Maria de 'Medici marries King Henry IV
of France .
Battle of Sekigahara
, the House of Tokugawa succeeds in taking power in Japan .
|1600 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1048/49 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1592/93 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1005/06 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2143/44 (southern Buddhism); 2142/43 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||962/963 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3933/34 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1008/09 (turn of the year 12/13 July)|
|Jewish calendar||5360/61 (September 8/9)|
|Coptic calendar||1316/17 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1910/11 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1911/12 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1656/57 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
After conquering Transylvania in the previous year, the Wallachian prince Mihai Viteazul also succeeded in conquering the Principality of Moldova in May . He drives out the Moldovan voivode Ieremia Movila, who has maintained friendly relations with Poland and the Ottoman Empire . He fled to Poland. Mihai's rule, which was dependent on imperial subsidies, collapsed in autumn when Polish armies under the crown hetman Jan Zamoyski conquered Moldavia and Wallachia , and defeated the Mihais' associations together with a Habsburg army under Giorgio Basta on September 18 near Mirislau (Miriszló) drive out of the country.
The up 1,629 permanent Polish-Swedish war begins. The occasion is the claim of the Polish King Sigismund III. Wasa on Estonia, which is under Swedish rule . After losing the Swedish crown, King Sigismund managed to win over the leading aristocratic circles in Poland-Lithuania for a campaign in Estonia. However, the Swedes anticipate the Polish-Lithuanian attack and go on the offensive themselves. During the year 1600 penetration of Estonia from Swedish troops under the leadership of the Regent Duke Charles of Livonia and occupy the cities of Tartu and Parnu . The Swedes advance to the Daugava River and begin the siege of Kokenhusen Castle east of Riga . However, Duke Karl did not dare to attack the heavily fortified Riga. In view of the Swedish successes, the Sejm approves the funds to raise an army of around 20,000 men. Under the leadership of the Grand Hetman of Lithuania Krzysztof Radziwiłł , this force is advancing to Livonia.
Eighty Years War
In the Battle of Nieuwpoort in the Eighty Years' War on July 2, the army of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces under Moritz of Orange defeated the Spaniards under Albrecht VII of Austria . However, the battle has no other effects. The Dutch lines are overstretched and Moritz von Orange will soon have to withdraw with his troops as well. The Flemings , whose support he was hoping for, remain on Spain's side . In addition, the great port of Dunkirk , the main target of the campaign, is beyond its reach in Spanish hands .
Other events in Europe
- September 20 to October 9 : The Battle of Moyry Pass between English troops and Irish rebels during the Nine Years' War in northern Counties Armagh and Louth in Ireland ends in stalemate.
- October 8th : San Marino adopts its written constitution .
- December 17th : The French King Henry IV and Maria de 'Medici marry in the Cathedral of Lyon . Henry's childless marriage to Margaret of Valois was annulled in 1599 by Pope Clement VIII .
- April: William Adams is the first Englishman to set foot in Japan.
- October 21 : The Battle of Sekigahara marks the transition from the Sengoku period to the Edo period in Japanese history. By winning this battle, the House of Tokugawa succeeds in consolidating its supremacy in Japan. There will be a few minor riots over the next fifty years, but the country will eventually be pacified.
- January 24th : The Dutch navigator Sebald de Weert reaches the Falkland Islands and names them "Sebald Eilands".
- December 31 : With a carte blanche Queen Elizabeth I to various London merchants, the company created Governors and Company of merchants of London trading to the East Indies , which later became British East India Company . It is granted the right to conduct all trade between the Cape of Good Hope and the Strait of Magellan for 15 years . It receives a seal , can choose its governor and the 24 directors itself, and is allowed to issue corporation laws (by-laws).
science and technology
- February 4th : The astronomers Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler meet for the first time in Benatek Castle near Prague.
- August 18 : Dutch astronomer and cartographer Willem Janszoon Blaeu discovers the variable star P Cygni .
- William Gilbert was the first to recognize electrical phenomena .
- Publication of the text on embryos , uterus and placenta by Hieronymus Fabricius
- around 1600: William Gilbert develops the Versorium .
- The drama Henry V by William Shakespeare appears for the first time in an incomplete pirated print.
Music and theater
- October 6th : L'Euridice favola drammatica , a Favola in Musica by Jacopo Peri with the libretto by Ottavio Rinuccini has its world premiere in the Palazzo Pitti in Florence.
- October 7th : On the occasion of the wedding by procurationem of King Henry IV of France with Maria de 'Medici , the opera Il rapimento di Cefalo by Giulio Caccini is premiered in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence .
- February 8th : After seven years imprisonment in Castel Sant'Angelo, the priest and philosopher Giordano Bruno is found guilty of heresy and the practice of magic by the Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith , expelled from the Dominican order and the Church and handed over to secular judgment. His books are put on the Forbidden Scriptures index and publicly torn and burned. Despite the request of the Congregation to waive punishment for life and limb, he himself was publicly burned on February 17th on the orders of the Roman governor in Campo de 'Fiori .
- August 8th : In the Paulustorvorstadt of Graz , after the eviction of the Protestants, 10,000 Protestant books and writings are burned as a final point. Two days later the papal nuncio lays the foundation stone for the Antonius Church at this point .
- After preliminary work under Popes Gregory XIII. and Sixtus V has Pope Clement VIII published the first official edition of the Caeremoniale episcoporum .
nature and environment
- Seegfrörne : Lake Constance is completely frozen over.
- February 19 : The Huaynaputina volcano in southern Peru explodes. This volcanic eruption, which lasts until March, is considered to be the most catastrophic in historical time in all of South America.
Historical maps and views
World map by Matteo Ricci
First half of the year
- January 1 : Heinrich von Brockdorff , soldier and politician († 1671 )
- January 17 : Pedro Calderón de la Barca , Spanish playwright († 1681 )
- January 23 : Alexander Keirincx , Flemish painter († 1652 )
- January 28th : Giulio Rospigliosi, under the name Clement IX. Pope from 1667 to 1669 († 1669 )
- February 2 : Nicolaus Zapf , German Lutheran theologian († 1672 )
- February 5th : Dr. Johan Picardt , German-Dutch doctor, pastor and writer († 1670 )
- March 4 : Hans Christoph Graf von Königsmarck , Swedish field marshal in the Thirty Years War († 1663 )
- March 19 : Tilemann Olearius , German Lutheran theologian and philologist († 1671 )
- March 25 : Johann Heinrich Waser , Mayor of Zurich († 1669 )
- April 13 : Johann Wilhelm , Duke of Saxony-Altenburg and Duke of Jülich-Kleve-Berg († 1632 )
- April 16 : Paulus Arnolt , German piece and bell caster († after 1642 )
- June 11 : Johann Botsack , German Protestant theologian († 1674 )
- June 24th : Juan de Palafox y Mendoza , Spanish bishop of the Catholic Church and viceroy of New Spain († 1659 )
Second half of the year
- September 15 : Adolf von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , German nobleman († 1631 )
- September 19 : Johann Friedrich , Duke of Saxe-Weimar († 1628 )
- October 4 : Giovanni Paolo Oliva , 11th General of the Societas Jesu († 1681 )
- October 18 : Gioacchino Assereto , Italian painter († 1650 )
- November 19 : Charles I (Charles I), King of England († 1649 , beheaded)
- November 19 : Lieuwe van Aitzema , Dutch historian, diplomat, bon vivant, womanizer and spy († 1669 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- December: Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, duchesse de Chevreuse , French nobleman, opponent of Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin († 1679 )
- Cornelis van Aerssen van Sommelsdijk , Dutch nobleman († 1662 )
- Charles d'Avaugour , French diplomat († 1657 )
- Piotr Baryka , Polish writer († 1675 )
- Girolamo Fantini , Italian trumpeter and composer († 1675 )
- Claude Lorrain , French Baroque painter († 1682 )
- Bathsua Makin , English scholar and suffragette († ≈ 1675 )
First half of the year
- February 9 : Johann Friedrich , Duke of Pomerania and secular Bishop of Cammin (* 1542 )
- February 17th : Giordano Bruno , Italian philosopher (burned publicly in Rome) (* 1548 )
- March 16 : Johann Major , German Lutheran theologian, humanist and poet (* 1533 )
- March 19 : Joachim von Ortenburg , Imperial Count of Lower Bavaria (* 1530 )
- March 28 : Salomon Alberti , German medic (* 1540 )
- April 17th : Konrad Friederich , Mayor of St. Gallen (* 1542 )
- April 23 : Nikolaus II. Pálffy , imperial general and castle captain of Pressburg (* 1552 )
- May 21 : Jacob Horst , German medic (* 1537 )
- June 18 : Eduard Fortunat von Baden , Margrave of Baden (* 1565 )
- June 20 : Joachim von Brandenburg , Margrave of Brandenburg (* 1583 )
- June 22nd : Samuel Fischer , German theologian (* 1547 )
Second half of the year
- July 7th : Thomas Lucy , English justice of the peace (* 1532 )
- July 22nd : Laurentius Fabritius , auxiliary bishop in Cologne (* around 1535 )
- August 1st : Dom Frei Amador Arrais de Mendoza , Portuguese clergyman, theologian, bishop and writer (* around 1530)
- September 1 : Tadeáš Hájek z Hájku , Czech astronomer and personal doctor of Rudolf II (* 1525 )
- September 9 : Georg Hoefnagel , Flemish miniature and book painter (* 1542 )
- October 12 : Luis de Molina , Jesuit theologian (* 1535 )
- October 17th : Cornelis de Jode , Dutch cartographer (* 1568 )
- November 3 : Richard Hooker , English, Anglican theologian (* 1554 )
- November 4th : Calixtus Schein , Syndicus of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (* 1529 )
- December 13 : Albert Friedrich von Brandenburg , Margrave of Brandenburg (* 1582 )
- December 16 : Karl I , Count Palatine and Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (* 1560 )