|Vladislav II is recognized as King of Bohemia and Hungary .||Heinrich VII becomes the father of a son who is also named Heinrich .|
|Heiligenblut is consecrated.|
|1491 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||939/940 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||11. Rabbit - Matlactli ozce Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 10th house - Matlactli Calli )|
|Buddhist calendar||2034/35 (southern Buddhism); 2033/34 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||853/854 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3824/25 (2-3 October)|
|Islamic calendar||896/897 (turn of the year 3rd / 4th November)|
|Jewish calendar||5251/52 (September 4th / 5th)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1801/02 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1802/03 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1547/48 (turn of the year April)|
In 1491 the siege of Granada by the Catholic kings Ferdinand II and Isabella I begins , with which the conquest of the Kingdom of Granada and with it the Reconquista in Spain will be successfully concluded at the beginning of the next year.
In neighboring Portugal , the death of Infante Alfons, who was married to a Spanish princess, marked the end of hopes for an all-Iberian empire under the House of Avis . At the same time, however, the way is cleared for the succession to the throne of one of the most important kings in the history of Portugal .
At the same time, after a military defeat against Vladislav II , the Roman-German King Maximilian I had to recognize the Jagiellonian claim to Bohemia and Hungary . With the Peace of Pressburg, however , he created the long-term basis for the powerful Habsburg monarchy in the center of Europe.
Politics and world events
- April 11th : The siege of Granada begins as the last act of the conquest of the Kingdom of Granada by the troops of the Catholic Kings Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand V of Aragon . For this purpose, the Santa Fe army camp will be built about ten kilometers northeast of the city at the beginning of June . Granada is the last city of the Emirate of Granada under Muhammad XII. and thus also the last city of the Moors on European soil.
- July 13 : Alfons, the only legitimate son of the Portuguese King John II , dies at the age of 16. Johann's cousin Manuel moves to the top of the line of succession in Portugal . Johann's attempt to appoint his illegitimate favorite son Jorge de Lancastre as his successor fails mainly due to the influence of his wife Eleonore .
- November 25th : Following official negotiations between the Emirate of Granada , represented by Vizier Abu'l Qasim Abd al-Malik and Muhammad al-Baqqani, and the Kingdom of Castile , represented by the Royal Secretary Fernando de Zafra and Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba y Aguilar , the contracts for the surrender of Granada are signed in the camp of Santa Fé . Among other things, this guarantees the population the freedom to practice their religion. The Emir Muhammad XII. It is promised that he and his family will receive a small rule in the Alpujarras region, which, as a Muslim enclave, will be subject to his power. Similar regulations exist for some of the higher dignitaries of the Emirates.
- Christopher Columbus' idea for a trip to Asia on the Atlantic route is again rejected by a Spanish commission. Although he received the promise from the royal couple that they would return to his plans after the war against Granada, Columbus decides to go to France instead. On the way to Huelva , where he wants to embark, he stopped at the La Rábida monastery . The Franciscan Juan Pérez and the doctor García Hernández hold him back there. Pérez writes a haunting letter to the queen and thus has Columbus called back to the court, where he will arrive at the end of the year.
Other events in Europe
- February 19 : With the death of Enno I , his brother Edzard I becomes Count of East Friesland . At this point in time he is on pilgrimage in the Holy Land.
- March 30th : Wolter von Plettenberg , Land Marshal of the Teutonic Order , triumphs with his troops in the Battle of Neuermühlen over the units of the Archbishop of Riga and the city of Riga. With this, Plettenberg lays the decisive foundation for the unification of Old Livonia .
- September 25th : After the death of his grandfather Johann II , Engelbert von Kleve inherits the counties Nevers and Eu , but not the county Rethel , which is to go to Johann's granddaughter Marie d'Albret , who was born in March .
- November 7th : The Roman-German King Maximilian I , who invaded Hungary but was defeated with his army , concludes the Peace of Pressburg . The Habsburgs recognized the rule of King Vladislav II in Hungary. With this contract, which also contains a contract of inheritance , Maximilian secures long-term rule over the Jagiellonian Empire for the Habsburgs .
- December 6th : The French King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne and incorporates Brittany into his empire with the marriage . The protest of the Roman-German King Maximilian I , who is formally her husband, has no effect, although there is no papal dispensation for the marriage.
- After the death of his brother Borommaracha III. Ramathibodi II becomes king of Ayutthaya . His reign is marked by the peaceful development of the kingdom and the first contacts with Europeans.
- October 28 : When rich silver ore veins were discovered on the Schreckenberg not far from the Frohnauer Obermühle , a strong influx of people sets in in the wake of the mountain screams .
Science, technology and culture
History and political science
- The Middle Low German chronicler Hermann Bote takes a critical look at the prevailing social system for the first time in his Boek van veleme rade theory of states and estates .
- The printer Michael Furter prints the genealogy of the Babenbergs compiled by Ladislaus Sunthaym for the first time in Basel , which makes the latter known as genealogists and historians.
Geography and cartography
Medicine and science
- The Gothic cathedral is inaugurated in Halberstadt .
- The pilgrimage church is consecrated in Heiligenblut .
- The construction of the Turin Cathedral begins.
nature and environment
Date of birth documented
- January 7th : Wilhelm von Fürstenberg , German mercenary leader († 1549 )
- January 15 : Nicolò da Ponte , Doge of Venice († 1585 )
- February 14 : Johannes Lening , German theologian and reformer († 1566 )
- March 25 : Marie d'Albret , Countess von Rethel and Countess von Nevers († 1549 )
- May 10 : Suzanne de Bourbon-Beaujeu , Duchess of Bourbon and Auvergne, and Countess of Clermont († 1521 )
- May 31 : Ignatius von Loyola , Basque nobleman, pilgrim and priest, founder of the Societas Jesu (Jesuits) († 1556 )
- June 28 : Henry VIII , King of England († 1547 )
- August 3 : Maria von Jülich , Duchess of Jülich-Kleve-Berg († 1543 )
- August 25 : Innocenzo Cibo , Italian cardinal († 1550 )
- October 26 : Zhengde , Chinese Emperor († 1521 )
- November 11 : Martin Bucer , important German theologian of the Reformation († 1551 )
- November 25 : Martin Cleß , German theologian and reformer († 1552 )
- November 29 : Andreas I. Imhoff , Nuremberg patrician, merchant, banker and politician († 1579 )
- December 31 : Jacques Cartier , French explorer and navigator († 1557 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Peter Becker , German theologian and reformer († 1563 )
- Konrad Braun , German Catholic theologian († 1563 )
- Jobst von Dewitz , ducal councilor and chancellor in Pommern-Wolgast († 1542 )
- Teofilo Folengo , Italian monk and poet († 1544 )
- Hans Katzianer , Slovenian nobleman and general († 1539 )
- Johann Lachmann , German theologian and reformer († 1538 or 1539 )
Born around 1491
First half of the year
- February 2 : Martin Schongauer , German engraver and painter (* around 1445 / 50 )
- February 19 : Enno I. , Count of East Frisia (* 1460 )
- February 24th : Hans Tucher , Nuremberg patrician (* 1428 )
- March 11 : Marco Barbo , Italian cardinal (* 1420 )
- March 13 : Ulrich Rösch , Abbot of St. Gallen (* 1426 )
- May 2 : Dierick Bouts the Younger , Dutch painter (* around 1448 )
- 7 May : Benoît de Montferrand , Bishop of Coutances and Lausanne (* before 1460)
- May 14 : Filippo Strozzi the Elder , Florentine merchant (* 1428 )
- May 31 : Philippe Basiron , French composer, organist and cleric (* around 1450 )
Second half of the year
- July 13 : Johann Koerbecke , Westphalian painter of the late Gothic period (* around 1415 / 20 )
- July 13 : Alfonso, Infanta of Portugal , heir apparent and son of King Joao II (* 1475 )
- July 30th : Arnold Heymerick , German Abbreviator and Domdechan (* before 1424)
- August 7 : Jacob Barbireau , Franco-Flemish composer (* 1455 / 56 )
- September 25 : Johann von Burgund , Count of Étampes, Nevers and Rethel as well as von Eu (* 1415 )
- October 5 : Jean de La Balue , French cardinal and minister (* 1421 )
- December 28 : Bertoldo di Giovanni , Italian sculptor (* between 1435 and 1440 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Borommaracha III. , King of Ayutthaya (* 1447 )
- Jöns Budde , monk in Naantali (* around 1437 )
- William Caxton , first English printer (* around 1422 )
- Domenico di Michelino , Italian painter (* 1417 )
- Didrik Pining , German navigator (* around 1428 )
- Alphonso de Spina , Bishop of Thermopylae and author
- Jörg Syrlin the Elder , German carpenter and sculptor (* around 1425 )