|Henry VIII becomes King of England and marries ...||Catherine of Aragón .|
|Lucas Cranach paints the Torgau Prince Altar .|
|1509 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||957/958 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||3. Feuerstein - Jei Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 2nd pipes - Ome Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2052/53 (southern Buddhism); 2051/52 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||871/872 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3842/43 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||914/915 (turn of the year 21/22 April)|
|Jewish calendar||5269/70 (September 14/15)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1819/20 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1820/21 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1565/66 (turn of the year April)|
In 1509 it comes to the first peaceful change of rulers in England for nearly 100 years . After the death of the first Tudor ruler, King Henry VII , his son was crowned King of England as Henry VIII , after he had married Catherine of Aragon just a few days earlier .
Politics and world events
- September: A fleet from Lübeck ambushes and loots first Bornholm , then Gotland and brings war goods and supplies to Sweden. Rostock , Stralsund and Wismar join the alliance between Lübeck and Sweden , which is directed against Denmark . In the following year the Danish-Hanseatic War breaks out.
Holy Roman Empire
- 27 January : . Johann II , after the death of his father Johann I Count Palatine and Duke of Simmern .
- April 24th : With the arrest of 14 women and one man, the witch hunt begins in Lemgo .
- June 9th : The great year of Erfurt begins with the storming of the council hall of Erfurt by representatives of the guilds and the expulsion of councilor Kellner .
- July 11th : The death of his father Wilhelm II of Hesse makes the five-year-old Philip the Magnanimous the Hessian Landgrave . As a result, his mother wrestled bitterly with the estates of the country for guardianship.
Italian Wars / League of Cambrai
- April 27 : Pope Julius II, who belongs to the League of Cambrai, imposes an interdict on the Republic of Venice .
- May 14 : At the Battle of Agnadello , the army of the Republic of Venice is defeated by the League under the command of Gian Giacomo Trivulzio .
- June 8th : The besieged city of Pisa is forced to surrender to Florentine troops because of the famine within its walls .
- August 8th : While trying to conquer the city of Legnano on behalf of the League , Gianfrancesco II Gonzaga is surprised by Venetian troops in his camp, captured and brought to Venice . Since his son Federico was only nine years old at the time, Gianfrancesco's wife Isabella d'Este took over the reign of the Margraviate of Mantua . She is supported by her brother-in-law Sigismondo Gonzaga .
- August: Emperor Maximilian I invades Italy and besieges the Venetian cities of Padua and Treviso .
- September 29th : Eleonora Gonzaga marries Francesco Maria I della Rovere , Duke of Urbino .
- October 15th : After a peace agreement between the Reich and Venice, Maximilian's troops withdraw from Italy.
The first Tudor ruler, King Henry VII, dies on April 21 after a prolonged illness at Hampton Court Palace in Richmond upon Thames . His death is kept secret for two days while a political power struggle takes place behind the scenes, leading to the overthrow of the two the old King’s most important and unpopular ministers, Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley, who are jailed as the culprits for his tyrannical financial policies. Henry's son of the same name was only proclaimed king in London on April 24th . He then grants a general pardon for everyone who owed his father money. It is the first peaceful change to the throne in England in almost 100 years .
On June 11 Henry Tudor's marriage to Catherine of Aragon and is on June 23 as Henry VIII. King of England crowned. The young king, who is very popular among the people, evokes a euphoric mood in the country. Among other things, Thomas More publishes a volume of poetry in his honor.
Voyages of discovery
- Sebastiano Caboto returns from a journey undertaken on behalf of the English King Henry VII in search of the Northwest Passage , which may have led him north to Hudson Bay and south to Chesapeake Bay . The new King Henry VIII showed little interest in expeditions.
Portugal / India
- February 3 : With the annihilation of an Indian-Egyptian-Arab fleet in the naval battle of Diu , the Indian viceroy Francisco de Almeida can avenge the death of his son last year and secures Portugal's maritime rule in the Indian Ocean for over a century and ends the epoch of Egyptian Mamluks as the hegemonic power in this area.
- The Portuguese navigator Diogo Lopes de Sequeira undertakes a trip to Malacca with the order to establish trade relations with Sultan Mahmud, but returns without success.
- Diego Columbus , son of Christopher Columbus , replaces Nicolás de Ovando as Viceroy of Hispaniola and Governor of Cuba . His wife María de Toledo accompanies him with numerous ladies-in-waiting to the “New World”, where they arrive on July 9th .
- Diego Columbus takes Jamaica for Spain.
- Qazim Khan founds the Kazak Khanate and declares himself independent from the Uzbek Khanate under Mohammed Scheibani .
- The French King Louis XII. changes the statutes of the Rôtisseurs , the "Goose Roasters Guild", founded in 1248 . Over the years, these activities and privileges have expanded to include the preparation and marketing of all types of meat, including poultry and game. Their activities are now limited to poultry , wild birds, lamb and game .
science and technology
- At the University of Oxford is Brasenose College built, one of the oldest colleges in Oxford .
- The Laienspiegel of Ulrich Tengler first appears in print.
- Albrecht Dürer's workshop sends the part of the Heller Altar that he created from Nuremberg to Frankfurt am Main. The other part of the triptych commissioned by Jakob Heller for the Dominican Church in Frankfurt is made by Matthias Grünewald . The two parts are assembled at the destination in 1511 .
- Tilman Riemenschneider creates the twelve messenger altar for the parish church of St. Kilian in Windsheim an der Aisch on behalf of the widow Elisabeth Bachknapp .
- Lucas van Leyden paints The Temptation of Saint Anthony .
Literature and theater
- February 6 : I Suppositi , the second comedy of Ludovico Ariosto , has its world premiere in Italian at the court of Ferrara.
- Balthasar Sprenger's sea trip , one of the first German travel reports, is printed. In it, the Welser employee describes the journey he made in 1505 with the fleet of the Portuguese viceroy Francisco de Almeida from Lisbon around the African continent and the Cape of Good Hope to the African east coast and on to the Indian southeast coast to Kochi and Calicut took part.
- The Volksbuch Fortunatus appears in print in Augsburg.
- Fool's literature : while staying with his friend Thomas More in England, Erasmus of Rotterdam wrote the praises of folly .
- Charles IV , Duke of Alençon , marries Margaret of Navarre , the sister of François , Count of Angoulême .
- May 31st : The “ Yetzer trade ” reaches its peak in Bern when four Dominican brothers are burned in public.
- Christoph von Schroffenstein succeeds the late Melchior von Meckau as Prince-Bishop of Brixen .
- Construction of the church of Santa Maria dello Spasimo in Palermo begins.
- September 26th : A severe storm surge known as the Second Cosmas and Damian Tide breaks the North Sea . This gives the Dollart and Jadebusen their greatest expansion.
Date of birth saved
- January 2 : Heinrich zu Stolberg , German regent († 1572 )
- January 25 : Giovanni Morone , Italian Catholic Cardinal († 1580 )
- February 2 : Jan van Leiden , German reformer, "King" of the Anabaptist Empire of Münster († 1536 )
- April 23 : Afonso de Portugal , Portuguese cardinal († 1540 )
- May 27 : Pasquale Cicogna , 88th Doge of Venice († 1595 )
- August 7 : Joachim , Prince of Anhalt-Dessau († 1561 )
- August 25 : Ippolito II. D'Este , Archbishop of Milan and Cardinal († 1572 )
- November 4 : Johann , Duke of Münsterberg, Oels and Bernstadt († 1565 )
- December 18 : Florian Griespek von Griespach , Bohemian aristocrat of Bavarian-Austrian descent († 1588 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Nicolò dell'Abbate , Italian painter († 1571 )
- Pieter Aertsen , Dutch painter († 1575 )
- Leone Leoni , Italian sculptor and goldsmith († 1590 )
- Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada , Spanish conquistador († 1579 )
Date of death secured
- In mid-January: Adam Kraft , Franconian sculptor (* 1455 / 1460 )
- January 27th : Johann I , Count Palatine and Duke of Simmern (* 1459 )
- February 14 : Dmitri Ivanovich the grandson , Russian Grand Duke (* 1483 )
- March 3 : Melchior von Meckau , Prince-Bishop of Brixen (* around 1440 )
- April 21 : Henry VII , King of England and Lord of Ireland, founder of the Tudor dynasty (* 1457 )
- April 25 : Georg II , Prince of Anhalt-Köthen (* 1454 )
- April 27 : Margaret of Brandenburg , Princess of Brandenburg, Abbess of the Hof Monastery (* 1453 )
- before May 12th: Bernt Notke , Lübeck painter and workshop owner (* around 1435 )
- May 28 : Caterina Sforza , Countess of Forli (* 1463 )
- June 29 : Margaret Beaufort , English noblewoman, mother of Henry VII of England (* 1443 )
- July 11 : Wilhelm II , Landgrave of Hesse (* 1469 )
- November 20 : Konrad Altheimer , administrator of the Diocese of Olomouc and auxiliary bishop in Olomouc (* 1454 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Jakob von Landshut , German builder (* around 1450 )
- João da Nova , Galician navigator and explorer in Portuguese service (* around 1460 )
- Caspar Rugg , businessman and mayor of St. Gallen
- Johann von Wickede , councilor of the city of Lübeck