- 1700 : Beginning of the Great Northern War of Russia , Poland - Saxony and Denmark against Sweden (until 1721 ).
- 1701 to 1714 : War of the Spanish Succession .
- 1703 : Tsar Peter I founds Saint Petersburg , which in 1712 also becomes the seat of government.
- 1707 : Union of England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain .
- Louis XIV , King of France and Navarre
- Leopold I , Holy Roman Emperor of the German Nation, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia
- Joseph I. , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia
- Philip V , King of Spain
- Friedrich I , King of Prussia
- Clement XI. , Pope
- Peter I , Tsar in Russia
- William III. , King of England, Scotland and Ireland
- Anne , Queen of Great Britain and Ireland
- Higashiyama , Emperor of Japan
- Kangxi , Emperor of China
- Carl Deichman , Norwegian factory owner and book collector