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Class : Bedecktsamer (Magnoliopsida)
Order : Lily-like (Liliales)
Family : Lily family (Liliaceae)
Subfamily : Lilioideae
Genre : Tulips
Scientific name

The tulips ( Tulipa ) constitute a genus within the family of Liliaceae (Liliaceae). The approximately 150 species are distributed in North Africa and across Europe to Central Asia. Numerous hybrids are used as ornamental plants in parks and gardens and as cut flowers.


Your name goes on Turkish tülbend in Persian دلبند/ delband and means in Persian "lover" ("del" / دل = heart; "band" from "bastan" بستن = (to) bind). The origin of the first syllable can be traced back to the Sanskrit word तूल / tūla , which is translated as "cotton". In Persian the genus is called Lale (لاله/ lāle ) denotes what is etymologically related to Sanskrit (cf. hind. लाल / lāl - "red"). In Turkish itself the flower is also called lale , which is a borrowing from Persian.


Illustration of the wild tulip ( Tulipa sylvestris )
Three-lobed stigma of a tulip

Appearance and leaves

Tulip species grow as perennial , herbaceous plants and, depending on the species, reach heights of 10 to 70 centimeters. These geophytes develop onions as persistent organs. The outer skin of the onions is usually hairy on the inside. The lower part of the mostly unbranched stem is in the ground.

A tulip bulb dies after flowering, at the same time a new flowering bulb develops in the armpit of an onion scale and weaker bulbs grow at the base of the remaining onion scales.

Most of the leaves are basal and up to 30 centimeters long. The mostly two to six, rarely up to twelve alternately arranged leaves are sessile. The simple leaf blades are broadly linear to almost ovoid. The leaf margin is smooth to wavy (for example Tulipa undulatifolia ).

Inflorescences and flowers

Depending on the cultivated form, the flower color varies from white, yellow, orange, pink, red to blue and even black. The flowers are usually solitary and terminal or in little-flowered inflorescences. Bracts are usually missing. The upright flowers are hermaphroditic, threefold and bell- to cup-shaped. There are two circles of free bracts , the bracts of the two circles being more or less differently shaped. There are two circles with three free, fertile stamens each; they are either the same or those of the inner circle are longer. The stamens are sometimes hairy. Three carpels have become a top permanent ovary grown, with many ovules . The columnar or very short to absent stylus ends in a three-lobed stigma .

Ripe, three-chamber capsule fruit from Tulipa agenensis

Fruits and seeds

A cylindrical to spindle-shaped, three-winged, leathery, three-chamber capsule fruit is formed. The seeds are mostly flat.

Special features of some varieties

The striped or spotted flowers that are occasionally seen are often caused by a mosaic virus . However, there are also a number of varieties (for example 'Insulinde', 'Zomerschoon') whose striped flowers cannot be traced back to a virus infection.

Systematics and distribution

The genus Tulipa was established by Carl von Linné . Synonyms for Tulipa L. are: Orithyia D.Don , Liriactis Raf. , Liriopogon Raf. , Podonix Raf. , Eduardoregelia Popov .

Internal system

Distribution map of the genus tulips. Red: area of ​​natural distribution, yellow: introduced

The area with the highest biodiversity of tulips is in the often inaccessible steppes and mountain regions of Central Asia. The natural variability of many tulip species has therefore not been adequately investigated and understood. For this reason, up to 150 different naturally occurring tulip species have been described in the specialist literature by various authors. The information on the number of species of the genus Tulipa varies between around 100 and around 150 depending on the source. Van Raamsdonk recognizes significantly fewer species in his work on systematics. A major problem with taxonomic studies was that they were made on the basis of commercial tulip collections that had only a few clones of a species. These can differ greatly in habitus from the natural forms due to completely different environmental conditions in culture or hybridization. Furthermore, the studies often used herbarium material in which many decisive details are not recognizable. Tulips inhabit meadows, steppes and macchia, but they also occur in fields, orchards, on roadsides and on overgrown plantations, where they were previously intentionally or unintentionally settled.

76 species are currently (2019) recognized in the " World Checklist of Selected Plant Families ". The following compilation of the recognized tulip species contains names and common names as well as the distribution area specified in the WCSP list and, if applicable, an illustration of the species.

The original distribution area of ​​the tulip species extends from North Africa across Europe to Central and Central Asia ; a center of biodiversity lies in the southeastern Mediterranean region, Turkey , Afghanistan , Turkestan ( Caucasus region ). Today, tulips are widespread in nature in numerous locations in the Mediterranean and large areas of Europe. These occurrences are mostly not of natural origin, but they were created in the last centuries through the overgrowth of cultivated plants.

Surname Common name / synonym distribution Illustration
Subgenus Clusianae
Tulipa clusiana Redouté 1803 Ladies tulip Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan (W Himalaya ), neophyte in S Europe, Tunisia, Turkey Tulip Tulipa clusiana 'Lady Jane' Rock Ledge Flower 2000px.jpg
Tulipa harazensis Rech.f. 1990 Iran
Tulipa linifolia rule 1884 Flax-leaved tulip NO Iran, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan TulipaBataliniiBronzeCharm.jpg
Tulipa montana Lindl. 1828 Mountain tulip N Iran to S Turkmenistan Tulipa montana3.jpg
Subgenus Orithyia
Tulipa heteropetala Ledeb. 1829 Kazakhstan (Altai), China ( Xinjiang ) Tulipa heteropetala 02.jpg
Tulipa heterophylla (Rule) Baker 1874 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China (Xinjiang) Tulipa heterophylla.jpg
Tulipa sinkiangensis Z.M. Mao 1980 Xinjiang
Tulipa uniflora L. Besser ex Baker 1874 Russia ( Siberia ), Kazakhstan ( Altai ), China ( Xinjiang , Inner Mongolia ), Mongolia
Subgenus Tulipa
Tulipa agenensis Redouté 1804 Sun-eye tulip Cyprus, Turkey, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan; Neophyte in southern Europe, Tunisia Tulip agenensis ZE.jpg
Tulipa albanica Kit Tan & Shuka 2010 Albanian tulip NO Albania Lëndina e tulipanëve.JPG
Tulipa alberti rule 1877 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Stamp of Kazakhstan 183.jpg
Tulipa aleppensis Boiss. ex rule 1873 Aleppo tulip Turkey, Syria, Lebanon
Tulipa altaica Pall. ex explos. 1825 Russia (Western Siberia), Kazakhstan ( Altai ), China ( Xinjiang ) Tulipa kolpakowskiana 2.JPG
Tulipa anisophylla Vved. 1935 S Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Tulipa armena Boiss. 1859 Armenian tulip Turkey, Iran, South Caucasus
Tulipa banuensis Gray-Wilson 1974 Afghanistan
Tulipa borszczowii rule 1868 Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Tulipa borszczowii;  Baikonur 003.jpg
Tulipa botschantzevae S.N. Abramova & Zakal. 1973 S Turkmenistan to NE Iran
Tulipa butkovii Botschantz. 1961 Uzbekistan ( Tian Shan ) Tulipa butkovii 2.jpg
Tulipa carinata Vved. 1971 Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, N Afghanistan ( Pamir )
Tulipa cypria Stapf ex Turrill 1934 Cyprus Kıbrıs lalesi (Tulipa cypria) .png|
Tulipa dubia Vved. 1935 Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan
Tulipa faribae Ghahr., Attar & Ghahrem.-Nejad 2007 Iran ( Zāgros Mountains )
Tulipa ferganica Vved. 1935 Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan
Tulipa foliosa Stapf 1885 Turkey Z + S
Tulipa fosteriana W. Irving 1906 Foster tulip Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan (Pamir), Afghanistan Tulipa fosteriana a1.jpg
Tulipa gesneriana L. 1753 Gc16 tulipa gesneriana.jpg
Tulipa greigii rule 1873 Greig tulip Iran, Central Asia Tulipa greigii 3.jpg
Tulipa heweri Raamsd. 1998 NE Afghanistan
Tulipa hissarica Popov & Vved. 1935 Tajikistan, Uzbekistan ( Hissar Mountains ) Tulipa hissarica 05.jpg
Tulipa hoogiana B. Fedsch . 1910 S Turkmenistan to N Iran
Tulipa hungarica Borbás 1882 Hungary, O Serbia, Bulgaria (WZ + S), Greece
Tulipa iliensis rule 1879 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China (Xinjiang)
Tulipa ingens Hoog 1902 Fiery tulip Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Tulipa julia K. Koch 1849 Julia tulip O Turkey, South Caucasus, Syria, Lebanon
Tulipa kaufmanniana rule 1877 Water Lily Tulip or Merchant's Tulip Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Tulipa kaufmanniana 270303.jpg
Tulipa kolpakowskiana rule 1877 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, NE Afghanistan, China (NW Xinjiang)
Tulipa korolkowii rule 1875 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Tulipa kosovarica Kit Tan, Shuka & Krasniqi 2012 Kosovo
Tulipa kuschkensis B. Fedsch . 1932 Iran, S Turkmenistan, Afghanistan Tulipa kuschkensis 4.jpg
Tulipa lanata rule 1884 Woolen tulip Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan (West Himalaya)
Tulipa lehmanniana Merckl. 1852 O Iran, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan Stamps of Uzbekistan, 2010-69.jpg
Tulipa lemmersii Zonn. 2012 Kazakhstan
Tulipa ostrowskiana rule 1884 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Stamps of Kazakhstan, 2013-51.jpg
Tulipa persica (Lindl.) Sweet 1830 NW Iran
Tulipa platystemon Vved. 1935 Kyrgyzstan
Tulipa praestans H.B. May 1903 Excellent tulip Tajikistan Tulipa praestans1.jpg
Tulipa scardica Bornm. 1923 S Kosovo to W Greece
Tulipa sharipovii Tojibaev 2009 Uzbekistan (Kurama Geb.), Kyrgyzstan ( Chatkal Mountains )
Tulipa schmidtii Fomin 1909 South Caucasus to NW Iran
Tulipa serbica Tatic & Krivošej 1997 N Kosovo to SO Serbia
Tulipa sosnowskyi Achv. & Mirzoeva 1950 South Caucasus
Tulipa suaveolens Roth 1794 Schrenk's tulip Ukraine, Russia (to South Siberia), Caucasus, Turkey, W Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Куюк-Тук.jpg
Tulipa subquinquefolia Vved. 1946 Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Tulipa systola Stapf 1885 O Turkey, W Iran, Iraq Lebanon, Palestine, Sinai Peninsula Tulipa systola1.JPG
Tulipa talassica Lazkov 2011 Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
Tulipa tetraphylla rule 1875 Four-petalled tulip Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China (NW Xinjiang) Tulipa tetraphylla.jpg
Tulipa ulophylla Wendelbo 1967 N Iran ( Elbors Mountains )
Tulipa undulatifolia Boiss. 1844 S Balkans, W + Z Turkey, South Caucasus, NE Iran, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Tulipa uzbekistanica Embassy . & Sharipov 1971 S Uzbekistan
Tulipa vvedenskyi Embassy. 1954 Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Tulipa vvedenskyi 2.jpg
Subgenus Eriostemones
Tulipa biflora Pall. 1776 Two-flowered tulip Macedonia, Turkey, Crimea, Russia (to Western Siberia), Lebanon, Palestine, Sinai, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China (Xinjiang) Двухцветковые степные тюльпаны.jpg
Tulipa bifloriformis Vved. 1971 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Tulipa bifloriformis 01.jpg
Tulipa cinnabarina K. Perss. 2000 Turkey Tulipa cinnabarina subsp cinnabarina.png
Tulipa cretica Boiss. & Hero. 1854 Greece (Crete) Tulipa cretica1LEST.jpg
Tulipa dasystemon rule 1879 Small star tulip Central Asia, China (Xinjiang) Tulipa Dasystemon (260196543) .jpeg
Tulipa humilis Herb. 1844 Low tulip Turkey, Caucasus, Iran Iraq, Lebanon, Afghanistan 'Tulipa humilis'.jpg
Tulipa humilis var. Aucheriana Baker 2013 O Turkey to Afghanistan Tulipa aucheriana 240408.jpg
Tulipa humilis var.kurdica Wendelbo 2013 N Iraq
Tulipa humilis var.pulchella Fenzl ex Regel 2013 S + SO Turkey to N Iran Gevne-hadim arası lale - panoramio.jpg
Tulipa kolbintsevii Zonn. 2012 SO Kazakhstan
Tulipa koyuncui Eker & Babaç 2010 SO Turkey
Tulipa orithyioides Vved. 1935 Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Tulipa Regelii Krassn. 1888 SO Kazakhstan Stamp of Kazakhstan 181.jpg
Tulipa saxatilis Sieber ex Spreng. 1825 Rock Tulip or Crete Tulip Greece, S Turkey, Aegean Sea, SW Turkey, Crete Cretan Tulip2 (js) .jpg
Tulipa sprengeri Baker 1894 Turkey † (extinguished) Tulipa sprengeri1.jpg
Tulipa sylvestris L. 1753 Wild tulip , vineyard's tulip Eurasia from Portugal to China (Xinjiang) (neophyte in N, NE, Europe) Tulipa sylvestris 250406.jpg
Tulipa sylvestris subsp. australis link 1914 Mediterranean, N Africa, SZ + E Europe, Caucasus, W Asia, Z Asia, China (Xinjiang) Tulipa sylvestris1.jpg
Tulipa urumiensis Stapf 1932 Tarda tulip or star tulip Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, NW Iran Tulipa urumiensis 080406.jpg
Tulipa turkestanica rule 1875 Turkestan tulip Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, China (Xinjiang) Tulipa turkestanica macro 1.jpg
other accepted species
Tulipa auliekolica Perezhogin 2014 Kazakhstan
Tulipa boettgeri rule 1887 Tajikistan
Tulipa intermedia Tojibaev & J.de Groot 2014 Uzbekistan
Tulipa ivasczenkoa Epiktetov & Belyalov 2013 Kazakhstan
Tulipa jacquesii Zonn. 2015 Kyrgyzstan
Tulipa orphanidea Boiss. ex hero 1862 Orphanides tulip Bulgaria, Greece, Crete, W Turkey Tulipa orphanidea 060506.jpg
Tulipa × tschimganica T. dubia × T. kaufmanniana Botschantz. 1961 Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan Tulipa tschimganica.jpg
Tulipa turgaica Perezhogin 2014 Kazakhstan
Tulipa zonneveldii J.de Groot & Tojibaev 2017 Kyrgyzstan


The biblical “ Rose of Sharon ” could be a tulip ( Tulipa montana or Tulipa agenensis ). The ancient writers of Greece and Rome did not mention the tulips, although some species are found in the Mediterranean area. They are also absent from Byzantine sources, as there seems to be little overall relationship between Byzantine and Ottoman gardens. In the Middle East, the tulips were cultivated for centuries, with the garden tulip ( Tulipa gesneriana ) probably emerging from several wild species . Possible first parents are Tulipa lanata, Tulipa clusiana, Tulipa aitchisonii, Tulipa stellata and Tulipa armena . Written documents have been in ancient Persian literature since the 9th century. The Turks took over the cultivation of tulips from the Persians. The plant has been mentioned by poets since the 13th century. Tulips were also depicted in miniatures, on ceramics and as clothing samples. They have been used as garden plants since the 16th century at the latest. The preferred shape was lily-shaped with pointed petals. In the " tulip time " ( Lale devrı ) Sultan Ahmed III imported . but also rounded garden tulips from Holland. An illustrated catalog of tulips was published in 1725. Ahmed III. owned famous tulip meadows on the summer pastures (Yayla) in Spil Dağı above Manisa . It is unclear whether these were wild tulips or cultivars.

The garden tulip came to Central and Western Europe from Turkey around the middle of the 16th century. In Italy, tulipa is documented for 1549. The first description comes from the imperial ambassador at the court Suleyman I , Ghislain de Busbecq , who described the tulips in his "Turkish Letters" in 1554. The name he gave, Tulipan (Turkish tülband = turban band), may be based on a linguistic misunderstanding (naming the shape, not the plant) or on a Turkish folk name of the plants. In written language, the tulips were called lalé in Turkish and in Persian . Busbecq probably sent among the recorded seeds and bulbs also those of tulips to Vienna, there is evidence of a picture of the tulip under the name Narcissus by Pietro Andrea Mattioli in 1565. Conrad Gessner made a picture of a tulip in 1561, which he had in the garden of councilor Heinrich Herwart in 1559 had seen in Augsburg. It should have been Tulipa armena or a cultural form of this kind. Gessner's description served as the basis for the description of Tulipa gesneriana by Carl von Linné in 1753. The first more detailed work on tulips was done by Carolus Clusius , who traded tulips in large parts of Europe arrived. Towards the end of the 16th century, Holland became a center of onion plants, especially tulips. A large number of varieties emerged, including those with double flowers or with colored, flamed flowers, which was caused by a viral disease. The tulips became an object of speculation in upscale Western European circles, the so-called tulip mania arose until the market value of tulips normalized again after a stock market crash in 1637. In the decades after the tulip mania, the tulip developed from a flower of the nobility and middle class to a widespread ornamental plant.

In the well-known hymn by Paul Gerhardt go out, my heart, and search for Freud it says in the 2nd verse:

Narcissus and the Tulipan
They dress much nicer
than Solomonis silk

At the end of the 19th century, the targeted breeding of new varieties developed in the Netherlands, so in 1885 the tall, late-blooming Darwin tulips came onto the market. The Triumph tulips, which now make up the majority of all variety groups, were created by crossing earlier, short-stemmed tulips with Darwin and Breeder tulips. For example, lily-flowered tulips were created by crossing Tulipa retroflexa .

MANY THANKS, written with tulips, May 1945

In the winter of 1944-45 in was Netherlands especially the densely populated Holland hunger affected. Among other things, the tulip was then used as a substitute food . The Hongerwinter was a disaster that began towards the end of World War II in the Dutch territories occupied by German troops in October 1944. The supply improved only after the armistice of Achterveld on April 30, 1945. A ban by the German Reich Commissioner for the Netherlands Seyß-Inquart to the use of inland waterways for the transport of food and fuel had previously caused the population not to be supplied with food and fuel could be supplied from the more rural regions. As a result, 4.5 million people there were affected by undersupply. The number of people who died as a result of this famine is estimated at 18,000 to 22,000.

People were increasingly consuming raw materials that had not previously been used in human nutrition. First sugar beets were processed, later also flower bulbs. Eating tulip bulbs had a special background. The western Netherlands was cut off from the rest of Europe. The export of tulip bulbs had come to a standstill, so large quantities were in stock. After Dutch doctors declared that the bulbs were safe to eat, tulip growers sold them as food. There were special instructions for preparation in order to make use of the high starch content of the onions. The taste of these tulip bulbs - compared to that of the sugar beet - was so unusual that it was talked about a lot. The tulip later became the symbol of the hungry winter. This is mainly due to the imagery: the tulip was the Dutch product at the time.

From the end of April 1945, in the so-called Manna and Chowhound operations, the Allies carried out supply flights over the occupied territory for ten days , for which a temporary and geographically limited armistice could previously be negotiated with the German Reich Commissioner. A photo was taken from one of these planes, showing how people thanked them with blooming tulips.

Industrial tulip production in Middelharnis, South Holland, Netherlands
Tulip as a representative of all plants, German postage stamp, 1957
Tulip field
Tulip blossom from above
Tulips tied up as a bouquet


The garden tulips were grown from the wild tulips. Several thousand cultivars have emerged from the wild tulips within 400 years. Tulips appreciate moisture in spring, hot, dry locations on nutrient-rich soils with a pH value of 6.5 to 7.0 in summer (this is the best way for bulbs to ripen), and need cooler nights and cold winters to thrive.

The Netherlands is the world's largest producer of tulips. In Germany , tulips are produced in the Lower Rhine region , especially in the Neuss district .

Tulip varieties are important ornamental plants , both as garden plants and as cut flowers. Over 80% of the world's tulip production comes from the Netherlands . Over 1200 varieties are cultivated here, but the 40 most common varieties take up more than half of the area under cultivation. Of the more than 9500 hectares of cultivation area in the Netherlands, over 90% is accounted for by Tulipa gesneriana , the rest mainly by Tulipa kaufmanniana , Tulipa greigii , and Tulipa fosteriana .

Tulips do not play a role in medicine or medicine. They are even toxic to humans and animals (e.g. horses, dogs and cats as well as rodents). The tulipanin contained in onions and sprouts causes vomiting, stomach cramps, stomach and intestinal problems, among other things.


Tulips can be propagated generatively using seeds or vegetatively using daughter bulbs. In summer, daughter onions grow on the large mother onions, which are "cleared" (dug up and separated) in early autumn. They are replanted before the first frost in the ground and form larger bulbs in the coming year. Tulip bulbs require the cooling phase of winter or artificial cooling ( vernalization ) to form flowers . Obtaining flowering onions from seeds is much more time-consuming than from daughter onions. In addition, the plants raised from seeds have different properties (e.g. flower color) than the original variety.

Cultivated tulips

Assortment of tulip bulbs offered at a market
Tulip variety 'Showwinner' ( Tulipa kaufmanniana hybrid )

The tulips are divided into 15 groups of varieties. Groups 12 to 15 include wild tulips and their hybrids.

  1. Simple early (Duc-van-Tol-Tulips): They reach heights of growth of 25 to 35 centimeters. The flowering time is in April. They are used for summer discounts, as cut flowers and from December for forcing.
  2. Filled mornings: They reach heights of 8 to 35 centimeters. The flowering time is in April. The diameter of the flowers reaches up to 10 centimeters. They are used for summer discounts, as cut flowers and from December for forcing.
  3. Triumph Tulips (Simple Early × Darwin and Cottage Tulips): They reach heights of growth of 30 to 40 (50) centimeters. The flowering time is at the beginning of May. They are used as cut flowers and for forcing from December to January.
  4. Darwin hybrids: (Darwin tulips × Tulipa fosteriana ): They reach heights of growth of 30 to 70 centimeters. The flowering period is from the end of April to the middle of May. The flowers are very large. Often there is a black basal spot with a yellow border. They are used as cut flowers and for forcing.
  5. Simple late ones (this is where the Darwin and Cottage tulips belong, these were previously managed as a separate group): They reach heights of 40 to 70 centimeters. The flowering time is in May. The stems are robust. The flowers are firm, look almost angular when viewed from the side and can be of any color. They are used as cut flowers, some varieties from January also for forcing.
  6. Lily-flowered: They reach heights of 30 to 50 centimeters. The bracts are narrow, curved outwards and taper off in a long point. The stem is often not firm enough. The flowers can be of any color. They are especially used as cut flowers.
  7. Fringed tulips: The edges of the bracts are irregularly fringed to jagged. The fringes are often white. They are used as cut flowers.
  8. Viridiflora group (green-flowered): They reach heights of growth of 25 to 60 centimeters. The bracts are more or less pale green, the edge is yellowish to white and pointed. They are used as cut flowers.
  9. Rembrandt tulips: The bracts have a stripe, spot or feather pattern ("broken"), they are purple, pink, red, bronze or brown in color, on a white, red or yellow background (viroses). The flowering time is in the 2nd half of May. They are used as cut flowers.
  10. Parrot tulips: They reach heights of 20 to 60 centimeters. The flowers are large. The bracts are incised, fringed, mostly flamed and spotted. They were grown from Darwin tulips and other late tulips in the 17th century. Some of the stems are too weak, but this is no longer the case with newer varieties. They are used as cut flowers.
  11. Double late (peony tulips): They reach heights of 40 to 60 centimeters. The flowers are usually red, pink, yellow or multicolored. The flowering period is from mid-May. They are sensitive to rain and wind and are used as cut flowers.
  12. Kaufmanniana tulips: They reach heights of 10 to 25
    Tulips as an ornament in the garden
    Centimeter. The flowering time is in March. The flowers are broadly bell-shaped to star-shaped and creamy white, dark yellow or salmon pink; crosses with Tulipa greigii can be red. The basal spot is usually yellow. They are considered to be more resistant than other wild tulips from Central Asia.
  13. Fosteriana tulips: They reach heights of 20 to 30 centimeters. The flowers are up to 15 centimeters long. The leaves reach sizes up to 30 × 16 centimeters. The flowering time is at the beginning of April.
  14. Greigii tulips: They reach heights of 20 to 30 centimeters. The flowers are purple to scarlet in color. The basal spot is black and has a yellow border. The flowering time is in April. The leaves are usually mottled purple-brown.
  15. Other tulips: The remaining wild tulips.


In literature and the performing arts, the tulip can stand for transience , in the " flower language " on the other hand for love and affection. A multitude of other meanings are circulating in everyday use and on the Internet, ranging from “symbol of spring” to “symbol for the Netherlands” to “symbol for Parkinson's disease ” (for the red tulip).


  • MJM Christenhusz, Rafaël Govaerts, JC David, T. Hall, K. Borland, PS Roberts, A. Tuomisto, S. Buerki, MW Chase, MF Fay: Tiptoe through the tulips - cultural history, molecular phylogenetics and classification of Tulipa (Liliaceae ). In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 172, 2013, pp. 280-328.
  • Gerald B. Straley, Frederick H. Utech: Tulipa. P. 199 - same text online as the printed work , In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 26: Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales , Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, 2002, ISBN 0-19-515208-5 .
  • Chen Xinqi, Helen V. Mordak: Tulipa , pp. 123–126 - online with the same text as the printed work, In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (ed.): Flora of China. Volume 24: Flagellariaceae through Marantaceae. Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis 2000, ISBN 0-915279-83-5 .
  • Walter Erhardt , Erich Götz, Nils Bödeker, Siegmund Seybold: The great pikeperch. Encyclopedia of Plant Names. Volume 2. Types and varieties. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7 .
  • C. Gray-Wilson, VA Matthews: Tulipa L. In: Thomas Gaskell Tutin et al .: Flora Europaea. Volume 5, Cambridge University Press 1980, ISBN 0-521-20108-X , pp. 28-31.

further reading

  • Mike Dash : Tulip madness. The craziest speculation in history. (Original title: Tulipomania, translated by Elfriede Peschel). Claassen Verlag, 1999, ISBN 3-546-00177-X .
  • Anna Pavord: The tulip . A cultural history (original title: The Tulip. Translated by Sven Däne and Thomas Wollermann). Insel , Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 2003, ISBN 3-458-16979-2 .
  • Richard Wilford: Tulips: Species and Hybrids for the Gardener. Timber Press, Portland London 2006, ISBN 0-88192-763-5 .
  • Sinaida Petrovna Botschantzewa: Tulips: Taxonomy, Morphology, Cytology, Phytogeography and Physiology. translated and edit HQ Varekamp, ​​Balkema, Rotterdam 1982, ISBN 90-6191-029-3 . ( Google Books )
  • Maarten JM Christenhusz, Rafaël Govaerts, John C. David, Tony Hall, Katherine Borland, Penelope S. Roberts, Anne Tuomisto, Sven Buerki, Mark W. Chase, Michael F. Fay: Tiptoe through the tulips - cultural history, molecular phylogenetics and classification of Tulipa (Liliaceae). In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 172, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 280-328. doi: 10.1111 / boj.12061 .

Web links

Commons : Tulips ( Tulipa )  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Tulip  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Helmut Genaust: Etymological dictionary of botanical plant names. 3rd, completely revised and expanded edition. Birkhäuser, Basel / Boston / Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-7643-2390-6 , p. 664.
  2. Wolfgang Pfeifer: Etymological Dictionary of German. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1997; Lemma tulip
  3. Thomas Barth, Karl Weinhausen, Heinrich Pape: The culture of bulbs and tubers. Parey, Berlin 1954, p. 24.
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Tulipa. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved July 3, 2018.
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