Calendar overview 1786
Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard were the first to
climb Mont Blanc .
|opera Le nozze di Figaro by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart will be premiered at the Burgtheater in Vienna.||
Friedrich Wilhelm II
succeeds Frederick the Great
on the Prussian throne.
|1786 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1234/35 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1778/79 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1191/92 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2329/30 (southern Buddhism); 2328/29 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1148/49 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4119/20 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1164/65 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1200/01 (October 23/24)|
|Jewish calendar||5546/47 (September 22-23)|
|Coptic calendar||1502/03 (September 10/11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2096/97 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2097/98 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1842/43 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- August 17th: The Prussian King Frederick the Great dies in his chair in Sanssouci Palace after around 46 years of reign . Contrary to his last will, his nephew and successor Friedrich Wilhelm II , the eldest son of Friedrich's younger brother August Wilhelm , does not leave him in the crypt he built in Sanssouci, but in the Potsdam Garrison Church in the crypt of the royal monument behind the altar on the side of his father I. Friedrich Wilhelm bury.
- November 30th: Under the rule of the Habsburg Pietro Leopoldo, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany becomes the first state to abolish the death penalty . At the same time, torture will also be abolished.
- April: Incumbent George Clinton is re-elected unopposed in New York's gubernatorial election.
- September: Shays' rebellion begins in Massachusetts under the leadership of Daniel Shays .
- January: The French expedition led by Jean-François de La Pérouse arrives in Patagonia . Via Cape Horn and Easter Island it goes to Hawaii and on to Alaska . La Pérouse, who counts himself to the Enlightenment, is the first European consciously to refrain from taking possession of as yet unexplored islands. In Alaska he made important contacts with Indians before traveling the coast of California .
- November 4: The French explorer Jean-François de La Pérouse is the first European to discover one of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands and christen it Île Necker after the French finance minister Jacques Necker . Winter is used for crossing the Pacific.
- October 31: The Swedish King Gustav III. approves the establishment of the Swedish West India Company with the privilege of trading with the island of Saint-Barthélemy and other Caribbean trading centers.
- November 25th: The newspaper for cities, towns and villages appears for the first time. The editor is Hermann Bräss .
science and technology
- August 24th: Joseph Maximilian Freiherr von Lütgendorf starts the attempt from Augsburg to become the first German air sailor with his "Gondolfiere".
- January 17th: Pierre Méchain discovers a comet that is later named Encke's Comet .
- February 15: The astronomer Wilhelm Herschel discovers the Cat's Eye Nebula , a planetary nebula in the constellation of Dragon .
- February 24th: Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxy NGC 4845 in the constellation Virgo .
- March 3: Wilhelm Herschel becomes aware of the galaxies NGC 4699 and NGC 4958 in the constellation Virgo .
- March 25: Wilhelm Herschel notices the galaxies NGC 4781 and NGC 4939 in the constellation Virgo .
- March 28: Wilhelm Herschel tracks down the galaxy NGC 5061 in the constellation Water Snake and the galaxy NGC 2859 in the constellation Little Lion .
- April 30th: The galaxies NGC 4900 , NGC 5560 , NGC 5566 and NGC 5576 are sighted in the constellation Virgo by Wilhelm Herschel.
- September 4: Wilhelm Herschel notices the galaxy NGC 821 in the constellation Aries .
- September 18: The galaxy NGC 14 is discovered by Wilhelm Herschel in the constellation Pegasus .
- October 13: Wilhelm Herschel sees the galaxy NGC 7377 in the constellation Aquarius .
- October 17: Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxy NGC 7640 in the constellation Andromeda .
- October 24th: Wilhelm Herschel observes the galaxies NGC 1138 and NGC 1175 in the constellation Perseus for the first time .
- October 26th: Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxy NGC 252 in the constellation Andromeda and the galaxies NGC 672 and NGC 855 in the constellation Triangle .
- November 13: Wilhelm Herschel sees the galaxies NGC 691 and NGC 1156 in the constellation Aries for the first time .
- December 11th: Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxy NGC 278 in the constellation Cassiopeia .
- December 13: Wilhelm Herschel notices the galaxy NGC 259 in the constellation Whale .
- December 15: Wilhelm Herschel first noticed the galaxy NGC 1242 in the constellation Eridanus .
- December 21: Wilhelm Herschel observes the galaxies NGC 3511 and NGC 3513 in the constellation Becher and the galaxy NGC 193 in the constellation Pisces .
- Gottfried August Bürger publishes Wonderful Journeys by Sea and Land - Campaigns and funny adventures by Freiherr von Münchhausen , today the best-known version of the stories of the " Baron of Lies". The first chapter includes Münchhausen's trip to Russia and St. Petersburg .
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe publishes the constitution of Iphigenie on Tauris .
Music and theater
- January 31: World premiere of the opera Orpheus og Euridice by Johann Gottlieb Naumann in Copenhagen
- February 2nd: World première of the operetta The Faithful Koehler by Justin Heinrich Knecht in Biberach an der Riss
- February 7th: The comic opera Prima la musica e poi le parole by Antonio Salieri is premiered in the Orangery of Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna. On the same occasion, the singspiel Der Schauspieldirektor by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart based on the libretto by Johann Gottlieb Stephanie , which deals with a similar theme, will also be premiered. Salieri's work is preferred by the public.
- March 30th: World premiere of the opera Il Giulio Sabino by Luigi Cherubini at the King's Theater in London
- May 1st: The opera Le nozze di Figaro , KV 492, by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is premiered at the Burgtheater in Vienna. The Italian libretto is by Lorenzo da Ponte and is based on the comedy La Folle Journée, ou Le mariage de Figaro by Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais from 1778. The opera is received very mixed by the Viennese audience.
- July 11th: The Singspiel Doktor und Apotheker by Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf based on a libretto by Johann Gottlieb Stephanie the Elder. J. has its world premiere at the K. u.K. National Theater in Vienna. It gives the composer his greatest success and is considered his masterpiece.
- July 14: World premiere of the opera Rosine ou L'Epouse abandonnée by François-Joseph Gossec in Paris
- December 2: The world premiere of the tragédie lyrique Les Horaces by Antonio Salieri based on a text by Nicolas-Francois Guillard based on a presentation by Pierre Corneille takes place at the Court Theater of Versailles . The public premiere took place on December 7th at the Paris Opéra . The premiere turns into a fiasco, the performance not only closes without applause, but with unequivocal signs of disapproval.
- March 20: The Swedish Academy in Stockholm is founded by King Gustav III. Established to promote the Swedish language and literature.
- August: The attempt by German bishops to emancipate themselves from Rome with the Emser puncture fails.
- December 4: The Santa Barbara Mission is organized.
- June 1: Thousands of people are killed in the earthquake in the south of Kangding .
- June 10: A natural dam that dammed the Dadu He River, which was created ten days earlier after a landslide caused by the earthquake in the south of Kangding , breaks. Around 100,000 people died as a result of the tidal wave that devastated the country over 1,400 km.
- Dixon Denham , English explorer of Africa († 1828) January 1:
- Friedrich Schneider , German composer, organist and Kapellmeister († 1853) January 3:
- Thomas Nuttall , English botanist and zoologist († 1859) January 5:
- January 10: Alexander Tschernyschow , Russian general, diplomat and statesman († 1857)
- January 13: Philippe Jacques van Bree , Belgian painter, sculptor and architect († 1871)
- January 17: Nikolaus Nack , German businessman and politician († 1860)
- January 23: Friedrich Arnold , German architect and construction clerk († 1854)
- January 24th: Karl Wilhelm Baumgarten-Crusius , German educator († 1845)
- January 24: Walter Forward , American politician († 1852)
- January 24: Auguste de Montferrand , French-Russian architect († 1858)
- January 26: Benjamin Robert Haydon , English painter († 1846)
- January 28: Nathaniel Wallich , Danish botanist († 1854)
- January 30: Robert Glutz von Blotzheim , Swiss writer and journalist († 1818)
- Jacques Philippe Marie Binet , French mathematician († 1856) February 2:
- Wilhelm Otto von Glasenapp , Russian Lieutenant General († 1862) February 2:
- Wilhelm Gesenius , German theologian and linguist († 1842) February 3:
- Antonio José de Irisarri , Guatemalan Director Supremo of Chile († 1868) February 7th:
- Jan Zygmunt Skrzynecki , Polish general († 1860) February 8:
- February 13: David Spleiss , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1854)
- February 14: Eobanus Friedrich Krebaum , German organ builder († 1845)
- February 15: Ferdinand Gotthelf Hand , German classical philologist († 1851)
- February 16: Maria Pawlowna , Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach († 1859)
- February 24: Martin W. Bates , American politician († 1869)
- February 24: Wilhelm Grimm , German linguist and literary scholar († 1859)
- February 26: François Arago , French astronomer, physicist and politician († 1853)
- February 27: Alexander Contee Hanson , American politician († 1819)
- Amédée Louis Despans de Cubières , French general († 1853) March 4:
- March 17: Florentin , Prince of Salm-Salm († 1846)
- March 19: José de la Torre Ugarte , Peruvian lawyer and poet († 1831)
- March 21: Joseph Vance , American politician († 1852)
- March 22: Joachim Lelewel , Polish historian and freedom fighter († 1861)
- March 25th: Giovanni Battista Amici , Italian inventor of a horizontal microscope with reflection tube († 1863)
- March 25: Peter Heinrich August von Salviati , Prussian diplomat († 1856)
- March 27: August Ferdinand von Arnauld de la Perière , Prussian lieutenant general († 1863)
- March 28: Claudius James Rich , archaeological researcher and resident of the East India Company († 1820)
- Edward Raczyński , Polish nobleman, founder of the Raczynski Library († 1845) April 2:
- William A. Trimble , American officer and politician († 1821) April 4:
- Robert Hanna , American politician († 1858) April 6:
- William R. King , American politician († 1853) April 7:
- Adolf Bäuerle , Austrian writer († 1859) April 9:
- April 15: John Franklin , English polar explorer († 1847)
- April 16: Albrecht Adam , German battle painter († 1862)
- April 17: Charles-Angélique Huchet , French lieutenant general († 1815)
- April 17: August Wilhelm von Neumann-Cosel , Prussian infantry general and head of the military cabinet († 1865)
- April 18: Franz Xaver Schnyder von Wartensee , Swiss composer and music author († 1868)
- April 25: Johann Christian Zimmermann , German upper mountain ridge and planner of the Ernst August tunnel († 1853)
- April 28: Jean-Bernard Kaupert , Swiss music teacher and composer († 1863)
- Jacob Best , German entrepreneur and brewer († 1861) May 1:
- St. Giuseppe Benedetto Cottolengo , Italian priest and founder of the order († 1842) May 3:
- Ludwig Börne , German writer († 1837) May 6:
- Jean-Marie Vianney , French priest, saint and patron saint († 1859) May 8:
- William Slade , American politician († 1859) May 9:
- May 21: Karl Friedrich Klöden , German historian and geographer († 1856)
- May 23: Samuel Ward King , American politician († 1851)
- May 28: Louis McLane , US Secretary of State († 1857)
- William Hilton , English painter († 1839) June 3:
- George Pollock , British Field Marshal († 1872) June 4:
- Johann Carl Gottlieb Arning , German lawyer and senator († 1862) June 5:
- Karl Ludwig Friedrich , Grand Duke of Baden († 1818) June 8:
- June 11: Wilhelm Drumann , German historian († 1861)
- June 13: Winfield Scott , American military officer and commander in chief († 1866)
- June 19: Fyodor Glinka , Russian writer († 1880)
- June 20: Marceline Desbordes-Valmore , French writer († 1859)
- June 26: Sunthon Phu , Thai poet († 1855)
- Eugen Wratislaw von Mitrowitz , Austrian general († 1867) July 8:
- Rudolf Schadow , German sculptor († 1822) July 9:
- July 19: Friedrich Wilhelm Kauffer , German lawyer († 1851)
- July 23: Eduard von Flottwell , German lawyer and politician († 1865)
- Pius August , Duke in Bavaria († 1837) August 2:
- Ernst von Seherr-Thoß , German officer and landowner († 1856) August 4:
- August 17: Davy Crockett , American politician and war hero († 1836)
- August 17th: Victoire von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld , German princess, Princess of Leiningen and Duchess of Kent, mother of the British Queen Victoria († 1861)
- August 18: Jean Guillaume Lugol , French doctor († 1851)
- August 18: Otto von Loeben , German poet († 1825)
- August 20: José Joaquín Prieto Vial , President of Chile († 1854)
- August 21: Friedrich Wilhelm Karl von Arnim , police chief of Berlin († 1852)
- August 25: Ludwig I , King of Bavaria († 1868)
- August 27: Johannes Voigt , Saxon historian and father of the humanism researcher Georg Voigt († 1863)
- August 29: Josef von Teng , Bavarian lawyer and Mayor of Munich between 1836 and 1837 († 1837)
- August 31: Eugène Chevreul , French chemist († 1889)
- Karl Wilhelm August Porsche , German lawyer and local politician († 1840) September 2:
- Jehu Jones , American pastor († 1852) September 4:
- Sergei Uvarow , Russian politician and literary scholar († 1855) September 5:
- John Breathitt , American politician († 1834) September 9:
- September 10: Amos Abbott , American politician († 1868)
- September 11th: Friedrich Kuhlau , German composer († 1832)
- September 12: August Gustav Heinrich von Bongard , German botanist († 1839)
- September 18: Christian VIII , King of Denmark, Duke of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg and King of Norway († 1848)
- September 18: Robert Heriot Barclay , British naval officer († 1837)
- September 18: Justinus Kerner , German doctor and poet († 1862)
- September 19: Emanuel Friedrich von Fischer , Swiss politician († 1870)
- September 20: Franz Passow , German classical philologist († 1833)
- September 22: William Kelly , American politician († 1834)
- September 22: Karl Benjamin Preusker , German archaeologist, librarian and founder of the first public library in Germany († 1871)
- September 27: José Mariono Elízaga , Mexican composer († 1842)
- Carl Almenräder , German bassoonist and instrument maker († 1843) October 3:
- October 11: Stevenson Archer , American lawyer and politician († 1848)
- October 13: Adrianus Catharinus Holtius , Dutch legal scholar († 1861)
- October 14: Julius von Haynau , Austrian general († 1853)
- October 15: James Holman , British traveler, adventurer and author († 1857)
- October 21: Carl Traugott Kreyssig , German lawyer († 1837)
- October 21: Henry Lemoine , French music publisher and music teacher († 1854)
- October 25: Jules-Maurice Quesnel , Canadian explorer, businessman and politician († 1842)
- October 27: Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Beck , German lawyer († 1869)
- Carl Poppo Froebel , German educator and printer († 1824) November 2:
- November 10: Franz Carl Adelbert Eberwein , Saxon music director and conductor in Weimar († 1868)
- November 16: William Appleton , American politician († 1862)
- November 16: Karl Ernst Christoph Schneider , German classical philologist († 1856)
- November 18 or 19: Carl Maria von Weber , German composer († 1826)
- November 23: Thomas Eastoe Abbott , English poet († 1854)
- November 27: Josiah J. Evans , American politician († 1858)
- November 30th: Carl Lehmann , Palatinate tax officer and mayor of Frankenthal († 1870)
- Henry Drummond , British member of the House of Commons and co-founder of the Catholic Apostolic Congregations († 1860) December 5:
- Karl Wolfgang Unzelmann , German actor and singer († 1843) December 6:
- Johann von Charpentier , German-Swiss geologist and glacier researcher († 1855) December 7th:
- Maria Walewska , lover of Napoléon Bonaparte († 1817) December 7th:
- December 10: William Schley , American politician († 1858)
- December 12: William L. Marcy , American politician, Senator and Secretary of State († 1857)
- December 13: Marianna Clara Auernhammer , Austrian singer, pianist and composer († 1849)
- December 15: Edward Coles , American politician († 1868)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ahmed Bey bin Muhammad Sharif , Bey of Constantine († 1851)
- William George Browne , English explorer († 1813)
- Pierre Galin , French music theorist († 1821)
- William George Horner , English mathematician († 1837)
- Christian Paul Aecker , German entrepreneur in the porcelain industry
First half of the year
- Albert Schulte , Mayor of Hamburg (* 1716) January 3:
- Moses Mendelssohn , German philosopher of the Jewish faith (* 1729) January 4:
- Peter Nikolaus von Gartenberg , Saxon-Polish politician of Danish origin (* 1714) January 6th:
- Joseph Karl Truchseß von Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach , Prussian cathedral provost in Cologne (* 1712) January 9:
- January 14th: Meshech Weare , American politician (* 1713)
- January 27: Hans Joachim von Zieten , Prussian general (* 1699)
- Matthias Friese , German schoolmaster, organist and organ builder (* 1739) February 3:
- Johann Kaspar Riesbeck , Hessian lawyer, German writer, actor and Illuminat (* 1754) February 8:
- February 17th: Jonas Apelblad , Swedish travel writer (* 1717)
- Franz Benda , German violinist and composer (* 1709) March 7:
- March 11: Charles Humphreys , American politician (* 1714)
- March 16: Conrad Graf von Ahlefeldt , Count and Lord at Gut Eschelsmark (* 1705)
- March 18: Ferdinand Sterzinger , Austrian Catholic theologian and canon lawyer (* 1721)
- Ignaz Parhammer , Austrian educator and Jesuit (* 1715) April 1:
- April 10: John Byron , English South Seas explorer (* 1723)
- April 16: Simon Gabriel Suckow , German university professor (* 1721)
- April 20: John Goodricke , English astronomer (* 1764)
- Ernst August Schulze , German Reformed theologian (* 1721) May 3:
- Heinrich Christoph Nebel , German literary scholar, rhetorician and Lutheran theologian (* 1745) May 6:
- May 10th: Johann Friedrich von Hahn , Silesian physician in Breslau and canon of the monastery of St. Sebastian in Magdeburg (* 1725)
- May 19: Johann Melchior Goeze , Prussian Protestant theologian (* 1717)
- May 19: John Stanley , English composer and organist (* 1712)
- May 21: Carl Wilhelm Scheele , German-Swedish chemist and pharmacist (* 1742)
- May 23: Moritz Benjowski , Slovak count, adventurer, travel writer and self-proclaimed King of Madagascar (* 1741 or 1746)
- May 25: Peter III. , Portuguese king from the House of Braganza (* 1717)
- May 31: Karl August , Margrave of Baden-Durlach (* 1712)
- June 19: Nathanael Greene , American general (* 1742)
- June 21: George Hepplewhite , English cabinet maker
Second half of the year
- Marie Françoise Catherine de Beauvau-Craon , official mistress of Stanislaus I. Leszczyński (* 1711) July 1:
- July 23: Franz Jakob Späth , German organ builder (* 1714)
- July 29th: Franz Aspelmayr , Austrian composer (* 1728)
- August 17th: Frederick II , King of Prussia, called the Great (* 1712)
- September 17: Tokugawa Ieharu , Japanese Shogun (* 1737)
- September 22nd: Augustin Egell , German sculptor, painter and architect (* 1731)
- September 29: Jan Daniel Janocki , Polish literary historian, librarian at the Zaluski Library in Warsaw (* 1720)
- Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel , British admiral and politician (* 1725) October 2:
- Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch , German doctor and botanist (* 1714) October 5:
- Antonio Sacchini , Italian composer (* 1730) October 6th:
- October 17th: Johann Ludwig Aberli , Swiss painter (* 1723)
- October 25: Friedrich Immanuel Schwarz , German Lutheran theologian and educator (* 1728)
- October 31: Amelia Sophie Eleonore , British princess (* 1711)
- Isidore Canevale , French-Austrian architect (* 1730) November 2:
- Johann Karl Christoph Ferber , German university professor and philosopher (* 1739) November 3:
- November 25: Samuel John Atlee , American politician (* 1739)
- November 25th: Nathanael Gottfried Leske , German naturalist and geologist (* 1751)
- November 30: Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid , Spanish military, politician and viceroy of New Spain (* 1746)
- Friedrich August Fischer , German legal scholar (* 1727) December 7th:
- December 20: Philipp Ernst Lüders , German agricultural reformer and educator (* 1702)