Calendar overview 1648
|Friedrich III. becomes king of Denmark and Norway .||John II Casimir becomes King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania .|
peace of Munster
in the town hall of Munster ending Eighty Years' War .
|1648 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1096/97 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1640/41 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1053/54 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2191/92 (southern Buddhism); 2190/91 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1010/11 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3981/82 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1057/58 (January 26-27)|
|Jewish calendar||5408/09 (September 16/17)|
|Coptic calendar||1364/65 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1958/59 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1959/60 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1704/05 (April)|
Politics and world events
Eighty Years War / Thirty Years War
- January 30th : The signatures of the envoys under the Peace of Munster formally end the Eighty Years War between Spain and the Netherlands . He will be solemnly conjured up on May 15th in the town hall of Münster .
- May 17 : The battle of Zusmarshausen in Bavaria is the last major battle of the Thirty Years War involving foreign armies on German soil. The French and Swedes under Turenne and Wrangel defeat the imperial under Melander and Montecuccoli .
- June 14 : The battle of Wevelinghoven between imperial troops under Guillaume de Lamboy and the ultimately victorious units of Hessen-Kassel under Johann von Geyso is the penultimate battle in the Thirty Years War .
- July 26th : The Swedish army under General Hans Christoph von Königsmarck takes the Lesser Town in Prague . The result is the Prague art theft .
- October 4th : The Battle of Dachau ends with a victory of the Imperial Bavarian troops under Octavio Piccolomini over the French and Swedes.
- October 24 : After years of negotiations, the Thirty Years' War ends with the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia . With the Causa palatina contained therein , a centuries-long dispute over the election of the Holy Roman Emperor is settled. The Switzerland achieved by their messengers Johann Rudolf Wettstein their exemption from the imperial jurisdiction. The interpretation of this measure is controversial, but is mainly understood as a separation from the Reich Association. The Swiss Confederation then acts as a sovereign state.
France / Spain
- August 6th : The Fronde uprising begins in France in order to secure the release of judges critical of the government .
- August 20 : The Battle of Lens in the Franco-Spanish War ends with a victory for the French under Louis II. De Bourbon, prince de Condé , over Spain under the leadership of Leopold Wilhelm of Austria .
Northern and Eastern Europe
- February 28 : The deceased Christian IV is followed by his son Friedrich III. as King of Denmark and Norway .
- Spring: Under the leadership of Cossack Bohdan Khmelnytsky with support from the start Crimean Tatars of up to 1,657 permanent Khmelnytsky Uprising in Poland-Lithuania . In the course of the peasant revolution against the Polish aristocracy , 100,000 Jews in Eastern Europe are killed in pogroms .
- May 20 : The Polish King Władysław IV. Wasa dies unexpectedly. His brother John Casimir II is elected as his successor as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania .
Ottoman Empire / Venice
- May 1st : The siege of Candia begins . The siege of the Venetian colony on Crete by the Ottoman Empire lasted until 1669 and is the longest siege in history.
- August 12 : Sultan İbrahim is deposed and hanged. Mehmet IV ascends the Ottoman throne.
- November 20 : In Malta , the St Agatha's Tower is completed as part of the fortifications. Since the tower was built under Grand Master Jean de Lascaris-Castellar , it is counted among the so-called Lascaris Towers . In terms of construction, it is more like the Wignacourt Towers built earlier .
England / Scotland / Ireland
- 17th bis 19th August : The troops of Oliver Cromwell defeat of James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton cited Scots and Royalists in the Battle of Preston devastating.
- After the victory of the parliamentary armed forces over the Scots at Preston and the suppression of royalist uprisings, the English Civil War ends . However , there is further fighting on the sideshow in Ireland .
- During the Beaver Wars , the Iroquois campaign of extermination against the Wyandot began , which lasted until 1649 .
Voyages of discovery
- The Russian Semyon Ivanovich Deschnjow circumnavigated the Chukchi Peninsula together with Fedot Alexejewitsch Popov and discovered the Eastern Cape of Asia , which was later named after him, and the Bering Sea . With his drive through the Bering Strait, he refuted the view that there was a land connection between America and Asia .
science and technology
- December 8 : For the wedding of Count Maximilian Willibald von Waldburg-Wolfegg with Clara Isabella Princess von Arenberg and Arenberg, the Jesuit School premieres the musical-dramatic festival play Armamentarium comicum amris et honoris by the composer Bartholomäus Aich as part of the wedding celebrations .
- Prague art theft 1648
- In India that is Taj Mahal completed.
- Foundation of the artists' association Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in Paris
- Heinrich Schütz publishes the work Sacred Choral Music .
- November 26th : Pope Innocent X protests against the religious law provisions of the Peace of Westphalia with the bull Zelo domus Dei . It remains ineffective.
- The Buddhist monastery Tongkhor Gompa is founded.
nature and environment
- February 14th : The Holstein natural disaster , also Fastelabendsflut (Fastnachtsflut) in 1648 or the Holstein earthquake on February 14th, 1648, is an extremely unusual combination of two natural events in the Holstein Elbe marshes.
First half of the year
- January 14 : Clara Elisabeth von Platen , mistress and mastermind of the Königsmarck affair in Hanover († 1700 )
- February 2 : Samuel Strimesius , German physicist and Reformed theologian († 1730 )
- February 23 : Arabella Churchill , mistress of James II of England († 1730 )
- April 4 : Grinling Gibbons , English sculptor († 1721 )
- April 26th : Peter II , regent and king of Portugal from the house of Braganza († 1706 )
Second half of the year
- July 2nd : Arp Schnitger , one of the most famous organ builders of his time († 1719 )
- July 23 : Anna Henriette Julie von Pfalz-Simmern , titular Countess Palatine and Princess von Condè († 1723 )
- September 6 : Johann Schelle , German Baroque composer († 1701 )
- September 14th : Caspar Neumann , Protestant pastor, church inspector and hymn poet († 1715 )
- September 27 : Michelangelo Tamburini , General of the Societas Jesu († 1730 )
- November 12 : Juana Inés de la Cruz , Mexican poet († 1695 )
- November 20 : Joseph Adelmann , German Jesuit and university professor († 1693 )
- December 20 : Tommaso Ceva , Italian mathematician and poet († 1736 )
- Charles François d'Angennes , Marquis of Maintenon († 1691 ) December:
Exact date of birth unknown
- Gaspard Abeille , French clergyman, writer and playwright († 1718 )
- Moll Davis , English theater actress and matress of Charles II of England († around 1700 )
- Hannibal von Degenfeld , Swabian military leader († 1691 )
- Daniel Quare , English watchmaker († 1724 )
- Joseph Raphson , English mathematician († 1715 )
Born around 1648
First half of the year
- January 8th : Alheit Snur , victim of the witch hunt in Hanover (* around 1588 )
- January 9 : David Gregor Corner , German abbot, hymn poet and theologian (* 1585 )
- January 10 : Stephan Bethlen , Hungarian nobleman, 1630 Prince of Transylvania (* 1582 )
- January 20 : Magdalena Katharina von Pfalz-Zweibrücken , Countess Palatinate and Duchess of Pfalz-Birkenfeld (* 1607 )
- April 10th : Hans Jakob von Koseritz , member of the "Fruit Bringing Society" (* 1610 )
- April 11 : Matthäus Apelt , German composer and hymn poet (* 1594 )
- April 12th : Katharina Belgica of Oranien-Nassau , Countess of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1578 )
- April 13 : Martin Faber , architect, painter, cartographer and councilor of the city of Emden in East Friesland (* 1587 )
- April 27 : Johann Behm , German Lutheran theologian (* 1578 )
- Alessandro Abondio , Italian medalist and wax boss April:
- May 17 : Peter Melander von Holzappel , general and commander-in-chief of the imperial league troops (* 1589 )
- May 20th : Władysław IV. Wasa , Polish King / quasi Tsar of Russia (* 1595 )
- May 23 : Louis Le Nain , French painter, (* around 1593 )
- May 25 : Antoine Le Nain , French painter, (* around 1588 )
- May 26 : Vincent Voiture , French poet and writer (* 1598 )
Second half of the year
- August 2 : Claudia of Lorraine , Duchess of Lorraine (* 1612 )
- August 8 : Hezarpare Ahmed Pasha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
- August 18 : İbrahim , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1615 )
- September 1 : Marin Mersenne , French mathematician and theologian (* 1588 )
- September 20 : Ivan Lukačić , Croatian composer (* 1587 )
- October 11 : Georg I. Rákóczi , Prince of Transylvania (* 1593 )
- October 15 : Simone Cantarini , Italian painter (* 1612 )
- December 2 : Heinrich Julius von Zerssen , German court official (* 1583 )
- December 25th : Claudia de 'Medici , Archduchess of Austria and Duchess of Tyrol (* 1604 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Heinz Duchhardt : 1648 - the year of the headlines. Europe between crisis and new beginnings. Böhlau, Vienna a. a. 2015, ISBN 3-412-50120-4 .