|Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca is the first European to marvel at the Iguaçu waterfalls .||
Catherine Howard ,
5th wife of Henry VIII , is
executed for "high treason".
|Dacke uprising begins in Sweden .|
|1542 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||990/991 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2085/86 (southern Buddhism); 2084/85 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||904/905 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3875/76 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||948/949 (turn of the year April 16/17)|
|Jewish calendar||5302/03 (September 10/11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1852/53 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1853/54 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1598/99 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Spain and its colonial empire
Cinnamon expedition and crossing the Amazon
From January 1st, the Spanish conquistador Francisco de Orellana, as part of the Cinnamon Land expedition, will be traveling the Amazon with more than 50 men coming from the west , while the majority of the mostly seriously ill men under Gonzalo Pizarro will remain in a base camp: on August 26 , de Orellana will be reached the delta of the river, on September 11 the Atlantic; He was the first European to travel the entire length of the Amazon. After the members of the expedition left behind had to wait in vain for their return, they returned to Quito half starved under Pizarro's command in the summer .
- January 6th : The old Mayan city of Ti'ho ' ("to five") is renamed Mérida by Francisco de Montejo the Younger .
- January 31 : The Spaniard Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca is the first European to discover the Iguaçu waterfalls .
- Spring: Francisco Vásquez de Coronado returns to Mexico City from a two-year expedition through North America.
- June 24 : Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo leaves the port of Barra de Navidad to seek a connection between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. In addition, he was commissioned to search for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, also known under the name of Cibola , which are said to be located near the Pacific, north of New Spain .
- September 28 : Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, the first European to go ashore near what is now San Diego , declares the area to be owned by the Spanish crown .
- October 7th : The explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo takes possession of Santa Catalina Island for Spain .
- November 1st : Ruy López de Villalobos sets off from Barra de Navidad on behalf of Antonio de Mendoza , the first viceroy of New Spain , to lead an expedition to East India in search of new trade routes.
- November 16 : An expedition of the Spanish Navy under Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo reaches Monterey Bay in the Pacific .
Further political events in the Spanish colonies
- November 20 : Carlos I of Spain has the Leyes Nuevas proclaimed in Barcelona as part of the Derecho Indiano to protect the Indians in the West Indian (American) colonies . Blasco Núñez de Vela is named the first viceroy of the newly established viceroyalty of Peru . Until his arrival in Lima , Cristóbal Vaca de Castro is provisionally managing the business as governor.
- The city of San Miguel el Grande in what is now Mexico is founded.
- The Dominican Bartolomé de Las Casas publishes the Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias ( Brief report on the devastation in the West Indian countries ), which is denigrated by the Spanish colonial rulers as " Leyenda negra ".
- March 21 to Easter: The Wurzen feud between the Ernestine Electorate of Saxony and the Wurzen collegiate monastery for the collection of funds to finance the Turkish wars ( Turkish tax ) ends bloodlessly due to the arbitration by Landgrave Philipp of Hesse with the support of Martin Luther .
- In the middle of summer, the Dacke uprising breaks out in Sweden under the leadership of the farmer Nils Dacke , a peasant uprising that threatens to overthrow the ruling King Gustav Wasa at its height .
- November 24th : James V of Scotland is defeated by an English army at the Battle of Solway Moss .
- December 14th : Jacob V dies in Falkland Palace , allegedly out of grief that his wife Marie de Guise did not give birth to the heir to the throne but a daughter on December 8th . Six day old Mary Queen of Scots becomes Queen of Scots .
- Franz I , King of France, and Charles V , Holy Roman Emperor and Spanish sovereign, resume their feud .
- A second law for the integration of Wales into the Kingdom of England will be taken. It is valid until 1995 .
- February 2 : The Battle of Bacente a conquered Portuguese army under the command of Gama Cristóvão da one Wallburg the Adal Sultanate in Northern Ethiopia .
- August 28th : The Portuguese suffer a heavy defeat in the Battle of Wofla . Cristóvão da Gama is beheaded in captivity.
- In Goslar , the Schmalkaldic Bundestaler is minted for the first time , a joint coinage of the Saxon Elector Johann Friedrich the Magnanimous and Landgrave Philip I of Hesse , the two leaders of the Schmalkaldic League . The coins show the federal governors on a Saxon and a Hessian side.
science and technology
- September 10 : Based on the model of the University of Paris , the University of Saragossa is founded with the approval of King Charles I of Spain .
- The German doctor and botanist Leonhart Fuchs published his first herbal book De Historia Stirpium commentarii insignes in Latin .
- Aztec Codices : Antonio de Mendoza , Viceroy of New Spain , sends the Codex Mendoza drawn up on his behalf to Spain. However, this is intercepted by pirates on the way and brought to France.
- The German theologian and reformer Erasmus Alberus published the poem You dear Christians, rejoice now , which is used today as an Advent song .
- Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse has the former Gronau monastery converted into a high hospital for men.
- around 1542: The Kurfürstendamm is laid out as an embankment path from the Berlin City Palace to the Grunewald hunting lodge and initially serves as a bridle path for Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg.
- May 6th : Francisco de Xavier y Jassu arrives in Goa and begins Christian proselytizing in India.
- July 21 : Pope Paul III. approves the formation of the Congregatio Romanae et universalis Inquisitionis (Holy Inquisition ) in Rome with the Apostolic Constitution Licet ab initio to protect the Catholic Church from heresies , especially Protestantism . In the same year, a competent college of six cardinals is appointed, who, as inquisitors general, are endowed with special rights, among other things, to appoint further inquisitors.
- The Cistercians - monastery Lehnin in Brandenburg , around 25 kilometers southwest of Potsdam is secularized , as is the monastery Chorin .
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- January 1 : Konrad Friederich , Mayor of St. Gallen († 1600 )
- March 8 : Wolfgang Amling , German theologian († 1606 )
- March 19 : Jan Zamoyski , Polish magnate, statesman and grand hetman († 1605 )
- April 3 : Othmar Reiner , Mayor of St. Gallen († 1613 )
- April 22nd : Georg Rollenhagen , German writer, educator and preacher († 1609 )
- April: Johannes Corputius , Dutch cartographer, engineer and military leader in the Eighty Years War († 1611 )
- May 21 : Johann Wilhelm Stucki , Swiss theologian, philologist and historian († 1607 )
- June 24th : John of the Cross , Spanish poet, mystic and doctor of the church († 1591 )
- July 25 : Magnus Gustavsson Wasa , Swedish Prince and Duke of Östergötland († 1595 )
- August 31 : Isabella de 'Medici , Italian noblewoman († 1576 )
- September 1 : Michael Abel , German humanist, neo-Latin poet and lyric poet († 1609 )
- October 15 : Akbar , son of Humayun, Mughal Mughal of India († 1605 )
- October 31 : Henriette de Clèves , Duchess of Rethel († 1601 )
- November 1 : Tarquinia Molza , Italian musician and poet († 1617 )
- December 8th : Mary Queen of Scots († 1587 )
- December 21 : Thomas Allen , English mathematician and astrologer († 1632 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johannes Angelus , German theologian († 1608 )
- Andreas Crappius , German hymn composer († 1623 )
- Hayashizaki Jinsuke Shigenobu , Japanese samurai († 1621 )
Date of death secured
- 4th January : Dietrich VIII. Von Gemmingen , landlord of Steinegg and Tiefenbronn
- January 6 : Bernard van Orley , Dutch painter (* 1491 or 1492 )
- January 10 : Gerhard Geldenhauer , humanist and theologian (* 1482 )
- February 13 : Catherine Howard , Queen of England, 5th wife of Henry VIII, executed (* 1521 or 1525 )
- February 13 : Jane Boleyn , English nobleman, lady-in-waiting Catherine Howards (* around 1505 )
- May 19 : Abduṣṣamed ben Seyyidī ʿAlī bin Dāvūd ed-Diyārbekrī , Ottoman historian and translator (* unknown)
- May 21 : Hernando de Soto , Spanish conquistador on the banks of the Mississippi (* between 1496 and 1500 )
- May 23 : Gendün Gyatsho , second Dalai Lama (* 1475 )
- May 24th : Caspar Güttel , Lutheran theologian and reformer (* 1471 )
- June 14 : Christoph von Scheurl , German lawyer, diplomat and humanist (* 1481 )
- June 19 : Leo Jud , Swiss reformer (* 1482 )
- August 17th : Dominik Zili , Swiss reformer (* before 1500)
- August 24th : Gasparo Contarini , Venetian diplomat and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (* 1483 )
- August 29 : Cristóvão da Gama , Portuguese military leader, son of Vasco da Gama (* around 1516 )
- August: Peter Henlein , German locksmith and inventor of the portable clock (* around 1485 )
- September 17th : Dionisio Neagrus Laurerio , Italian cardinal (* 1497 )
- September 25 : Thomas Kantzow , German chronicler and historian (* around 1505)
- October 6 : Werner Steiner the Younger , Swiss reformer (* 1492 )
- October 15 : William Fitzwilliam, 1st Earl of Southampton , confidante of King Henry VIII of England (* around 1490 )
- October 23 : Johannes Zwick , German theologian, lawyer, reformer and hymn poet (* around 1496 )
- November 10th : Dietrich von Schönenberg , nobleman in the service of the Electoral Palatinate (* around 1480 )
- November 25th : Heinrich Stromer , Leipzig university professor, doctor and founder of Auerbachs Keller (* 1476 )
- December 14 : James V , King of Scotland (* 1512 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Juan Boscán Almogávar , Spanish poet (* around 1490 )
- Sebastian Franck , German writer and mystic (* 1499 )