|Russian Tsar Peter I defeated Sweden in the Battle of Poltava and turned the war in the Great Northern War .|
|Alexander Selkirk is the template for Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe .||three kings between the monarchs of Denmark , Saxony and Prussia takes place in Potsdam and Berlin .|
|1709 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1157/58 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1701/02 (New Year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1114/15 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2252/53 (southern Buddhism); 2251/52 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1071/72 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4042/43 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1120/21 (turn of the year March 12/13)|
|Jewish calendar||5469/70 (September 4th / 5th)|
|Coptic calendar||1425/26 (10/11 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2019/20 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2020/21 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1765/66 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- January 7th : The two-week siege of Weprik in the Great Northern War ends with the storming of the Ukrainian place by the Swedish army under King Charles XII. and Berndt Otto I. von Stackelberg , who suffered heavy losses in the process. On January 9th, the city was burned down and the fortress razed on Charles's orders.
- February 20 : Charles XII. defeated the Russian army under Carl Ewald von Rönne in the battle near Krasnokutsk , but in the meantime narrowly escaped death or capture.
- July 2 : The meeting of the Three Kings between the monarchs of Denmark , Saxony and Prussia begins in Potsdam and Berlin with the aim of persuading Brandenburg-Prussia to enter the war against Sweden. The meeting between Frederick IV , August the Strong and Frederick I ends on July 17th with no significant result. Prussia can present itself as a glamorous host, but has to take out a loan afterwards because of the high representation costs.
- July 8th : The Russian Tsar Peter I defeats Sweden in the Battle of Poltava and thus heralds the turning point in the Great Northern War . Charles XII. withdraws south with his army and tries to reach the khanate of Crimea. On July 10th, however , they found out at Perevolochna that there was no bridge and no ford over the rivers Vorskla and Dnieper . The boats are not enough to evacuate the entire Swedish army.
- July 11th : General Alexander Danilowitsch Menshikov catches up with the Swedes at Perevolochna. At 11 a.m., most of the Swedish army under Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt surrendered with around 14,000 soldiers, 34 guns and 264 flags. Charles XII. on the other hand, crosses the Dnieper together with Iwan Masepa, Kost Hordijenko, 900 Swedes and 2000 Cossacks and sets off to the Southern Bug to reach Ottoman territory. Most of the remaining Cossacks flee on their horses to avoid punishment as traitors.
- Peter uses the advantage he has gained and immediately after the Battle of Poltava orders the Swedish Baltic provinces to be conquered.
- July 17th : The column of King Charles XII. reaches the Bug , where the Pasha von Ochakov gives his permission to enter the Ottoman Empire .
- July 28th : In the Treaty of Dresden , Denmark and Saxony form a defensive and offensive alliance against Sweden.
- August 20 : Saxon troops invade Poland again.
- October 20 : The Saxon Elector August the Strong and the Russian Tsar Peter I conclude the Treaty of Thorn against Sweden . August is to be lifted back to the Polish throne with joint forces . Opposite King Stanislaus I. Leszczyński then flees to Sweden with a few loyal followers via Stettin and Stralsund.
- October 22 : With the Treaty of Copenhagen, Denmark and Russia renew their alliance treaty from 1699 . In the treaty, Denmark terminates the Peace of Traventhal . Denmark undertakes to attack the Swedish province of Skåne from Norway this autumn . In addition, the Danish fleet should employ the Swedish flotillas in their own waters so that Russia can expand its fleet undisturbed. Russia undertakes to invade the Swedish provinces of Finland and Livonia as well as - together with the Saxons - in Poland. Both monarchs undertake to support August the Strong to the best of their ability in regaining Polish royal dignity. Furthermore, the signatories undertake not to hold separate peace negotiations during the further struggle against Sweden.
- November 12th : A Danish invasion force lands near the fishing village of Råå on Skåne .
- November 14th : The siege of Riga by Russian troops begins.
War of Comacchio and War of the Spanish Succession
- January 15 : Pope Clement XI. surrenders to Emperor Joseph I one hour before the expiry of the imperial ultimatum in the Comacchio War and has to accept the imperial peace conditions. This includes that the papal troops must be reduced to 5,000. In the Papal States six imperial regiments are stationed. The church penalties imposed on imperial officials and generals in recent years are lifted by the bishops of Milan and Naples. Also the imperial is now allowed to march through the Papal States. However, no agreement was reached on the question of the disputed fiefdoms, the Duchy of Ferrara and Comacchio . In a secret addendum to the contract, which only comes into being after a further ultimatum, the Pope recognizes Archduke Charles as King of Spain.
- Count Wirich Philipp von und zu Daun invades the Dauphiné from Italy with a Savoyard army in the War of the Spanish Succession and defeats James Fitzjames, 1st Duke of Berwick , in a battle near Conflans on July 28th . But then he has to retreat to Piedmont again.
- The allies cross the Rhine into France with two armies . While the Imperial Army was initially operating successfully, the Imperial Corps was forced to retreat in the battle near Rumersheim on August 21 . As a result, the Imperial Army must also withdraw.
- September 11th : In the battle of Malplaquet in the Spanish Netherlands , the Allied army under Prince Eugene and the Duke of Marlborough defeated the French army under the general Villars after heavy fighting. The losses are great on both sides, the battle is the bloodiest of the War of the Spanish Succession.
- During the War of the Spanish Succession assures the UK on October 29 in the first barrier treaty the United Provinces for the future ownership of a number of fixed locations to protect against France to. These places were in the Spanish Netherlands along the French border.
Other events in Europe
- May 6th : Alvise Mocenigo II dies. To succeed him as Doge of Venice is Giovanni II. Cornaro selected. He is considered a compromise candidate of the divided aristocratic families of the Maritime Republic .
- June: Abraham Mazel tries again to persuade the camisards in the Cevennes to revolt against the French crown, but is soon crushed.
- Almost a year after the death of Frederik von Gabels , the fork time in the Faroe Islands ends . A Royal Danish Commission sums up the complaints of the population and restores state power on the archipelago. The trade monopoly is taken back into the hands of the Crown and the Commission is set up to administer the islands.
- Mass emigration of the Palatinate to Great Britain and America.
- The city of Beaufort is established as the third major settlement in the Province of North Carolina .
- February 19 : Tokugawa Ienobu follows his late adoptive father Tokugawa Tsunayoshi as the Shogun of the Edo period in Japan . His government is strongly influenced by Confucian ideas.
- After the death of Phrachao Suea , his son Thai Sa becomes king of the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya . Unlike his father's, his reign is relatively peaceful.
- Mir Wais Hotak from the Ghilzai tribe organized an armed uprising by the Pashtuns against Gurgin Khan , the Georgian governor of the Safavids in Kandahar . After defeating a large Persian army, he founds the Hotaki dynasty .
- Sikh uprising in India - the Sikhs, under their leader Banda Bahadur, succeed in conquering the important cities of Sonepat and Kaithal in the northwest after the battle of Samana .
- April 12 : The Tatler , edited by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele , appears for the first time. The literary magazine appears three times a week with two pages. The target group is the spiritually interested urban bourgeoisie who meet in the coffee houses of London. The main subject of the magazine, in keeping with the genre of moral weekly papers, is always an essay that discusses manners, customs and intellectual problems .
- The merchant Giovanni Battista Farina from Santa Maria Maggiore founds the company GBFarina on July 13th in Cologne , which is now the oldest existing eau-de-Cologne and perfume factory in the world. After he received the little citizenship of Cologne on July 24th , he bought a business premises on August 1st with the support of his uncle and started selling it. The company is renamed Farina & Compagnie in the same year after the partner and brother-in-law Franz Balthasar Borgnis has been accepted .
- The third Senegalese company is founded in France .
- On the initiative of Sulchan-Saba Orbeliani , Wachtang VI. Georgia's first printing house in Tbilisi .
science and technology
- The Italian farmer Ambrogio Nucerino discovers fragments of ancient marble while digging a well in his vegetable garden. It turns out that he discovered the Herculaneum , buried for 1600 years .
- January 17th : The world premiere of the opera Tassilone by Agostino Steffani takes place in Düsseldorf . The libretto is by Stefano Benedetto Pallavicini .
- July 26th : The world premiere of the opera Desiderius, King of the Longobards by Reinhard Keizer takes place at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg.
- December 26th : The opera Agrippina by Georg Friedrich Handel based on the libretto by Vincenzo Grimani has its world premiere at the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo in Venice. Handel achieved his hitherto greatest success as an opera composer.
- The catholic boys' choir of the Dresden Kapellknaben is founded.
- The Central Museum of the Naval Navy is established in Saint Petersburg .
- February 2 : The Scottish seaman Alexander Selkirk is rescued from the uninhabited island of Más a Tierra, belonging to the Juan Fernández Islands , after almost five years by Captain Woodes Rogers and William Dampier . His fate provides material for Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe .
- April 6th : The areas of the former German dioceses of Minden , Verden , Halberstadt , Magdeburg , Havelberg , Brandenburg , Merseburg and Naumburg are combined as the Apostolic Vicariate of Upper and Lower Saxony , with Hanover as its seat.
Disasters, nature and the environment
The winter of 1708/1709
The winter in Europe in the first months of 1709 is very harsh. A winter of the century that still hits countries like Portugal and Italy. The damage leads to crop failures, inflation and also famine in many parts of Europe. The last frost night in the Trier area is said to have been on July 7th. The subsequent drought leads to a famine in the Trier area. A strongly negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is assumed to be the main cause .
The lake is completely frozen for the first time in winter 1708/09, and the Lake is frozen over "mostly". The prerequisites are therefore not sufficient for a sea frost . A difficult winter is also reported from other regions of Europe. From reports from the Versailles court we know that the water froze even on the royal table.
- A large plague epidemic has raged in large parts of Europe since the previous year . Almost half of the population is killed in Gdansk . The Great Plague raged for two years in what was later to become East Prussia, killing a third of the population and all of agriculture.
- November 24th : So that at least the subjects in Berlin are spared and King Friedrich cannot be infected, the city is cordoned off and the establishment of a plague house is ordered by cabinet order. This becomes the Berlin Charité in 1710 .
Date of birth saved
- January 17 : George Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton , British statesman, historian and patron of the arts († 1773 )
- January 22nd : Joseph Riepel , German music theorist, violinist and composer († 1782 )
- January 24th : François Dom Bédos de Celles , French Benedictine, organ builder and author of specialist literature († 1779 )
- February 16 : Carl Christoph Oelhafen von Schöllenbach , forest scientist, natural scientist and forest officer of the free imperial city of Nuremberg († 1785 )
- February 24 : Jacques de Vaucanson , French engineer, inventor and aviation pioneer († 1782 )
- March 3 : Andreas Sigismund Marggraf , German chemist († 1782 )
- March 10 : Georg Wilhelm Steller , German naturalist († 1746 )
- March 26 : Wassili Evdokimowitsch Adodurow , Russian mathematician, philologist and university lecturer († 1780 )
- March 28 : Alexei Grigoryevich Rasumovsky , Field Marshal of the Imperial Russian Army and lover of Empress Elisabeth Petrovna († 1771 )
- June 11 : Joachim Martin Falbe , German sculptor, etcher and draftsman († 1782 )
- June 15 : Louis de Bourbon , Count of Clermont, French churchman, general and libertine († 1771 )
- July 3 : Wilhelmine of Prussia , Princess of Bayreuth († 1758 )
- July 5 : Étienne de Silhouette , French general controller of finances († 1767 )
- July 11 : Johan Gottschalk Wallerius , Swedish chemist and mineralogist († 1785 )
- August 8 : Ernst Ludwig II , Duke of Saxe-Meiningen († 1729 )
- August 8 : Tokugawa Ietsugu , 7th Shogun of the Edo period in Japan († 1716 )
- August 8 : Heřman Antonín Jelínek , Czech composer and violin virtuoso († 1779 )
- August 10 : Johann Georg Gmelin , German Siberian researcher and botanist († 1755 )
- August 10 : Jean-Jacques Lefranc de Pompignan , French writer († 1784 )
- September 15 : Konrad Friedrich Ernst Bierling , German Lutheran theologian († 1755 )
- September 18 : Samuel Johnson , English scholar, writer, poet, critic and lexicographer († 1784 )
- September 22nd : Germann August Ellrod , German Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1760 )
- October 25 : Georg Gebel the Younger , German composer († 1753 )
- October 27 : Friederike Alexandrine Moszyńska , Saxon-Polish nobleman († 1784 )
- November 2 : Anna of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover , Princess Royal and Princess of Orange († 1759 )
- November 22 : Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem , called "Abbot Jerusalem", German Protestant theologian († 1789 )
- November 23 : Julien Offray de La Mettrie , French doctor and philosopher († 1751 )
- December 11th : Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon-Orléans , Queen of Spain († 1742 )
- December 24th : Johann Evangelist Holzer , German-Austrian painter of the Augsburg Baroque († 1740 )
Exact date of birth unknown
Born around 1709
January to April
- January 6th : Louise de Prie de La Mothe-Houdancourt , governess of the children and grandson of Louis XIV. (* Around 1624 )
- January 6th : Michael Strauch , German mathematician (* 1635 )
- January 10 : Peter Hotton , Dutch physician and botanist (* 1648 )
- January 19 : Elisabetta Querini , Dogaressa of Venice (* 1628 )
- January 20 : François d'Aix de Lachaise , French Jesuit (* 1624 )
- January 26th : Eleonore Charlotte von Sachsen-Lauenburg , Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (* 1646 )
- before February 1st: Carel Allard , Dutch art dealer, cartographer and engraver (* 1648 )
- February 4th : Anne de Rohan-Chabot , Princess of Soubise and mistress of Louis XIV (* 1648 )
- February 8 : Giuseppe Torelli , Italian violinist and composer (* 1658 )
- February 9 : Johann Christoph Boecklin , German engraver (* 1657 )
- February 11 : Jean-Antoine de Mesmes, comte d'Avaux , French diplomat (* 1640 )
- February 11 : Luise Hollandine von der Pfalz , abbess of the Maubuisson monastery, painter and engraver (* 1622 )
- February 17th : Erik Benzelius the Elder , Swedish Lutheran theologian and Archbishop of Uppsala (* 1632 )
- February 19 : Tokugawa Tsunayoshi , Shogun of the Japanese Tokugawa dynasty (* 1646 )
- February 21 : Ludwig-Ferdinand , Count of Lippe-Brake (* 1680 )
- February 22nd : François Louis de Bourbon , Prince of Conti (* 1664 )
- February 23 : Paul Gottfried Sperling , German medic (* 1652 )
- March 1st : Juan de Peñaloza , Spanish lawyer and colonial administrator, viceroy of Peru (* around 1625 )
- March 15 : James Thynne , English politician (* 1644 )
- April 1 : Henri Jules de Bourbon , Prince of Condé (* 1643 )
- April 2 : Giovanni Battista Gaulli , called Baciccio, Italian painter (* 1639 )
- April 5 : Roger de Piles , French painter, engraver, art critic and diplomat (* 1635 )
- April 15 : Amalia Regina von Zinzendorf , Countess of the Empire of Ortenburg (* 1663 )
- April 20 : Thomas Fredenhagen , Lübeck merchant, councilor and patron (* 1627 )
- April 20 : Johann Ernst von Thun and Hohenstein , Prince Archbishop of Salzburg (* 1643 )
May to August
- May 1st : Samuel Bachmann , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1636 )
- May 4th : Eleonore Klara , Countess of Nassau-Saarbrücken (* 1632 )
- May 6 : Alvise Mocenigo II , Doge of Venice (* 1628 )
- May 28 : Friederike von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg , Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst (* 1675 )
- June 12 : Jacob Born , lawyer from the Electoral Saxony and mayor of Leipzig (* 1638 )
- June 14 : Franz Ernst von Platen , Imperial Count of Platen-Hallermund (* 1631 )
- June 25 : Friedrich VII. Magnus , Margrave of Baden-Durlach (* 1647 )
- July 2 : Jakob Scheiffelhut , German musician and composer (* 1647 )
- July 9 : Christopher Slaughterford , first person in England to be convicted and executed on mere circumstantial evidence
- July 17th : Pascal Collasse , French composer (* 1649 )
- July 18 : Antonio Franchi , Italian painter and art theorist (* 1638 )
- July 30 : Edward Lhuyd , Welsh scientist and humanities scholar (* 1660 )
- August 4th : Elisabeth Amalie of Hessen-Darmstadt , Duchess of Palatinate-Neuburg, Jülich and Berg and Electress of the Palatinate (* 1635 )
- August 23 : Domenico Manuel Caetano , Italian adventurer, impostor, alchemist and alleged gold maker (* around 1670 )
- August 24th : Elisabeth Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg , regent of the Landgraviate of Hessen-Darmstadt (* 1640 )
- August 29 : Johann Friedrich Schweitzer , German alchemist, botanist and medic (* 1630 )
- August 31 : Andrea Pozzo , Italian painter and architect (* 1642 )
September to December
- September 4 : Jean-François Regnard , French writer (* 1655 )
- September 5 : Johann Georg Neumann , German Lutheran theologian and church historian (* 1661 )
- September 7th : Gunno Eurelius Dahlstierna , Swedish surveyor and poet (* 1661 )
- September 9 : Bella Perlhefter , Prague Jewish writer, professional letter writer and music teacher (* around 1650 )
- September 11th : Christian Siegmund von Aschersleben , Prussian Colonel
- September 21 : Ivan Masepa , Ukrainian Cossack hetman (* 1639 )
- September: Thomas Quellinus , Flemish sculptor (* 1661 )
- October 9 : Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland , English noblewoman, mistress of Charles II (* 1640 )
- October 14 : Lee Seo-woo , Korean philosopher, poet and politician (* 1633 )
- October 17 : François Mauriceau , French doctor, surgeon and obstetrician (* 1637 )
- October 17 : Gregor Anton Oginski , Polish-Lithuanian hetman and Governor General of the Duchy of Samogitia (* 1654 )
- November 1 : Ludwig Friedrich zu Wied , German nobleman, soldier and court official (* 1656 )
- November 8th : Dimitri von Rostow , Metropolitan in Rostow (* 1651 )
- December 1 : Abraham a Sancta Clara , German-Austrian Catholic clergyman and writer (* 1644 )
- December 7th : Meindest Hobbema , Dutch painter (* 1638 )
- December 8th : Thomas Corneille , French writer and playwright (* 1625 )
- December 23 : Alexandros Mavrokordatos , Dragoman (interpreter) in the Ottoman Empire (* 1641 )
- December 26th : Johann Philipp Bendeler , German organist and organ theorist (* 1654 )
- December 26 : Justus Philipp Meyenberg , German Protestant theologian (* 1642 )