Calendar overview 1543
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
|Vesalius : Libri septem de humani corporis fabrica||Leonhart Fuchs : New Kreüterbuch|
has to abandon the siege of Nice without success.
|1543 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||991/992 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2086/87 (southern Buddhism); 2085/86 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||905/906 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3876/77 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||949/950 (turn of the year April 5th / 6th)|
|Jewish calendar||5303/04 (29/30 August)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1853/54 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1854/55 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1599/1600 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- August 5th : In the struggle for supremacy in Italy between the Valois and Habsburg houses , an allied French-Ottoman armed force begins the siege of Nice .
- September 5th : The siege of Nice ends with the withdrawal of the French and their allied Turkish besiegers after an imperial army approaches the city. The struggle for supremacy in northern Italy is initially in favor of Spain .
England / Wales
- The second of the laws for the integration of Wales into the Kingdom of England decided. Among other things, this will make the English language the official language in Wales.
Other events in Europe
- August: Richardsdorf (later Rixdorf, today Berlin-Neukölln ) becomes the property of the city of Cölln .
- August / September: The Ottomans conquer Gran and Stuhlweissenburg in the Hungarian civil war .
- September 7 : The Treaty of Venlo is the Third Money Generic succession war settled. Duke Wilhelm V of Jülich-Kleve-Berg (known as Wilhelm the Rich) must finally cede the Duchy of Geldern and the County of Zutphen to Emperor Charles V.
- The Kingdom of Thomond in Ireland is extinguished.
- Romberg and Volosko are first mentioned in a document.
- February 21 : In the battle of Wayna Daga a Portuguese - Ethiopian army defeats troops of the Muslim sultanate Adal , whose ruler Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi is killed in the battle. His successor Nur ibn Mudjahid continues the fight against the Ethiopian negus negest Claudius .
- After the death of the Christian Mani-Congo Afonso I , a period of controversy for the throne began in the Kingdom of the Congo .
- During the siege of the Jülich Fortress , Jülich emergency cliffs were issued as siege coins for the first time .
- The Köstritzer Erbschenke in Köstritz near Gera is first mentioned in a document. This makes it one of the oldest black beer breweries in Germany.
science and technology
- Nicolaus Copernicus publishes De revolutionibus orbium coelestium . In the work published by the Nuremberg printer Johannes Petreius , he describes a mathematical and natural-philosophical model according to which the planets, including the earth, move around the sun and the earth rotates around its own axis. The work is one of the milestones in modern astronomy . It is a key work of the Copernican turn .
Medicine and botany
- Andreas Vesalius publishes the medical work Libri septem de humani corporis fabrica in Basel with the publisher Johannes Oporinus and thus establishes the modern anatomy . Vesalius himself is holding an anatomical colloquium in Basel in May. The so-called Vesal skeleton prepared by him is still preserved today and is the oldest piece in the anatomical collection in Basel . It is said to consist of the mortal remains of the criminal Jakob Karrer von Gebweiler, who was dissected and dissected in 1543.
- The German physician and botanist Leonhart Fuchs publishes his New Kreueter book .
Culture and society
- February 22nd : The Archigymnasium in Dortmund is founded by a resolution of the mayor and the city council.
- May 21 : On the advice of his political advisor Georg von Carlowitz, Duke Moritz von Sachsen issues the new state order , with which in the Von Dreyen section the new schools form the permanent basis for the princely schools that still exist today : the state school Sankt Afra in Meißen , the state school Pforta in the walls of the Pforta monastery , which were founded in the same year, and - after the veto of the Bishop of Merseburg against the establishment of such a school in his city - the state school Sankt Augustin in Grimma in 1550 .
- The Princely School in Wolfenbüttel is founded.
- Duke Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Coburg commissioned the architects Paulus Beheim , Nikolaus Gromann and Caspar Vischer to build Ehrenburg Castle near Coburg . Parts of the old Franciscan monastery are included in the construction.
- Archbishop and Elector Hermann von Wied tried to introduce the Reformation in the Archbishopric of Cologne and the neighboring countries, Vest Recklinghausen and the Duchy of Westphalia . The Elector invites for this purpose Philipp Melanchthon one to the Archbishopric, the beginning of the year in Bonn arrives with Martin Bucer a reformation writing to Cologne Reformation written. In the state parliament, Hermann von Wied is supported in particular by the knighthood, but also by parts of the cathedral chapter. As a result, resistance to the Reformation began to develop in the cathedral chapter under the leadership of Johannes Gropper and in the University of Cologne , supported by Duke Wilhelm the Rich .
- In the writings Von den Jüden und iren Lügen and Vom Schem Hamphoras, Martin Luther defamed the Jews and equated them with the devil .
- Martin Luther publishes the Christmas carol From heaven came the angels host .
- The Levern Monastery is dissolved in the course of the Reformation and converted into a secular women's monastery.
Date of birth saved
- January 22nd : Hartmann Pistoris , legal scholar and Privy Councilor of the Saxon Electors († 1603 )
- January 31 : Tokugawa Ieyasu , Japanese general, Shogun and one of the "three unifiers" († 1616 )
- February 14 : Valentin Schindler , German philologist and orientalist († 1604 )
- February 16 : Kanō Eitoku , Japanese painter († 1590 )
- February 18 : Charles III. , Duke of Lorraine and Mercœur († 1608 )
- March 7th : Johann Kasimir von Pfalz-Simmern , administrator of the Electoral Palatinate († 1592 )
- March 11 : Dorothea von Sachsen-Lauenburg , Duchess of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen († 1586 )
- June 18 : Petrus Albinus , professor in Wittenberg and founder of Saxon historiography († 1598 )
- June 29 : Christine von Hessen , Duchess of Holstein-Gottorf († 1604 )
- August 21 : Giovanni Bembo , 92nd Doge of Venice († 1618 )
- September 14 : Claudio Acquaviva , Superior General of the Societas Jesu († 1615 )
- November 8 : Lettice Knollys , English noblewoman and lady-in-waiting of Queen Elizabeth I († 1634 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ichijō Kanesada , Japanese nobleman († 1585 )
- Jeong Gu , Korean philosopher, poet and writer († 1620 )
- Philipp Lonicer , German historian and Protestant theologian († 1599 )
- Magnus II , Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg († 1603 )
- Karl von Mansfeld , German mercenary († 1595 )
- Michele Ruggieri , Italian priest and missionary in China († 1607 )
- Şerefhan , Kurdish prince and writer († around 1599 )
- Sönam Gyatsho , third Dalai Lama († 1588 )
January to April
- January 3 : Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo , Portuguese explorer in Spanish service (* around 1499 )
- 13 January : Konrad Treger , German Augustinian hermit and Catholic controversial theologian (* around 1480 / 1483 )
- February 10 : Johannes Eck , German Catholic theologian, opponent of Martin Luther (* 1486 )
- February 21 : Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi , Muslim-Ethiopian ruler in the Sultanate of Adal (* 1506 )
- February 21 : Apollonia von Waldenfels , abbess of the Himmelkron monastery
- February 23 : Joseph Feyerabend , German lawyer and reformer, first Protestant monastery dean in Ansbach and first Protestant provost in Feuchtwangen (* 1493 )
- March 20 : Johann Feige , Hessian lawyer and statesman (* 1482 )
- March 30 : Cesare Cesariano , Italian painter, fresco artist, art writer, military engineer and architect (* around 1477 )
- April 4 : Walther von Cronberg , German Master and Grand Master of the Teutonic Order (* around 1477 )
- April 15 : Francesco Canova da Milano , Italian composer and lutenist (* 1497 )
- April 15 : Christoph von Stadion , Bishop of Augsburg (* 1478 )
- April 23 : Susanna of Bavaria , Margravine of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and Countess Palatine of Neuburg (* 1502 )
May to August
- May 1st : Veit von Thümen , Lord Master of the Order of St. John (* before 1511)
- before May 3: Altobello Melone , Italian painter (* around 1490 / 1491 )
- May 16 : Mathias Auctus , German humanist, city physician in Breslau (* before 1490)
- May 21 : Georg Elner , German logician and theologian (* around 1473 )
- May 24th : Nikolaus Kopernikus , German astronomer, mathematician, cartographer and doctor, Canon of the Duchy of Warmia in Prussia (* 1473 )
- May 30th / 31st : Gisbert Longolius , Lower Rhine humanist (* 1507 )
- May: Bonifacius Wolfhart , German theologian and reformer (* around 1490 )
- June 27 : Agnolo Firenzuola , Italian poet (* 1493 )
- July 19 : Berthold Pürstinger , Bishop of Chiemsee and theological writer (* 1465 )
- July 30 : Mary Boleyn ., English maid of honor, sister of Anne Boleyn, mistress of King Henry VIII of England (* 1499 / 1500 )
- August 1st : Magnus I , Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg (* 1470 )
- August 1 : Paul Phrygio , German Reformed theologian and reformer (* around 1483 )
- August 8 : Herman Rover , German lawyer, council secretary in Lübeck and councilor in Hamburg (* around 1495 )
- August 29 : Maria von Jülich , Duchess of Jülich-Kleve-Berg (* 1491 )
September to December
- September 20 : Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland , English nobleman and politician (* before 1493)
- September 23 : Johanna von Hachberg-Sausenberg , Countess of Neuchâtel (* between 1485 and 1487)
- September 26 : Francesco Cornaro , Cardinal Bishop of Albano and Palestrina, Bishop of Brescia (* 1478 )
- September 28 : Georg von Kunheim the Elder , Prussian administrative officer and political advisor to Duke Albrecht of Prussia (* 1480 )
- October 7th : Gertrud von Büchel , German abbess, calligrapher and book illustrator (* 1467 )
- November 1st : Nikolaus Brömse , Mayor of Lübeck (* around 1472 )
- November 10th : Matthäus Aurogallus , German historian, linguist and Hebraist (* 1490 )
- November 29th : Hans Holbein the Younger , German painter (* 1497 )
- November 30th : Francesco Granacci , Italian painter (* 1469 )
- December 12th : Maria Salviati , Italian patrician (* 1499 )
- December 27th : Georg the Pious , Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Regent of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and Duke of Jägerndorf and Oppeln-Ratibor (* 1484 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Afonso I , King of the African Empire of the Congo (* around 1456 )
- Friedrich von Ahlefeldt , Lord of Haseldorf, Haselau, at Gut Seestermühe and Gut Seegaard and royal council
- al-Mutawakkil III. , last Abbasid caliph in Cairo
- Polidoro da Caravaggio , Italian painter (* around 1492 )
- Michele Coltellini , Italian painter (* around 1480 )
- Antonio Giuffrè , Sicilian painter (* 1493 )
- John Nevill, 3rd Baron Latymer , English nobleman and politician (* 1493 )
- Thao Chai , ruler of the Lao kingdom of La Nan