Calendar overview 1554
Mary I of England marries Crown Prince
Philip of Spain .
August of Saxony concludes
the Naumburg Treaty with other Saxon dukes .
Jane Gray is executed after
the Wyatt conspiracy is exposed.
|1554 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1002/03 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2097/98 (southern Buddhism); 2096/97 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||916/917 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3887/88 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||961/962 (turn of the year 25/26 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5314/15 (August 27-28)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1864/65 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1865/66 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1610/11 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- The Naumburg Treaty of February 24 between Elector August I of Saxony and the Saxon dukes Johann Friedrich II. The Middle , Johann Wilhelm and Johann Friedrich III. reorganized the division of the lands of the Wettin house into the two Albertine and Ernestine lines .
- February 25th : Out of distrust of his son Maximilian , who shows sympathy for Protestantism , the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand I issues the Ferdinandean house rules , with which the Habsburg hereditary lands are divided between his sons Maximilian, Ferdinand and Karl .
- The city of Schweinfurt in Franconia is destroyed for the second time in its history in the so-called Markgräfler War .
England / Spain
- January: After plans for marriage between Mary I of England and Philip of Spain are made public, Thomas Wyatt gathers troops to either bring Jane Gray, imprisoned in the Tower of London , back to the throne or Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon , after a marriage with Elizabeth , the younger daughter of Henry VIII , to make King of England. The army is defeated at the gates of London, the conspirators captured.
- February 12 : Lady Jane Gray is executed after the Wyatt conspiracy is exposed, along with her husband Guilford Dudley and father Henry Gray, 1st Duke of Suffolk .
- July 25th : Wedding between Queen Maria I of England and the later King Philip II of Spain in Winchester . The marriage is intended to promote recatholicization in England .
- April: Queen Mother Marie de Guise forces James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran , who has ruled the underage Maria Stuart in Scotland since 1543 , to abdicate and takes over the reign of her daughter himself.
- January 25 : The missionaries Manuel da Nobrega and José de Anchieta found a Jesuit college in Brazil on the occasion of the feast of Pauli Conversion , from which the city of São Paulo developed over the years .
science and technology
- Giovanni Battista Benedetti publishes in Venice the work Demonstratio proportionum motuum localium contra Aristotilem et omnes philosophos , in which he refutes Aristotle's erroneous hypothesis that bodies of different weights fall at different speeds with a thought experiment .
- Heinrich von Witzleben founds the Roßleben monastery school in the Augustinian monastery near Roßleben .
- The English officer Hugh Willoughby dies with his entire expedition in search of the Northeast Passage .
- February 1 : The Dülken Fools Academy is founded out of ridicule of the clergy and the exaggerated importance of scholars. From 1556 the Narrenmühle in Dülken is the seat of the Narrenakademie.
- The novel Junge Knaben Spiegel is published in Strasbourg . A beautiful Kurzwyligs booklet, of two young boys, one of a knight, the other of a builder son by Jörg Wickram .
- The first European coffee house opens in Constantinople - against the resistance of the Islamic clergy .
- Eindhoven falls victim to a great fire.
- A fleet of Spanish galleons sinks in a storm in the Florida Keys off the coast of Florida .
Date of birth saved
- January 1 : Ludwig , Duke of Württemberg († 1593 )
- January 9th : Alessandro Ludovisi, Pope under the name Gregory XV. († 1623 )
- January 20 : Sebastian I , King of Portugal from the house of Avis († 1578 )
- March 12 : Johannes Andreae , German pastor and theologian († 1601 )
- March 26 : Charles II. De Lorraine , Duke of Mayenne († 1611 )
- March 28 : Ivan Ivanovich , heir to the Russian throne († 1581 )
- April 15 : Simon VI. , Count zur Lippe († 1613 )
- July 5 : Elisabeth of Austria , Queen of France († 1592 )
- 10 / 11 October : Arnold II. (IV.) , Count of Bentheim-Tecklenburg († 1606 )
- October 23 : Georg Limnäus , German mathematician, astronomer and librarian († 1611 )
- November 30 : Philip Sidney , English courtier, soldier and writer († 1586 )
- December 2 : William Paddy , royal physician in England († 1634 )
- December 17th : Ernst of Bavaria , Archbishop of Cologne († 1612 )
- December 19 : Philipp Wilhelm of Orange-Nassau , Prince of Orange and Count of Nassau († 1618 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Tüsiyetü Khan Abdai , Prince of the Khalka Mongols and a Genghisid († 1588 )
- Diane d'Andouins , French nobleman and mistress of the French King Henry IV († 1620 )
- Sebastian von Bergen , lawyer and statesman († 1623 )
- Jan Brandt , Polish theologian and composer († 1602 )
- Augustin Cranach , German painter († 1595 )
- Jean Errard de Bar-le-Duc , French mathematician, engineer and fortress builder († 1610 )
- Jacques de Lévis, comte de Caylus , French nobleman, Seneschal of Rouergue and participant in the duel of the Mignons († 1578 )
- Johannes Neldel , German rhetorician, logician, jurist and philosopher († 1612 )
- Hieronymus Nymmann , German medic († 1594 )
- Walter Raleigh , English privateer († 1618 )
- Francis Throckmorton , conspirator against Elizabeth I of England († 1584 )
Date of death secured
- January 2 : Johann Manuel of Portugal , heir to the Portuguese throne (* 1537 )
- January 16 : Christiern Pedersen , Danish humanist and writer (* 1480 )
- February 6 : Arnold von Bruck , composer (* around 1490 )
- February 12 : Guildford Dudley , English nobleman and conspirator, husband Jane Grays (* around 1535 )
- February 12 : Jane Gray , Queen of England (* 1537 )
- February 21 : Hieronymus Bock , botanist from the Saarland, Lutheran preacher and doctor (* 1498 )
- February 21 : Sibylle von Jülich-Kleve-Berg , Electress of Saxony (* 1512 )
- February 23 : Henry Gray, 1st Duke of Suffolk , English nobleman and conspirator, father of Jane Grays (* 1517 )
- April 11th : William Thomas , English scholar and conspirator
- April 11th : Thomas Wyatt , English nobleman and rebel (* 1521 )
- April 18 : David Lyndsay , Scottish poet (* around 1490 )
- May 19 : Heinrich IV. Von Plauen , Colonel Chancellor of Bohemia, Burgrave of Meißen, Lord of Plauen, Gera, Greiz, Schleiz and Lobenstein (* 1510 )
- May 21 : Juan de Saavedra , Spanish conquistador
- May 31 : Marcantonio Trevisan , 80th Doge of Venice (* 1475 )
- June 6 : Hieronymus Schurff , German lawyer (* 1481 )
- June 19 : Sixtus Birck , German playwright (* 1501 )
- June 19 : Philip II , Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken (* 1509 )
- June 28 : Leone Strozzi , Italian Knight of Malta, diplomat and admiral (* 1515 )
- July 19 : Sebastian Neidhart , Augsburg merchant (* 1496 )
- August 22 : Francisco Vásquez de Coronado , Spanish conquistador (* 1510 )
- August 25th : Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk , English nobleman and politician (* 1473 )
- September: Matthias Apiarius , German-Swiss printer, publisher and composer
- October 29 : Raisin of Baden , Margravine of Baden (* 1487 )
- November 22nd : Islam Shah Suri , Sultan of Delhi (* around 1510 )
- December: Moretto da Brescia gen. Moretto da Brescia , Italian painter (* around 1498 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Pedro de Cieza de León , Spanish conquistador, chronicler and historian of Peru (* around 1520 )
- John Palsgrave , English scholar (* around 1480 )
- Josel von Rosheim (Joselmann Ben Gerschon Loans), representative of the Jewish communities in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and in Poland, (* 1476 )
- Hugh Willoughby , English officer and expedition leader in search of the Northeast Passage