|Pius IV regulates the Trent creed in a binding manner .||Maximilian II becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and Archduke of Austria .|
|Jacopo Tintoretto paints the Glory of St. Rochus of Montpellier .|
|1564 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1012/13 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2107/08 (southern Buddhism); 2106/07 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70./71. (71./72.) Cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||926/927 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3897/98 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||971/972 (turn of the year 8/9 August)|
|Jewish calendar||5324/5325 (September 6-7)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1874/75 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1875/76 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1620/21 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- July 25th : The throne changes in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation : The deceased Ferdinand I is followed by his son Maximilian II , who is inclined to the Reformation. He succeeds his father as sovereign in the Archduchy of Austria . Ferdinand bequeathed part of the hereditary lands to his two other sons. Tyrol and the Vorlande go to Ferdinand II. , Inner Austria with Styria, Carinthia, Carniola as well as Istria (coastal regions) and Friuli (Gorizia) is inherited by Charles II . Both brothers are staunch Catholics. Maximilian remain Upper and Lower Austria with the residence city Vienna and the Hungarian-Bohemian countries.
- Ortenburg aristocratic conspiracy : Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria confiscates the fief of Joachim von Ortenburg because of his refusal to reverse the Reformation in his country.
- September 4 : The troops of the Swedish king . Erik XIV conquer the Northern Seven Years' War , the Danish ruled Ronneby , massacring more than 2,000 inhabitants, loot the place and burn it down. The residents who fled to the Holy Cross Church are not spared either.
- June 22nd : The French navigator René Goulaine de Laudonnière founds the Huguenot colony of Fort Caroline in Florida .
- November 21 : From Barra de Navidad , New Spain , a fleet of five ships commissioned by Viceroy Luis de Velasco sets sail to find the Spice Islands . The commanding officer is Miguel López de Legazpi , and chief navigator Andrés de Urdaneta , who already took part in the hapless expedition García Jofre de Loaísas in 1525 .
- The Dekkan sultanates form an alliance against Vijayanagar .
- The troops of the Burmese King Bayinnaung take the Siamese capital Ayutthaya . The Kingdom of Ayutthaya becomes a vassal state of the Burmese Empire.
science and technology
- March 1 : History of printing : Deacon Ivan Fyodorov and Petr Timofeev Mstislavec finish the printing work on the Apostle ( Acts and Letters), which they began on April 19, 1563 by order of Ivan the Terrible .
- August 9 : King Charles IX. With the Edict of Roussillon sets the beginning of the year in France on January 1st .
- August 17 : The 1551 founded University of Dillingen in Dillingen is formally the Jesuits passed.
- David Rötlin creates the Pürschgerichtkarte for the Rottweiler administration .
- A Latin school is founded in Ohrdruf .
On May 31, the Council of the Scuola Grande di San Rocco in Venice announced a competition in which Jacopo Tintoretto , Paolo Veronese and Giuseppe Salviati , among others , took part. But instead of the sketch, as the competition intended, Tintoretto shows a complete painting, the Glory of St. Rochus von Montpellier , causing a scandal and surprising his competitors as well as his clients. The council is not satisfied with this, but Tintoretto only replies that this is his way of drawing and that he would be willing to donate the picture to the school. The Scuola cannot refuse this and on June 29th the competition will be canceled.
- Pieter Bruegel the Elder paints the picture Christ Carrying the Cross . It belongs to the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. The Adoration of the Magi , created in the same year, is in the National Gallery in London.
- The Edo Wiemken monument in Jever , tomb for Edo Wiemken the Younger , who died in 1511 and the last male ruler of the Jever reign , is being completed under his daughter Maria .
- August 2nd : Pope Pius IV creates the Congregation for the Interpretation and Observance of the Council of Trent , today's Congregation for the Clergy .
- August 17th : The Jesuit order formally takes over the University of Dillingen in the Danube city .
- November 13th : In the bull Iniunctum nobis , Pope Pius IV regulates the Trent Creed ( Professio fidei Tridentinae ).
- The Polish city of Raków became the center of socinianism when the so-called Polish Brothers , who split off from the Reformed Church in Poland as Ecclesia minor , set up their own school for scholars based on the model of Pińczów .
- The Chronicle of Pawo Tsuglag Threngwa , a history of Buddhism in India and Tibet, is completed.
- The Auss Bundt , the oldest hymn book of the Anabaptist movement , is in print.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- February 15 : Galileo Galilei , Italian philosopher, mathematician, physicist and astronomer († 1642 )
- February 26 (baptized): Christopher Marlowe , English poet, playwright and translator († 1593 )
- April 26 (baptized): William Shakespeare , English playwright, poet and actor († 1616 )
- April 27 : Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland , English nobleman († 1632 )
- May 2 : Johann Domann , German statesman, politician and syndic of the Hanseatic League († 1618 )
- May 27 : Johann Adam von Bicken , Archbishop and Elector of Mainz († 1604 )
- June 11 : Joseph Heintz the Elder , Swiss painter († 1609 )
- June 12 : Johann Casimir , Duke of Saxe-Coburg († 1633 )
- July 25 : Hans Friedrich von Drachsdorf , German administrative officer († 1629 )
- July 29th : Reinier Pauw , Dutch politician and Amsterdam regent († 1636 )
- August 16 : Federico Borromeo , Archbishop of Milan and Cardinal († 1631 )
- September 15 : Charles the Elder of Žerotín , member of the Bohemian and Moravian gentry, politician and author of several works († 1636 )
- September 24th : William Adams , English world traveler († 1620 )
- October 15 : Heinrich Julius , Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg († 1613 )
- December 25 : Abraham Bloemaert , Dutch painter († 1651 )
- December 27 : Anton Matthäus , German legal scholar († 1637 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- between May 23 and October 10: Pieter Brueghel the Younger , Brabant genre painter at the transition between late Renaissance and early baroque († 1638 )
- Gregor Aichinger , German composer († 1628 )
- Alfonso Felice d'Avalos d'Aquino d'Aragona , Italian nobleman († 1593 )
- Hans Leo Haßler , German composer († 1612 )
- Philipp von Rodenstein , Prince-Bishop of Worms († 1604 )
- Hans Rottenhammer , German early Baroque painter († 1625 )
- Johann Suevus , German legal scholar († 1634 )
- Wenzeslaus Warich , Sorbian theologian and translator († 1618 )
Date of death secured
- February 14 : Arnold Abel , German stonemason and sculptor of the Renaissance (* 16th century)
- February 18 : Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern , Countess of Erbach (* 1520 )
- February 18 : Michelangelo Buonarroti , Italian painter, sculptor, architect and poet (* 1475 )
- February 18 : Diego López de Zúñiga y Velasco , Spanish officer and viceroy of Peru (* around 1500 )
- February 22nd : Johann Glandorp , German humanist, pedagogue, poet, Protestant theologian and reformer (* 1501 )
- May 23 : Amalie von Hirschberg , German abbess of the Hof monastery
- May 27 : Johannes Calvin , Swiss reformer of French descent (* 1509 )
- June 1 : Loy Hering , Eichstätter sculptors of the Renaissance (* 1484 / 1485 )
- July 22nd : Peter Cyro , Swiss lawyer and politician (* around 1495)
- July 23 : Éléonore de Roye , Princess of Condé and influential French Huguenot (* 1535 )
- July 25 : Ferdinand I , Holy Roman Emperor (* 1503 )
- July 31 : Luis de Velasco , Viceroy of New Spain (* 1511 )
- August 2 : Thomas Grynaeus , German theologian and reformer (* 1512 )
- October 6th : Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora , Cardinal of the Catholic Church, Camerlengo (* 1518 )
- October 8 : Matthias Gunderam , German Protestant theologian (* 1529 )
- October 11 : Martin Borrhaus , German Protestant theologian and reformer (* 1499 )
- October 15 : Andreas Vesalius , Flemish anatomist and personal physician to Emperor Charles V and Philip II of Spain, is considered to be the founder of modern anatomy and morphological thinking in medicine (* 1514 )
- October 18 : Johannes Acronius Frisius , West Frisian scholar, doctor, astronomer and mathematician (* 1520 )
- November 1 : Wibrandis Rosenblatt , wife of Johannes Oekolampad, Wolfgang Capito and Martin Bucer (* 1504 )
- November 8th : Melchior Fendt , German physicist and medic (* 1486 )
- December 6th : Ambrosius Blarer , German Protestant theologian, hymn poet and reformer (* 1492 )
- December 10 : Domenico Campagnola , Italian painter, draftsman and engraver (* around 1500 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Hans von Ahlefeldt , Herr von Seestermühe
- Adam von Trott , Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall and Oberhofmarschall