
- parasternal: on the side of the sternum
Position and direction designations on the head
The term cranial does not make sense on the head. The terms are therefore used for structures located on the front of the skull or oriented towards the front or the front end of the skull:
- rostral (Latin rostrum ' beak ', ' trunk '): on the front of the head, towards the nose or beak
- oral (Latin os ' mouth '): on the mouth, in the mouth, towards the mouth; concerning the mouth
The term is also used for structures lying behind:
- aboral: located away from the mouth
- occipital or occipital (lat. occiput , back of the head ): located towards the neck (or the contact plane between head and neck) (→ occiput ).
Instead of lateral and medial , the terms are also used on the head, especially on the eye :
- temporal (lat. tempus ' temple '): towards the temples , i.e. laterally
- nasal (Latin nasus , nose '): towards the nose, towards the central nose (medial)
Indications of position and direction on the limbs
While the same terms apply to the wrist or tarsus as to the trunk, the following is used on the hand or on the foot :
- dorsal (lat. dorsum manus , back of the hand 'and dorsum pedis , back of the foot'): located towards the back of the hand or foot
- palmar (Latin palma manus , palm '): palm side
- volar: on the palm side, identical to the palmar
- plantar (Latin planta pedis , sole of the foot): on the sole of the foot
- axial (lat. axis 'axis'): located towards an imaginary limb axis
- abaxial: located away from the imaginary limb axis
Due to the possible rotation of the forearm and lower leg , the terms medial and lateral are not clearly defined. That is why it is usually used for the forearm
- ulnar: towards the ulna (instead of medial )
- radial: towards the spoke ( radius ) (instead of lateral )
and in the same way with the lower leg
Position and direction designations in body cavities
In the body cavities the terms are also used:
- parietal (Latin paries , wall '): belonging to the wall of an organ or to the body wall; wall-mounted, laterally. The term can also refer to the vertex area (Latin os parietale " parietal bone ").
- visceral (lat. viscera 'entrails'): located towards the intestines, belonging to the intestines
thoracic ( lat.thorax 'chest'): on the chest , in the chest
- intrathoracic: within the chest, e.g. B. intrathoracic pressure
abdominal (lat. abdomen , belly): on the stomach, in the stomach
- intraabdominal: within the abdominal cavity , e.g. B. intra-abdominal fat
- intraperitoneally : within the abdominal cavity in the area of the peritoneum
Adjectives for other parts of the body
Adjectives can be formed for practically all parts of the body and organs to denote affiliation. For this purpose, the Latin word stem is usually provided with the final syllable -al , for example
- anal ** (Latin ānus , anus )
- genital (Latin genitalia , sex organ )
- intestinal (lat. intestinum , gut ')
- laryngeal (Latin larynx , larynx ')
- nuchal (Latin nucha , neck ')
- sacral (Latin os sacrum , sacrum ')
- spinal (lat. spina , vertebral column ')
- cervical (Latin cervix , neck ')
With prefixes like sub (under) and supra (over) positions relative to the body part or organ can be given, for example
- extrauterine (Latin uterus , uterus): outside the uterus , cf. Ectopic pregnancy
- infraorbital (Latin orbita eye socket ), below the eye socket (e.g. infraorbital nerve )
- retrosternal (lat. sternum , sternal ') behind the sternum
- sublingual (Latin lingua 'tongue'): under the tongue
- supratrochlear (Latin trochlea , role ), e.g. B. Supratrochlear nerve
- infrarenal (lat. ren , kidney ): under the kidney or below the branch of the renal arteries
- para-aortal (Latin aorta , main artery): next to the aorta
Position and direction designations on the teeth
In the case of teeth , the usual terms such as medial ("to the middle") cannot be used because of the curvature of the dental arch . Instead, other terms such as mesial are used. The term distal has a specific meaning for the bit .
The individual teeth themselves are identified with the tooth scheme , although today the EDP-compatible FDI scheme is used almost exclusively .
Surfaces of the tooth crown
Along the dental arch
- mesial *** (Greek mesos , centered): towards the center of the dental arch
- distal *** (lat. distare , to be distant): towards the end of the dental arch
- approximal (Latin approximare , to approach '): towards the neighboring tooth (unspecific alternative to mesial and distal )
- labial *** (lat. labium , lip '): on the lip side, in the anterior region identical to vestibular §
- buccal or buccal *** (lat. bucca , cheek '): on the cheek side, in the posterior region identical to vestibular §
- vestibular § (Latin vestibulum 'atrium') towards the oral vestibule ( labial or buccal )
- lingual *** (Latin lingua , tongue '): on the tongue side, identical to oral
- Palatal (Latin: palatum , palate '): on the palate (only to be used on the upper jaw teeth), identical to oral
- oral (Latin os 'mouth'): towards the inner oral cavity ( lingual or palatal )
- occlusal (Latin occludere , to close '), outdated also mastical : towards the occlusal surface (chewing surface) (for posterior teeth)
- incisal (Latin incidere ' to cut in'): towards the incisal edge (for front teeth)
Crown, neck, root and pulp
coronal (Latin corona , crown '): on the tooth crown , towards the tooth crown
- intracoronal (lat. intra 'within', lat. corona 'crown'): in the tooth crown
- pericoronal (Greek peri 'around ...', Latin corona 'crown'): around the tooth crown
- cervical (Latin cervix , neck '): at the tooth neck , towards the tooth neck
radicular (lat. radix 'root'): at the tooth root , relating to the tooth root, starting from the tooth root
- periradicular (Greek peri 'around ...', radix 'root'): around the tooth root
- interradicular (Latin inter 'between', radix 'root'): located between the tooth roots
- intra-canalicular (lat. intra 'within', lat. canalis 'tube'): in the root canal
apical (Latin apex , tip '): at the tip of the root, towards the tip of the root
- periapical (Greek peri 'around ...', Latin apex 'tip'): around the tip of the root
pulpal (lat. pulpa 'meat'): on the tooth pulp (the tooth pulp), concerning the pulp
- intrapulpal (lat. intra within ', lat. pulpa , meat') in the tooth pulp (the pulp)
- parapulpär (Greek para 'next to', Latin pulpa 'meat'): located next to the tooth pulp (in the dentin)
Jawbones and gums
- mandibular (Latin mandibula , lower jaw ): related to the lower jaw
mental (lat. mentum , chin '): on the chin, concerning the chin, ambiguity with mental from lat.men , spirit '
- submental (Latin sub 'under', Latin mentum , chin '): under the chin
- maxillary (Latin maxilla , upper jaw ): related to the upper jaw. The word maxillary rarely also refers to the lower jaw. Example: A bimaxillary osteotomy is an operation in which both the lower jaw and the upper jaw are separated from the rest of the facial skeleton and fixed in a new position.
crestal or crestal (English crest , Latin crista 'comb'): 1. from the jaw ridge; 2. in the area of the bony alveolar margin (limbus alveolaris) or at the crista alveolaris; Arcus alveolaris
- subcrestal or subcrestal (Latin sub 'under', English crest , Latin crista 'comb'): under the alveolar ridge
- supracrestal or supracrestal (Latin supra 'above', English crest , Latin crista 'comb'): above the alveolar ridge
gingival (Latin gingiva 'gums'): belonging to the gums, towards the gums
- subgingival (Latin sub 'under', Latin gingiva 'gum'): under the gum, also for below the gum margin
marginal (lat. margo 'edge'): belonging to the gum line
- paramarginal (Greek para 'next to', Latin margo 'edge'): next to the gumline, mostly in the sense of parallel to the gumline
- periodontal (Greek para 'next to', Latin dens 'tooth'): pertaining to the tooth supporting apparatus
- interdental (Latin inter 'between', Latin dens 'tooth'): between the teeth or between two neighboring teeth
- intrafurkal (lat. intra 'within', furka fork): in the area of the division point of the tooth roots ( bifurcation , trifurcation )
Other location and direction designations
- axial (lat. axis 'axis'): in the direction of the tooth axis
- central (lat. centrum , middle ') on the jaw-facing side of a tooth or to the alveolar out
- transdental (Latin trans 'beyond' and dens 'tooth'): through the tooth, beyond the tip of the root
There are three main sets of body planes: transverse planes , frontal planes , and sagittal planes . The middle sagittal plane is the median plane . The directions are differentiated accordingly:
- transversal: right ↔ left
- longitudinal: above ↔ below
sagittal (Latin sagitta 'arrow'): front ↔ back
- median: front ↔ back in the median plane
In head imaging , sections along these body planes are named as follows:
- axial cuts: horizontal cuts (in the transverse planes). Result: You look into your head from above or below. Explanation of the term: "Section through the longitudinal axis of the body".
- sagittal sections: vertical sections in the sagittal planes. Result: You look into the head from the side.
- coronal (coronal) cuts: vertical cuts in the frontal planes. Result: You look into your head from the front. Explanation of the term: “Section parallel to the sutura coronalis”. That is why the term “coronal plane”, which was more common in the past, also exists in anatomy. In contrast, the coronary plane is common, especially in clinical use and in radiology.
- ascendant (lat. ascendere ascend ') ascending
- descending (Latin descendere , to descend): descending
- antegrade or anterograd: forward; in the normal direction of movement or flow
- retrograde: backwards; contrary to the normal direction of movement or flow
- Willibald Pschyrembel : Clinical Dictionary. 265th edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-11-030509-8 .
- Walter Hoffmann-Axthelm : Lexicon of dentistry. Quintessenz-Verlag, Berlin, 6th edition, ISBN 978-3876526096 .
- Joseph Maria Stowasser : Der Kleine Stowasser , Latin-German school dictionary . Lim. by JM Stowasser, M. Petschenig, F. Skutsch. Edited by Fritz Lošek with the assistance of Barbara Dowlasz (among others). Complete revision. Vienna, Munich: Oldenbourg Schulbuchverl. 2016. ISBN 978-3-637-01549-4 , ISBN 978-3-230-04285-9 .
- Wilhelm Gemoll : GEMOLL, Greek-German school and manual dictionary. Oldenbourg textbook publisher; Edition: Revised 2006, ISBN 978-3637002340 .
- Gerhard Maschinski: Lexicon of Dentistry, Dental Technology. Urban & Fischer publishing house, 1999, ISBN 978-3437050602 .
- ↑ Bilateria . In: Lexicon of Biology . Spectrum Academic Publishing House. Heidelberg. 1999. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- ^ Hynek Burda : General Zoology. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-8001-2838-1 , p. 54.
- ↑ Wolfgang Miehle: Joint and spinal rheumatism. Eular Verlag, Basel 1987, ISBN 3-7177-0133-9 , p. 175.