Catherine Parr

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Queen Catherine Parr
Catherine Parr

Catherine Parr , contemporary spelling Katherine Parr (e) (* 1512 either at Kendal Castle , Westmorland or in London ; †  September 5,  1548 at Sudeley Castle near Winchcombe , Gloucestershire ) was the sixth and last wife of King Henry VIII and for four Years Queen of England and Ireland . She was born in 1512 as the first child of Sir Thomas Parr († 1517) from Kendal and Maud Greene († 1529) and had two siblings, William(* 1513) and Anne (* 1515). Catherine Parr married Henry VIII on July 12, 1543, the third of four spouses.

Catherine had a close relationship with Henry's three children and personally provided the education of Edward and Elizabeth , both of whom would succeed on the English throne. She also reconciled Heinrich with his daughters and took part in their reinstatement in the line of succession under the 3rd Act of Succession to the Throne of 1543.

On Henry's orders, Catherine ruled from July to September 1544 during his absence and, in the event of his death, should have maintained the reign until Edward came of age. She was a representative of the Protestant faction of the English court and published the first book Prayers or Meditations written by an English queen .


Catherine Parr's ancestors were connected to the English nobility and the royal family through various connections. Catherine's father, Sir Thomas Parr, landlord of Kendal in Westmorland (now Cumbria ), was a descendant of King Edward III . Her grandfather William Parr was able to refer to ancestors with royal blood on her father's side with King John , King William 'the Lion' of Scotland and the Bruce family . Catherine's mother and Thomas' wife, Maud Green, were the daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Green, Lord of Greens Norton, Northamptonshire.

Since Catherine's family also descended from the Beaufort family, Catherine was a fourth cousin through Henry's father and a second cousin of Henry VIII through his mother. Through her mother, Catherine was through her ancestor Joan Wydville, the sister of Richard Woodville , with the Related to father of Queen Elizabeth Woodville .


Signature of Catherine Parr as Queen

Catherine Parr was born in 1512, probably in August, but her exact birthday is unknown. She was the oldest surviving child of the Parrs, who at that time were already one of the most important families of the northern English landed gentry and had an extensive family line. At the time of Catherine's birth, her father, Sir Thomas Parr, the sheriff of Northamptonshire, was the auditor in the court of King Henry VIII and was a close friend of Henry. Catherine's mother Maud Parr was a frequent companion and close friend of Queen Catherine of Aragon, and so Catherine was probably named after Queen Catherine, who also acted as her godmother. Catherine had a younger brother, William , who later became Marquess of Northampton, and a sister, Anne , who later became Countess of Pembroke .

Just like the Seymour and Howard families (to which the Boleyn family also belonged), the Parrs achieved respect and prosperity through royal favor and successful marriage strategies, for example with the Ros (or Roos) family. Overall, the Parrs were more respected than, for example, the branch of the family of Heinrich's second wife Anne Boleyn and were also much better established and networked at court. Although no part of the English aristocracy at the time of Catherine's childhood, the Parrs had long been in the service of the royal families. Catherine's grandfather William Parr as 1st Baron Parr von Kendal was a member of the court of King Edward IV and held the office of royal auditor from 1471 to 1475 and then again from 1481 until the king's death in 1483. Sir William was in high favor with King Edward IV and was one of only two courtiers who were accepted into the Order of the Garter during his reign . When in 1483 Richard III. King William's wife Elizabeth and her mother Alice became ladies-in-waiting of Alice's niece, Queen Anne Neville . The calling of the respective female members of the Parr family to court ladies would last for five generations, right up to Catherine's sister Anne, who also served several wives of Henry VIII.

It was originally believed that Catherine Parr was born at Kendal Castle. However, the castle was in poor condition at the time of its birth and was abandoned in 1572 at the latest. Maud Parr was also visiting Queen Catherine's court at the time of her pregnancy, and the Parr family lived in their home in Blackfriars , London. Historians consider it unlikely that Thomas Parr could have sent his pregnant wife on a rather arduous two-week trip to the north of England and to a decaying castle in which the family had spent little time overall. Hence, Catherine was probably born in London.

Catherine's father died in 1517 when she was 5 years old, so she was raised mainly by her mother. “ Her father died when she was young and she was close to her mother as she grew up. ” Catherine's education and upbringing were similar to that of other highborn women of her time, but the young woman was not very enthusiastic about sewing and often said ironic to her mother that “my hands are meant to touch crowns and sceptres instead of spindles and needles.” She developed an interest in constant learning at an early age and should maintain this for her entire life. Catherine was fluent in French, Latin and Italian and began studying Spanish after her coronation. Overall, according to David Starkey , she was better educated than her eloquent predecessor Anne Boleyn .

First marriage

It was originally believed that Catherine married Edward Burgh, 2nd Baron Burgh, in 1529 at the age of 17. In the books The Wives of Henry VIII by Antonia Fraser (1994) and David Starkey's book on the same subject (2004), however, Catherine's first husband was identified as the grandson of the same name of the aforementioned Edward Burgh. Some historians suggest that this mistake goes back to the 19th century historian Agnes Strickland . More recent investigations by Susan James and Linda Porter for their biographies about the Queen then also proved, including through Maud Parr's will, that Catherine married his grandson Edward Burgh instead of the aged Baron Burgh. Edward was in his 20s, around Catherine's age, but possibly in poor health. He served as Justice of the Peace and was to succeed his father, Sir Thomas Burgh, as administrator of the Kirton-in-Lindsey jurisdiction. The first few months of the marriage did not seem to have been free from problems, with Catherine particularly, and now as well as throughout his life, her husband Edward suffering from his tyrannical father Thomas. He expected strict obedience from all family members and from Catherine to give birth quickly and otherwise to be a docile wife. In October 1530, the couple moved from Gainsborough Old Hall to Kirton-in-Lindsey out of the direct reach of their father. Catherine quickly took over the housekeeping there, and both appear to have had a satisfactory, albeit childless, marriage. With Edward's untimely death in 1533, Catherine was widowed at the age of 21 and, with no deeper ties to her late husband's family, she left Kirton and did not return to Gainsborough.

Lady Latimer (Second Marriage)

Portrait of Catherine Parr in Lambeth Palace
According to Susan James and Linda Porter, this portrait is the first known painting of Catherine Parr and was believed to have been painted at the time of her marriage to Lord Latimer. More recently, there has been a dispute as to whether this could also be a picture of Catherine of Aragon.

It is believed that after the death of her husband, Catherine spent the following (mourning) time with the widow of her cousin Sir Walter Strickland, Catherine Neville, at their residence Sizergh Castle in Westmorland and thus in the immediate vicinity of Kendal Castle. Catherine's kinship with Lady Neville was based on several paths: on the one hand, Catherine's great-aunt Agnes Parr was married to Sir Thomas Strickland , the son of Walter Strickland and Douce Crofte. Second, her paternal grandfather, Sir William Parr, was married to Elizabeth Ros, the daughter of Sir John Ros von Kendal and Catherine Strickland. Finally, Lady Strickland was related to Parr's next husband, 3rd Baron Latimer, John Neville , whom Catherine married in the summer of 1534. At the age of 40, Neville, who had already been divorced twice, was almost twice as old as 22-year-old Catherine and had brought two children, John and Margaret, from his first marriage to Dorothy de Vere. Her new husband John was in turn one of 15 children of Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer, and he had to contend with some family rivalries and financial difficulties due to the large siblings. As Lady Latimer, Catherine now had a house of her own and a husband of influence and a title of nobility. Except for her great-aunt Mabel, she remained the only woman in the Parr family to marry into the peerage .

From the beginning of the marriage, Catherine tried to be an exemplary wife. Her affection for her husband was at least so great that she kept his New Testament with his name in it in memory of him until her death. She also proved to be a good stepmother to her two stepchildren, a behavior that she would continue to show towards his children even after the marriage with King Henry VIII. The relationship with her stepson John was probably more difficult than that with Margaret, also because there are indications that the girl was treated as a preferred child by his father. Nevertheless, Catherine maintained the relationship with her two stepchildren even after her marriage to King Henry. So she called Margaret to the court as lady-in-waiting and got John's wife a position in her household.

Catherine's husband, John Latimer, was a follower of the old Catholic faith and bitterly opposed the king's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, the marriage to Anne Boleyn and the general religious overturns of the king, which he had been practicing for several years. During an initially local uprising in Louth in early October 1536 , the Latimers' home was threatened by an angry mob and John Latimer was forced to join the insurgent cause. Catherine had to watch her husband being abducted by the rebels. When the Louther uprising collapsed after just a few days, however, the much more violent and dangerous rebellion of the Pilgrimage of Grace around its leader Robert Aske arose at the same time . While Latimer was a prisoner of the Louth rebels, different versions of his loyalty in this matter began to reach the Lord Chancellor Thomas Cromwell and the King in London. Latimer now found himself in a terrible dilemma: the rebels were holding him hostage and forcing him to support their cause. However, should he be found guilty of treason by the king, his lands would be confiscated and his family left penniless. Heinrich himself wrote to the Duke of Norfolk that the latter should force Latimer to 'condemn the traitor Aske and submit to my grace'. Both Catherine's brother William Parr and her uncle William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Horton, fought alongside the Duke of Norfolk and the Duke of Suffolk against the rebellion. After his release by the insurgents, Latimer immediately signed the required declaration and was spared by the king, so it is likely that Catherine's relatives also stood up for his life.

Snape Castle

Between October 1536 and April 1537, Catherine lived alone and in fear with her two stepchildren in Snape Castle, struggling to survive all of them. It is conceivable that this difficult time caused by the uprising and the constant threat increased their own advocacy of the Reformation of the English Church. In January 1537, Catherine and the children were held hostage by the rebels in their castle. The insurgents ransacked the house and sent a message to Lord Latimer, who was traveling to London, that he had to return immediately, otherwise they would kill his family. When Latimer returned, he managed to persuade the rebels to release his family and they fled south together, but the consequences were still to affect the entire family.

After the collapse of the revolt and the execution of many thousands of insurgents, Heinrich and Cromwell were basically appeased, but Latimer's reputation and thus the reputation of his family were permanently damaged. So he found himself blackmailed by Cromwell for the last seven years of his life and had to travel to London often to be present in Parliament and to vote for Cromwell. It was only after Cromwell's execution in 1540 that the Latimer family was able to partially restore its reputation. The couple spent the winter of 1542 in London, where Catherine's brother William and her sister Anne were also staying at the royal court. Anne had been in the service of Henry's queens as a lady-in-waiting since 1531 and it was here that Catherine made the acquaintance of her future fourth husband, Sir Thomas Seymour , the brother of the late Queen Jane Seymour . Life at court was markedly different from the rural and provincial environment in which Catherine had spent the past few years, and it is reasonable to assume that here Catherine could deal not only with innovations in worldly things like fashion and jewelry, but also in rain Contact was made with the burgeoning reformatory circles in the capital.

In the winter of 1542/1543, Lord Latimer's health deteriorated and Catherine spent her time tending to him. He died on March 2, 1543 and by his will appointed Catherine as guardian for his daughter Margaret until she came of age. He left her Stowe Manor and other possessions, as well as money to support his daughter. Thus, at the age of 31, Catherine was a wealthy widow with the option of going back north to join her family.

Instead, she took advantage of her late mother's connection with the former Queen Catherine of Aragon and renewed her friendship with Lady Mary Tudor . On February 16, 1543, Catherine was accepted into the household of Mary and thus in the immediate vicinity of King Henry. Catherine initially continued the relationship with Sir Thomas Seymour that had already started. However, when the king's attention turned to her and he found pleasure in her, she considered it her duty to accept Henry's proposal and wrote to Thomas Seymour that her own will had been defeated by a 'higher power'. At the same time, Thomas Seymour was commissioned by the king with a position in Brussels and thus removed from the court in the long term.

Queen of England and Ireland (third marriage)

This full-length painting in the National Portrait Gallery has long been believed to depict Lady Jane Gray . More recently, however, the woman could again be identified as Catherine Parr, which was also achieved through the jewels depicted. A portrait in this size was made only for particularly important people.
An autograph letter from Catherine Parr dated 1544. London, British Library , Cotton Vespasian F III, fol. 37r

Catherine married King Henry VIII on July 12, 1543 at Hampton Court Palace . She was the first Queen of England to be given the title of Queen of Ireland after Henry had only accepted the title of King of Ireland himself in 1542. She made her uncle William Parr her court marshal and developed good relationships with Henry's children, especially Elizabeth and Edward . She also influenced the king to make his daughters potential heirs to the throne again with the Succession Act of 1543. At the time, Thomas Wriothesley , Lord Chancellor of King Henry, extolled Catherine Parr as “the woman who, in my judgment, is best suited to His Highness for her virtue, wisdom and meekness, and I am sure that His Majesty never had a consort, which is more agreeable to His heart than she. "

When Heinrich was on a campaign in France from July to September 1544, he appointed Catherine regent and guardian of his children. During this time the Queen was able to rely on her devoted advisers, above all her uncle Lord Parr as well as the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer and the 1st Duke of Somerset, Edward Seymour , the brother of the exiled Thomas Seymour and most powerful man on the Privy Council. This enabled her to exercise rulership effectively. She organized the supplies and finances for Henry's campaign in France, signed five royal proclamations and kept in constant contact with her representative in the northern Marche, Lord Shrewsbury , to keep an eye on the difficult and unstable situation in Scotland. It is generally assumed that the future Queen Elizabeth was strongly influenced by her stepmother's activity as regent and that she took the strength of character, dignified demeanor and religious beliefs of her stepmother as an example.

Increasingly and finally in 1545 Catherine came under the suspicion of being a Protestant in the influential faction of the English court, which supported the Catholic or the now emerging Anglican state church . Although Catherine must have been raised a Catholic considering her date of birth, she apparently sympathized with the Reformation and the new faith from an early age. During the time of her reign she began to write prayers in English, which can be taken as a sign of her modern religious beliefs, since prayers had previously been written in Latin. Her inclination became even more apparent when she published her first book (Eng. Prayers and Meditations ) in 1545 . The book became a great success, making Catherine the first English queen and one of only eight women to have published any printed matter during the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII. Catherine now began to work on her second book Lamentations of a Sinner (Eng. The Lament of a Sinner ), in which she supported the Protestant idea of sola fide . This, however, has been condemned as heresy by the Catholic Church. Heinrich, on the other hand, who had founded the Anglican Church, continued to see himself as a Catholic and Catherine now tried to persuade the old king to convert in conversations and sometimes public disputes.

Stephen Gardiner , the Bishop of Winchester, and Lord Chancellor Wriothesley saw this, as well as because of Catherine's sympathy for Anne Askew , a Protestant martyr, and because of her friendships with more or less professing Protestants at court, confirmed their suspicions. Gardiner and Wriothesley finally succeeded in obtaining the king's approval of an investigation into Catherine, at the end of which Gardiner issued an arrest warrant against the queen in the summer of 1546. At the same time, rumors were circulating in European courts that the king was fond of Catherine's close friend, the Duchess of Suffolk, widowed in 1545 . Catherine learned from her confidante about the arrest warrant and its imminent execution and was able to appease the king at the last moment. She submitted to him, stating that "her words were only for entertainment and that as a woman she could only learn from him, but never instruct him" and that their arguments about religion were only intended to distract the king from his pain that he had had for years from the wound on his leg. Heinrich accepted this declaration and changed his mind. When he went for a walk with Catherine in the palace gardens the next day and a guard (or presumably the Lord Chancellor himself), ignorant of the reconciliation, wanted to execute the arrest warrant against the queen, the king rejected the plan brusquely and furiously. Catherine had saved her life, or at least her position, by submitting to Henry's will, but Stephen Gardiner fell from grace and was removed from office by the King. When Heinrich felt his death approaching before Christmas 1546, he sent Catherine and his daughters from court. He granted Catherine a pension of £ 7,000 a year, allowed her to remarry, and ordered that after his death she should enjoy the respect of a Queen of England.

Queen widow, fourth marriage and death

Henry died on January 28, 1547. After King Edward's coronation , Catherine retired from the royal court on January 31, 1547 to her home at Chelsea Manor in Chelsea . Thomas Seymour had already returned to England in the year before Henry's death and when he soon asked for the hand of one of the richest and most respected women in England, Catherine accepted his proposal in the spring of 1547. Both were aware, however, that the Privy Council would marry again Queen widow would not give permission so soon after Henry's death. Seymour obtained this permission in retrospect directly from his nephew King Edward, who gave it little benevolently and quietly. The secret marriage in May 1547 caused a minor scandal at the court when the event became public in the summer. In particular, Lady Mary was very angry and forbade her half-sister Elizabeth from further contact with Catherine.

During this time, when Catherine and Thomas had fallen out of favor at the Royal Court, she also fell out of favor with her former confidante and brother of her husband, the current Lord Protector and thus de facto regent of England, Edward Seymour , and his wife, her former Lady-in-waiting Anne Seymour , in dispute over the whereabouts of certain royal jewels. Catherine lost this in the end, and neither the friendship of the two women nor the relationship of the two Seymour brothers was to recover from this dispute.

In November 1547 Catherine published her second book, the aforementioned Lamentations of a Sinner , which received wide public approval. In the spring of 1548 she invited her stepdaughter Elizabeth and her cousin Lady Jane Gray to her household in Sudeley. The Dowager Queen wanted to keep her promise to provide education for the two of them, and her house subsequently became a popular place for the education of young women.

When Catherine finally became pregnant for the first time in March 1548 at the age of 35, it was a surprise, not least because she had not given birth to children in their previous three marriages. During Catherine's pregnancy, her husband began to renew his power-driven interest in the then 15-year-old Lady Elizabeth. Allegedly, before his marriage to Catherine, he had already had plans to marry Elizabeth in order to gain access to the potential heir to the throne and to strengthen his position. Presumably in order not to let the uncomfortable situation completely slip out of her control, Catherine initially seems to have more or less tacitly supported her husband in involving Elizabeth in various sexually charged situations. Presumably to protect Elizabeth's reputation, she was finally sent by Catherine in May 1548 to the household of Sir Anthony Denny in Cheshunt . She was never to see Catherine again, although the two women continued to write to each other.

Catherine gave birth to her only child, Mary Seymour, at Sudeley Castle on August 30, 1548 , and died just six days later of puerperal fever (which had also been the undoing of Henry's third wife, Jane). Due to the ignorance at the time about the necessity of strict hygienic measures during childbirth, this cause of death was not uncommon and is therefore plausible as an explanation of her death, but there are also theories that Catherine could have been poisoned by her husband because of his ambitious plans to marry Elizabeth could follow up.


Catherine Parr was the king's wife for three and a half years. She was considered an exemplary wife for Henry VIII, who not only looked after the sick and dangerously moody king devotedly, but also looked after his children. Catherine promoted scholars and clergy. It played no insignificant role in the implementation of the Protestant party at court. Catherine lived and worked according to her motto: " To be useful in all that I do ."

In her will, she bequeathed her property to Thomas Seymour. However, he was not to survive his wife long, as he was beheaded on March 20, 1549 for treason. The daughter of the two, Mary, was placed in the care of Catherine's friend, the 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby, Katherine Willoughby, at Grimsthorpe Castle . Catherine's jewels, as well as her manuscripts and dresses, were sent for safekeeping in the Tower of London. In March 1550, Parliament passed a resolution that Mary could inherit from her parents, presumably also to support Lady Willoughby. The last mention of Mary is on her second birthday. Although there are rumors about her later life, it is widely believed that she died at Grimsthorpe Castle as a child.

The remains of Catherines were interred in the castle chapel of St. Mary of Sudeley Castle (St. Mary's Sudeley). Her grave was soon forgotten. It wasn't until 1782 that her coffin was discovered by a man named John Locust in the ruined castle chapel. He opened the coffin and found a corpse that was still in very good condition after 234 years. After removing a lock of hair, the coffin was returned to the grave. During the next few decades, several more, improper and sometimes raw openings followed. The coffin was not officially opened again until 1817, but only a skeleton was found. First, the remains were transferred to the crypt of the then lord of the castle. The tomb was later restored on the instructions of Lady Anne Greville, daughter of the 3rd Duke of Chandos. Eventually the chapel was rebuilt by Sir George Gilbert Scott and a dignified burial place was created. Sudeley Castle is the only privately owned English castle on the grounds of which an English queen is buried.

coat of arms


In addition, Catherine Parr's life is the content of the novels

Web links

Commons : Catherine Parr  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. Phillipa Jones: Elizabeth: Virgin Queen . New Holland Publishers Ltd, 2010, ISBN 1-84773-515-0 .
  2. ^ Douglas Richardson, Kimball G. Everingham, Magna Carta ancestry: a study in colonial and medieval families , Genealogical Publishing Com, 2005, p. 701.
  3. a b c d Linda Porter. Katherine, the Queen. Macmillan. 2010.
  4. Linda Porter. Katherine, the queen (Macmillan (2010), 8).
  5. a b c David Starkey. Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII , HarperCollins, 2004, p. 690.
  6. ^ Agnes Strickland, Lives of the queens of England , Vol V, Colburn, 1842, p. 10.
  7. ^ Sir Leslie Stephen, editor, Dictionary of National Biography , Volume 43, Smith, Elder & Co., 1895, p. 366.
  8. ^ The Household of Edward IV , Manchester University Press ND. Google ebook
  9. DNB leads Sir William Parr as auditor of the royal household from 1471 to 1483. The royal household itself leads him to the times 1471-1475 and 1481-1483.
  10. J. Nicholson & R. Burn: 1777, 45-46, and the archaeological findings during the excavation of Kendal Castle by Barbara Harbottle as published in Abbot Hall Quarto , V, no.4 (January 1968); VI, no. 4 (January 1969); VII, no.4 (January 1970); X, no.1 (August 1972), Kendal.
  11. ^ William Farrer, Records Relating to the Barony of Kendal , John F. Curwen (ed.), 3 vols, Kendal (1923-26), I, 54.
  12. a b c Susan E. James: Catherine Parr: Henry VIII's Last Love. The History Press, Gloucestershire 2009, pp. 60-63.
  13. ^ Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, USA: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), Volume 1, p. 587.
  14. Susan E. James: Catherine Parr: Henry VIII's Last Love. The History Press, Gloucestershire 2009, p. 176.
  15. Katherine Parr (Lambeth Palace Portrait) . Lambeth Palace . Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  16. ^ Douglas Richardson: Plantagenet Ancestry. P. 188.
  17. Daniel Scott. The Strickland's of Sizergh Castle , Kendal, 1908, 82, 84, 88-89; L&P, 4, iii, no.680 (10).
  18. a b c d e f Susan E. James: Catherine Parr: Henry VIII's Last Love. History Press, 2009 pp. 61-73.
  19. ^ Letters and Papers, Foreign & Domestic of the Reign of Henry VIII , II, no. 1174.
  20. David Williamson, Kings and Queens , 2010, p. 91; Clare Gittings. The National Portrait Gallery Book of The Tudors. 2006, p. 14;
    S. James: Lady Jane Gray or Queen Kateryn Parr? In: The Burlington Magazine. CXXXVIII, 1114 (January 1996), col. 20-24.
  21. Marita A. Panzer: England's Queens.
  22. Kelly Hart: The Mistresses of Henry VIII . The History Press, Gloucestershire 2009, ISBN 978-0-7524-4835-0 ( ).
  23. a b Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
  24. David Starkey: Reign Of Henry VIII: The Personalities and Politics . Vintage, 2002, ISBN 0-09-944510-7 .
  25. ^ A b Susan James, Catherine Parr: Henry VIII's Last Love. 2009. pp. 268-276.
  26. Deposition of Katherine Ashley In: Samuel Haynes (Ed.): A Collection of State Papers Relating to Affairs during the reigns of King Henry VIII, King Edward VI, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth 1740, pp. 99-101 ( );
    Christopher Hibbert: The Virgin Queen. 1990;
    Antonia Fraser: The Six Wives of Henry VIII. 1992;
    Alison Weir: Children of England 1996;
    David Starkey Elizabeth. 2000;
    Linda Porter: Katherine the Queen. 2010.
    Most Catherine, Seymour, and Elizabeth biographers state that Catherine and Thomas tickled Elizabeth in her bed, or that Catherine held Elizabeth while her husband cut Elizabeth's clothes. However, there is no evidence of any further ménage à trois or of a sexual relationship between Seymour and Elizabeth. Overall, in view of the contradicting sources, it remains unclear what part Catherine had in the events. Furthermore, it remains unclear, even if one takes into account Thomas Seymour's influence and position, whether Elizabeth took part in these events voluntarily, out of curiosity, unwillingly or even by force.
  27. Starkey, David: The Inventory of Henry VIII. Volume 1, Society of Antiquaries, 1998, pp. 94-96; jewel inventory of 116 items; Pp. 434-437, wardrobe 133 items.
  28. Susan James: 2009, pp. 299-300.
  29. Sudeley Castle: Timeline. 2011. Official site ( Memento of the original from October 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  30. Dukes of Buckingham and Chandos: Sudeley Castle ( Memento of the original from October 3, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  31. ^ A Handbook for Travelers in Gloucestershire, Worcestershire and Herefordshire . John Murray, London 1867, p. 32 (accessed November 23, 2011).
predecessor Office successor
Catherine Howard Queen Consort of England and Ireland
Guildford Dudley