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The Battle of Poltava, by Denis Martens, 1726
The Russian Tsar Peter I defeated Sweden in the Battle of Poltava and turned the war in the Great Northern War .
Commemorative plaque for Alexander Selkirk at Selkirk's prospect on Robinson Crusoe Island
The seaman Alexander Selkirk is the template for Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe .
Epiphany: Friedrich I in Prussia (center), August II (the strong), Elector of Saxony and temporarily King of Poland (left), Friedrich IV of Denmark (right), painting by Samuel Theodor Gericke
The meeting of the three kings between the monarchs of Denmark , Saxony and Prussia takes place in Potsdam and Berlin .
1709 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1157/58 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1701/02 (New Year 10/11 September)
Bengali solar calendar 1114/15 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2252/53 (southern Buddhism); 2251/52 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 73rd (74th) cycle

Year of the Earth- Ox 己丑 ( at the beginning of the year Earth-Rat 戊子)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1071/72 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4042/43 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1087/88
Islamic calendar 1120/21 (turn of the year March 12/13)
Jewish calendar 5469/70 (September 4th / 5th)
Coptic calendar 1425/26 (10/11 September)
Malayalam calendar 884/885
Seleucid era Babylon: 2019/20 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2020/21 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1765/66 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Great Northern War

Siege and storming of Weprik
Peter the Great at the Battle of Poltava, by Louis Caravaque
Location in Perevolochna before the surrender
  • July 11th : General Alexander Danilowitsch Menshikov catches up with the Swedes at Perevolochna. At 11 a.m., most of the Swedish army under Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt surrendered with around 14,000 soldiers, 34 guns and 264 flags. Charles XII. on the other hand, crosses the Dnieper together with Iwan Masepa, Kost Hordijenko, 900 Swedes and 2000 Cossacks and sets off to the Southern Bug to reach Ottoman territory. Most of the remaining Cossacks flee on their horses to avoid punishment as traitors.
Triumphant entry of the Russian army after the Battle of Poltava in Moscow
  • Peter uses the advantage he has gained and immediately after the Battle of Poltava orders the Swedish Baltic provinces to be conquered.
  • July 17th : The column of King Charles XII. reaches the Bug , where the Pasha von Ochakov gives his permission to enter the Ottoman Empire .
  • July 28th : In the Treaty of Dresden , Denmark and Saxony form a defensive and offensive alliance against Sweden.
  • August 20 : Saxon troops invade Poland again.
  • October 20 : The Saxon Elector August the Strong and the Russian Tsar Peter I conclude the Treaty of Thorn against Sweden . August is to be lifted back to the Polish throne with joint forces . Opposite King Stanislaus I. Leszczyński then flees to Sweden with a few loyal followers via Stettin and Stralsund.
  • October 22 : With the Treaty of Copenhagen, Denmark and Russia renew their alliance treaty from 1699 . In the treaty, Denmark terminates the Peace of Traventhal . Denmark undertakes to attack the Swedish province of Skåne from Norway this autumn . In addition, the Danish fleet should employ the Swedish flotillas in their own waters so that Russia can expand its fleet undisturbed. Russia undertakes to invade the Swedish provinces of Finland and Livonia as well as - together with the Saxons - in Poland. Both monarchs undertake to support August the Strong to the best of their ability in regaining Polish royal dignity. Furthermore, the signatories undertake not to hold separate peace negotiations during the further struggle against Sweden.
  • November 12th : A Danish invasion force lands near the fishing village of Råå on Skåne .
  • November 14th : The siege of Riga by Russian troops begins.

War of Comacchio and War of the Spanish Succession

Clement XI.
Joseph I.
Depiction of the battle

Other events in Europe

Giovanni Cornaro
  • Almost a year after the death of Frederik von Gabels , the fork time in the Faroe Islands ends . A Royal Danish Commission sums up the complaints of the population and restores state power on the archipelago. The trade monopoly is taken back into the hands of the Crown and the Commission is set up to administer the islands.
  • Mass emigration of the Palatinate to Great Britain and America.



Tokugawa Ienobu in classic court dress



  • April 12 : The Tatler , edited by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele , appears for the first time. The literary magazine appears three times a week with two pages. The target group is the spiritually interested urban bourgeoisie who meet in the coffee houses of London. The main subject of the magazine, in keeping with the genre of moral weekly papers, is always an essay that discusses manners, customs and intellectual problems .
Bookkeeping begins on July 13 in the main journal 1709

science and technology

  • The Italian farmer Ambrogio Nucerino discovers fragments of ancient marble while digging a well in his vegetable garden. It turns out that he discovered the Herculaneum , buried for 1600 years .




Disasters, nature and the environment

The winter of 1708/1709

Temperature anomaly winter 1708/1709

The winter in Europe in the first months of 1709 is very harsh. A winter of the century that still hits countries like Portugal and Italy. The damage leads to crop failures, inflation and also famine in many parts of Europe. The last frost night in the Trier area is said to have been on July 7th. The subsequent drought leads to a famine in the Trier area. A strongly negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is assumed to be the main cause .

The lake is completely frozen for the first time in winter 1708/09, and the Lake is frozen over "mostly". The prerequisites are therefore not sufficient for a sea ​​frost . A difficult winter is also reported from other regions of Europe. From reports from the Versailles court we know that the water froze even on the royal table.

The plague

Samuel Donnet: Illustration of the Great Plague in Danzig 1709

Fire disasters


Date of birth saved

Andreas Sigismund Marggraf
Antoine Pesne : Wilhelmine with her brother Friedrich
Luise of Anhalt-Dessau
Tsarina Elisabeth as a child, painting by Ivan Nikitin, around 1712

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1709


January to April

May to August

September to December

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1709  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Walter Lenke: Investigation of the oldest temperature measurements with the help of the harsh winter 1708 - 1709. Reports of the German Weather Service, No. 92 (1964)