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Lilium ledebourii

Lilium ledebourii

Subdivision : Seed plants (Spermatophytina)
Class : Bedecktsamer (Magnoliopsida)
Order : Lily-like (Liliales)
Family : Lily family (Liliaceae)
Subfamily : Lilioideae
Scientific name

The Lilioideae are a subfamily in the family of the lily plants (Liliaceae) within the monocotyledons ( monocotyledons ). It is distributed with about eleven genera and about 535 species in the temperate areas of the northern hemisphere , especially in East Asia and North America .


Wild tulip ( Tulipa sylvestris )

Members of the subfamily Lilioideae are highly uniform and contrast sharply with the rest of the Liliaceae. They are always herbaceous plants . As persistence organs , they form onions , which only consist of a closed nutrient sheet, the first leaf of the minor axis.

The pen is made uniform among lilioideae; it consists of a three-way stylus channel that narrows at the stylus base. All true Lilioideae lack septal nectaries , which are common in the other Liliaceae. In contrast, they have nectaries at the base of the bracts , which can vary widely.

The absence of tubular vessels and raphidia is very characteristic of the Lilioideae .

The basic chromosome number is always x = 12. Polyploidy occurs, aneuploidy is rare.

Systematics and botanical history

The Erythroniaceae, Fritillariaceae, Liriaceae and Tulipaceae used to be separate families, the genera of these families are now assigned to the lily family in the subfamily Lilioideae. In 1930 Krause only counted the genera Lilium , Nomocharis , Fritillaria , Tulipa , Erythronium , Lloydia and Calochortus to the subfamily.

In 1937 Franz Buxbaum put the genera Gagea and Giradiella (today part of Lloydia ) to the subfamily, but separated Calochortus . In the meantime, Notholirion had also been recognized as a genus of its own. Buxbaum divides the subfamily into three tribes : Lloydieae (with Gagea , Szechenya and Giradiella (both today Lloydia), and Lloydia ), Tulipeae: (with Erythronium , Eduardoregalia (today Tulipa ) and Tulipa ) and Lilieae: (with Korolkowia , Fritillaria , Notholirion , Cardiocrinum , Nomocharis and Lilium ).

The next revision was made by Karl Schnarf in The extent of the Lilioideae in the natural system. In: Austrian Botanical Journal , Volume 95, No. 3, Springer, Vienna, September 1948.

The first phylogenetic studies in 2003 showed that the genera Medeola and Clintonia must also be classified as part of the subfamily Lilioideae.

There is a newer subdivision with two tribes: Medeoleae Benth. (with Medeola and Clintonia ) and Lilieae Ritgen (with the other genera). The division of the family Liliaceae is controversial, for example with a subfamily Medeoloideae in the scope of the tribe Medeoleae.

The subfamily Lilioideae Eaton includes about eleven genera with about 535 species:

  • Giant Lilies ( Cardiocrinum (Endl.) Lindl. ): The three or so species are distributed from the Himalayas to Russia's Far East .
  • Clintonia Raf. (Syn .: Hylocharis Regel & Tiling , Xeniatrum Salisb. ): The approximately five species distributed in the northern hemisphere in temperate to subtropical Asia and in North America .
  • Dental lilies ( Erythronium L. , Syn .: Dens-canis Tourn. Ex Rupp. Nom. Inval., Mithridatium Adans. ): Almost all of the 27 species are distributed in temperate areas of North America, only one occurs in Europe.
  • Fritillaria L. (Syn .: Korolkowia Regel , Petilium Ludw. , Imperialis Adans. , Amblirion Raf. , Rhinopetalum Fisch. Ex D.Don , Baimo Raf. , Corona Fisch. Ex Graham , Melorima Raf. , Eucrinum (Nutt.) Lindl . , Theresia K. Koch , Tozzettia Parl. , Liliorhiza Kellogg , Lyperia Salisb. , Monocodon Salisb. , Sarana Fisch. Ex Baker , Ochrocodon Rydb. ): The approximately 140 species are distributed in the temperate areas of the northern hemisphere .
  • Yellow stars ( Gagea Salisb. , Syn .: Lloydia Salisb. Ex Rchb. Nom. Cons., Upoxis Adans. , Rhabdocrinum Rchb. , Ornithoxanthum Link , Nectarobothrium Ledeb. , Cronyxium Raf. , Hemierium Raf. , Hornungia Bernh. , Reggeria Raf. , Bulbillaria Zucc. , Plecostigma Turcz. , Boissiera Haens. Ex Willk. , Solenarium Dulac , Szechenyia Kanitz , Giraldiella Dammer ): The approximately 200 species are distributed in the northern hemisphere.
  • Lilies ( Lilium L. , syn .: Lirium . Scop . Illeg nom. Martagon Wolf , Martagon (Rchb) Opiz. Nom illeg..): The about 110 species are common in the northern hemisphere.
  • Medeola L. (Syn .: Gyromia Nutt. ): It contains only one species:
    • Indian snake root ( Medeola virginiana L. ): It is distributed from eastern Canada to the east-central and eastern USA.
  • Notholirion Wall. ex Boiss. : The four or so species are distributed from eastern Iraq to western Iran and from Afghanistan to Central Asia.
  • Tulips ( Tulipa L. ): Some authors spin off a genus Amana Honda . The 150 or so species are distributed from North Africa across Europe to Central and Central Asia.


  • Karl Schnarf: The extent of the Lilioideae in the natural system . In: Austrian Botanical Journal . tape 95 , no. 3 . Springer, September 1948, ISSN  0378-2697 , p. 257-269 , doi : 10.1007 / BF01249968 .

Individual evidence

  1. K. Krause: Liliaceae . In: A. Engler (Ed.): The natural plant families . 2nd Edition. tape 15 . Leipzig 1930.
  2. Xinqi Chen, Prof. Song-Yun Liang, Jie-mei Xu, David E. Boufford, Michael G. Gilbert, Rudolf V. Kamelin, Shoichi Kawano, Tetsuo Koyama, Elena V. Mordak, Junko Noguchi, Victor G. Soukup, Hiroshi Takahashi, Kamilla G. Tamanian, Minoru N. Tamura, Nicholas J. Turland: Liliaceae. , P. 73 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (Ed.): Flora of China. Volume 24: Flagellariaceae through Marantaceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 2000. ISBN 0-915279-83-5
  3. Franz Buxbaum: The lines of development of the Lilioideae. II. The systematic position of the genus Gagea . In: Botanical Archive . tape 38 , 1937, pp. 305 ff .
  4. Thomas J. Givnish: How a better understanding of adaptations can yield better use of morphology in plant systematics: toward Eco-Evo-Devo . In: Taxon . 2003 ( PDF ( Memento of August 27, 2006 in the Internet Archive )).
  5. Lilioideae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  6. a b c d e f g h i Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Data sheet at World Checklist of Selected Plant Families of the Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Last accessed on October 7, 2014
  7. M. Teksen, Z. Aytaç: The revision of the genus Fritillaria L. (Liliaceae) in the Mediterranean region (Turkey). In: Turkish Journal of Botany , Volume 35, 2011, pp. 447-478.
  8. Maarten JM Christenhusz, Rafaël Govaerts, John C. David, Tony Hall, Katherine Borland, Penelope S. Roberts, Anne Tuomisto, Sven Buerki, Mark W. Chase, Michael F. Fay: Tiptoe through the tulips - cultural history, molecular phylogenetics and classification of Tulipa (Liliaceae). In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society , Volume 172, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 280–328. doi : 10.1111 / boj.12061