Calendar overview 1698
Peter I forbids the wearing of beards in Russia
and introduces a beard tax .
Thomas Savery receives a patent
for a steam pump .
|Palace of Whitehall , the main residence of the British monarchs , is destroyed by fire.|
|1698 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1146/47 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1690/91 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1103/04 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2241/42 (southern Buddhism); 2240/41 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1060/61 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4031/32 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1109/10 (turn of the year 9/10 July)|
|Jewish calendar||5458/59 (September 5-6)|
|Coptic calendar||1414/15 (10/11 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2008/09 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2009/10 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1754/55 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
England / Hanover
- January 4th : Most of the Palace of Whitehall , the main residence of British monarchs , is destroyed by fire.
- January 23 : The deceased Elector Ernst August von Hannover is succeeded by his son Georg Ludwig, who also ascends the British throne as Georg I in 1714 .
Russia and the Grand Embassy
- January: Tsar Peter I moves from the Netherlands to London.
- May: Peter I returns to the States General and travels via Hamm, Bielefeld, Halle (Saale), Leipzig and Dresden to Vienna to convince the Emperor that the Great War against the Ottoman Empire can continue.
- June 2 : 2,600 Strelizi in four Strelizan regiments decide to march against Moscow due to rumors that their families are to be banished from Moscow. The second Strelitzen uprising breaks out.
- 17 / 18 June : The Strelitzenaufstand is deposited.
- June 26th : Entry of the Grand Embassy into Vienna. However, Peter fails to dissuade the emperor from making a peace agreement with the Sublime Porte , which is concluded in January of the following year. Because of the news of the Strelitzen uprising, the embassy does not move on to Venice and Rome to advertise its anti-Ottoman coalition there as planned, but instead leaves for Moscow.
- August 10th : The Great Embassy stays in Dresden with August the Strong .
- September 4th : Peter I returns to Moscow from his trip to Europe.
- September 5 : After his return from the Grand Embassy from Western Europe, the Russian Tsar Peter I quickly begins the Petrinian reforms . He forbids the wearing of beards as out of date and also cuts off other such masculine adornments. Because the decree did not achieve the desired success in the country, especially with the Old Believers , a few months later the tsar introduced a beard tax .
Other events in Europe
- November 10 : After the death of Johann Georg II , his younger brother Johann Wilhelm becomes Duke of Saxony-Eisenach . Under his rule the country experienced a cultural boom.
- July 18 : A fleet of five ships with Scottish colonists sets sail from Leith to establish a Scottish colony in Panama . On November 2nd they reach the coast of Darién . As a base, they build Fort St. Andrews on the Gulf of Darién . Then they start clearing the jungle and creating fields for the planned New Edinburgh settlement. But the selected area is infested with mosquitoes and malaria, which is why the neighboring Kuna avoid the area, the soil is not very fertile, supplies that have been brought to rot in the tropical rain, the humid and hot climate troubles the around 1200 settlers and ultimately leads to up to ten deaths Every day. The ships whose cargo should have been transported across the Darién Isthmus to the Pacific ports remain absent.
- Nan Tharat , who usurped the throne of the Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang in 1695 , was defeated, arrested and executed in battle. Sai Ong Hue, scion of the expelled royal family, becomes the new king of the empire under the name Sai Setthathirath II .
- July 2 : Thomas Savery receives a patent for a steam pump he invented for use in mines , a forerunner of the steam engine .
science and technology
Culture and society
- April 1st : 20-year-old Katharina Sommermeyer is the last woman to be executed at the stake for witchcraft in the city of Braunschweig .
- June 15 : The new Zurich town hall in the Limmat is inaugurated. The building erected by city architect Hans Heinrich Holzhalb will be completed on June 22nd .
- The puritan clergyman Jeremy Collier wrote A Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage , a pamphlet against theater.
- October 26th : One of the effects of the Peace of Rijswijk is the introduction of the Simultaneum , the right according to which the Protestant and Catholic faith can be freely exercised in the same state .
First half of the year
- January 3 : Pietro Metastasio , Italian poet and librettist († 1782 )
- January 9 : Caspar Bernet , Mayor of St. Gallen († 1766 )
- January 16 : Johann Christoph Struchtmeyer , German Reformed theologian, historian and rhetorician († 1764 )
- Pietro Auletta , Italian composer and organist († 1771 ) January:
- February 10 : Johann Simonis , German Protestant theologian and orientalist († 1768 )
- February 16 : Pierre Bouguer , French geodesist and astronomer († 1758 )
- February 23 : Anna Catharina vom Büchel , Zionite prophetess, venerated by her followers as the mother of Zion († 1743 )
- February 28 : Sigismund III. Christoph von Schrattenbach , Roman Catholic clergyman, Archbishop of Salzburg († 1771 )
- February or March: Joseph Suess Oppenheimer , financial advisor to Duke Karl Alexander von Württemberg and victim of an anti-Jewish judicial murder († 1738 )
- April 2 : Francesca Cuzzoni , Italian soprano († 1770 )
- April 4 : Heinrich Valentin Beck , German cantor and composer († 1758 )
- May 29 : Edmé Bouchardon , French draftsman, sculptor, medalist and architect, pioneer of classicism († 1762)
- June 2 : Jean-Michel Papillon , French craftsman, draftsman, wood cutter and encyclopaedist († 1776 )
- June 7 : Benjamin Gottlieb Gerlach , German educator and author († 1756 )
- June 15 : Georg Browne , Russian field marshal († 1792 )
Second half of the year
- July 2nd : Francesco III. d'Este , Duke of Reggio and Modena († 1780 )
- July 19 : Johann Jakob Bodmer , Swiss philologist († 1783 )
- July 31 : Ignaz Anton Gunetzrhainer , German builder († 1764 )
- September 3 : Adam Stanislaus Grabowski , Bishop of Kulm, Kujawien and Warmia († 1766 )
- September 8 : Daniel Archinard , federal preacher and pastor († 1755 )
- September 8th : Friederike Charlotte of Hessen-Darmstadt , Countess of Hessen-Kassel († 1777 )
- September 28 : Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis , French mathematician, physicist and philosopher († 1759 )
- October 13 : Giacomo Ceruti , Italian painter († 1767 )
- October 30 : Paul Troger , Austrian painter († 1762 )
- November 8 : Alberico Archinto , Italian cardinal († 1758 )
- November 22 : Pierre de Rigaud , French naval officer and governor-general of New France († 1778 )
First half of the year
- January 6th : Leopold Philipp Montecuccoli , Austrian general (* 1663 )
- January 23 : Ernst August , Elector of Hanover from 1692 to 1698 (* 1629 )
- March 16 : Leonora Christina Ulfeldt , Danish princess and countess of Schleswig-Holstein, who also achieved fame as a writer (* 1621 )
- March 22 : Johann Hartmann Misler , German theologian (* 1642 )
- April 1 : Katharina Sommermeyer , last woman who was accused of being a witch in Braunschweig and burned to death (* around 1678 )
- April 6th : Mechtilde de Bar , founder of the Benedictine Sisters of the Holy Sacrament (* 1614 )
- June 10 : Gerrit Adrianszoon Berckheyde , Dutch painter (* 1638 )
- June 11 : Balthasar Bekker , German-Dutch theologian and philosopher (* 1634 )
Second half of the year
- September 8 : Johann Carl Loth , German painter (* 1632 )
- September 13 : Dodo (II.) Zu Innhausen and Knyphausen , Brandenburg-Prussian statesman (* 1641 )
- September 14 : Gottfried Handel , German Protestant theologian and hymn poet (* 1644 )
- October 4 : Andrea Malinconico , Italian painter (* 1635 )
- October 17th : Franziska von Hohenzollern-Hechingen , Margravine von Bergen op Zoom (* 1642 )
- October 24th : Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle , French colonial administrator and governor of New France (* 1626 )
- October: Madockawando , shaman and upper Sagamore of the Penobscot, a tribe of the Eastern Abenaki (* around 1630 )
- November 10th : Johann Georg II. , Duke of Saxony-Eisenach (* 1665 )
- November 13th : Johann Karl August , German nobleman, Count von Leiningen (* 1662 )
- November 28th : Louis de Buade , French colonial administrator and governor of New France (* 1622 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Benedikt von Ahlefeldt , Lord of Haseldorf, Haselau and holder of the Danebrog order
- Giovanni Battista degli Antonii , Italian composer (* 1636 )
- Nan Tharat , King of the Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang
- Nicolò Minato , Italian poet, librettist and impresario (* around 1630 )
- Tamanend , chief of the Lenni Lenape Indians in Delaware (* 1628 )