Calendar overview 1580
|Henry I of Portugal , the last dying King of Portugal from the House of Aviz .||After Spain's victory over Portugal, Philip II becomes the new King of Portugal.|
Famous Voyage , the second circumnavigation .
|1580 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1028/29 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2123/24 (southern Buddhism); 2122/23 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||942/943 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3913/14 (2-3 October)|
|Islamic calendar||987/988 (turn of the year 16/17 February)|
|Jewish calendar||5340/41 (9/10 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1890/91 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1891/92 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1636/37 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Spain / Portugal
- January 31 : In Portugal , with the childless death of King Henry I, the House of Avis , the Portuguese royal dynasty , dies out.
- July 24th : António von Crato , an extramarital member of the royal family, proclaims himself King of Portugal . However, he can not enforce his claim to the throne against the Habsburgs ruling Spain , who have multiple family ties to the House of Avis through the female line and who were determined by Heinrich as heirs in his will. The Spanish King Philip II sends a force under Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba .
- August 25th : After the victorious battle of Alcántara , the Duke of Alba conquers Portugal and unites it with Spain. In order for the to begin in 1640 permanent personal union between Spain and Portugal. Philip II of Spain becomes King of Portugal as Philip I. António von Crato has to flee into French exile, taking the Portuguese crown jewels with him. France, the traditional enemy of the Habsburgs, welcomed Antonio in a friendly way, but ultimately did not support his political ambitions. Only the Azores remain temporarily outside of Philip II's sphere of influence and continue to stand by António. On the run from murderers, which Philip II has set on him, he changes his refuge several times and finally arrives in England.
Ireland / England
- Easter: Second Desmond Rebellion in Ireland:
- Battle of Glenmalure : An Irish Catholic force made up of members of various Gaelic clans from the Wicklow Mountains defeats an English army in the fortification of the O'Byrne clan in Valley Glenmalure.
- Siege of Carrigafoyle Castle on the banks of the River Shannon : After a two-day siege, the English conquer the castle held by the supporters of the Earl of Desmond.
- September 26th : Francis Drake completes the first circumnavigation of the world by an Englishman after 1,018 days and lands in Plymouth .
Other events in Europe
- August 30th : Charles Emanuel I becomes Duke of Savoy . He will hold this rule until 1630 .
- November 26th : The Seventh Huguenot War ends in France with the Peace of Fleix . This confirms agreements of two previous peace agreements in the religious struggle of the Protestants .
- The Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires , now known as Buenos Aires , was founded by Juan de Garay for the second time, after the first settlement built on the site in 1536 had to be abandoned after five years.
First documentary mentions
- Surava is first mentioned in a document.
- The Gansbräu in the Upper Palatinate is founded.
- The Kalt-Loch-Bräu in Lower Franconia is founded.
- The Elsterfloßgraben in Saxony for rafting wood for salt pans is completed.
- Archduke Karl founds a horse stud in Lipica , the origin of the later Lipizzaner breeding .
- Michel de Montaigne , the founder of essay writing , publishes his essais (Essais de messire Michel).
- The city of Zamosc , the old town to the 1992 World Heritage Site of UNESCO is one, is the residence of the noble family Zamoyski of Jan Zamoyski founded.
- June 25 : The Konkordienbuch , a complete collection of the so-called symbolic books of the Lutheran Church , is published in German. In addition to the three creeds (ecumenical symbols) it contains the so-called Lutheran particular symbols, the Confessio Augustana , its apology , the Schmalkaldic articles with the appendix Philipp Melanchthon of the power and authority of the Pope as well as the small and large catechism of Martin Luther with appendices and the formula of concord .
- The Thomas College , predecessor of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas , is founded.
- Peter Binsfeld was appointed auxiliary bishop in Trier , an office he held until his death in 1598 . During this time the worst witch hunts took place in the Electorate of Trier .
- The Chronicle of Pema Karpo , a work of Tibetan historiographical Chöchung genus of of Pema Karpo is completed. The work contains biographical material from the period when the teaching of Buddhism was later spread .
- The 3rd Dalai Lama Sönam Gyatsho founds the Litang Monastery .
Historical views and maps
Date of birth saved
- January 12 : Johan Baptista van Helmont , doctor and chemist († 1644 )
- January 30 : Gundaker von Liechtenstein , Liechtenstein nobleman and chief steward in the Habsburg service († 1658 )
- February 16 : August Friedrich , Margrave of Brandenburg († 1601 )
- February 24 : Matthias Hoë von Hoënegg , German Lutheran theologian († 1645 )
- March 31 : Bogislaw XIV , last Duke of Pomerania († 1637 )
- April 8 : Augusta , Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf († 1639 )
- May 6 : Carlo I. Gonzaga , Duke of Nevers and Rethel († 1637 )
- May 8 : Johann Zechendorf , German philologist and pedagogue († 1662 )
- June 9 : Daniel Heinsius , scholar of the Dutch Renaissance († 1655 )
- June 12 : Adriaen van Stalbemt , Flemish painter, draftsman and etcher († 1662 )
- July 5 : Carlo Contarini , 100th Doge of Venice († 1656 )
- August 3 : Johannes Hildbrand , Mayor of St. Gallen and Mint Master († 1654 )
- August 9 : Peter Theodoricus also: Dietrich, Thiederich, German jurist († 1640 )
- September 17th : Charlotte Brabantina of Orange-Nassau , Duchess of Thouars († 1631 )
- October 19 : Heinrich Eckhard , German Lutheran theologian († 1624 )
- October 20 : Peter Crüger , German philologist, astronomer and mathematician († 1639 )
- November 2 : Marco Aurelio Severino , Italian anatomist and surgeon († 1656 )
- December 21 : Johann George Besold , German lawyer and private lawyer († 1625 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Antonio Freire de Andrade , Portuguese Jesuit, missionary and explorer († 1634 )
- Thomas Ford , English composer, lutenist, gambist and poet († 1648 )
- Paul Widerkehr , Swiss artist of the late Renaissance († 1649 )
- Robert Johnson , English composer and lutenist († 1633 )
- Stephan von Seiboldsdorf , Prince-Bishop of Freising († 1618 )
- Ling Mengchu , Chinese poet of the Ming dynasty, best known for his short stories († 1644 )
Born around 1580
- Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven , Scottish soldier († 1661 )
- Agostino Tassi , Italian painter and rapist († 1644 )
Date of death secured
- January 25 : Willibald Imhoff , Nuremberg patrician, art collector, merchant and banker (* 1519 )
- January 31 : Henry I ("the Cardinal King"), King of Portugal, the last king of the House of Avis (* 1512 )
- February 4 : Philipp Ludwig I , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1553 )
- February 25 : Rodrigo de Quiroga López de Ulloa , Spanish conquistador and governor of Chile (* 1512 )
- February 25 : Marx Weiß , German late Gothic painter (* before 1518)
- May 3 : Thomas Tusser , English poet (* 1524 )
- May 21 : John Thynne , English nobleman and politician
- June 10 : Luís de Camões , Portuguese national poet (* 1524 )
- June 10 : Christoph Felgenhauer , progenitor of the family v. Felgenhauer (* 1519 )
- June 18 : Juliana zu Stolberg , ancestor of the House of Orange (* 1506 )
- June 28 : Heinrich Krechting , leader of the Anabaptist movement (* 1501 )
- June: Hans Harrer , rent chamber master of the Elector August, wholesale merchant and industrialist (* around 1530 )
- July 22nd : Hieronymus Lotter , German builder of the Renaissance (* around 1497 )
- August 1st : Albrecht Giese , Danzig councilor and diplomat from the famous Danzig patrician family Giese (* 1524 )
- August 1st : Everard Mercurian , 4th General of the Societas Jesu (* 1514 )
- August 7 : Lala Kara Mustafa Pascha , Ottoman commander and grand vizier (* around 1500 )
- August 19 : Andrea Palladio , the most important architect of Mannerism in Northern Italy (* 1508 )
- August 28 : Anton Brus von Müglitz , Bishop of Vienna and Archbishop of Prague (* 1518 )
- August 30th : Emanuel Philibert , Duke of Savoy (* 1528 )
- September 7th : Nikolaus von Dornspach , famous mayor of Zittau (* 1516 )
- September 19 : Katherine Willoughby, 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby , English noblewoman (* 1519/1520)
- October 8 : Hieronymus Wolf , German humanist and philologist (* 1516 )
- October 14 : Jos Murer , Swiss glass painter, cartographer and playwright (* 1530 )
- October 26 : Anna of Austria , Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Spain and Portugal (* 1549 )
- December 1 : Giovanni Morone , Italian Catholic Cardinal (* 1509 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Hermann von Amelunxen , German Drost and pawnbroker
- Giovanni Beccaria , Swiss teacher and reformer from Locarno, Misox and Bondo (* 1508 or 1511 )