Calendar overview 1586
|Francis Walsingham uncovers the Babington conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth I , in which Mary Queen of Scots is also involved.||Jost Amman and Conrad Lautenbach appears.|
Sixtus V has an obelisk erected in front of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome .
|1586 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1034/35 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1578/79 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||991/992 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2129/30 (southern Buddhism); 2128/29 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||948/949 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3919/20 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||994/995 (turn of the year 11/12 December)|
|Jewish calendar||5346/47 (September 12/13)|
|Coptic calendar||1302/03 (September 10/11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1896/97 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1897/98 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1642/43 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
England / Scotland / Spain
- July 6 : In Berwick-upon-Tweed include Elizabeth I of England and James VI. of Scotland signed a treaty against Spain , to which James adhered despite the execution of his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots the following year.
- July 17th : Queen Mary of Scots, who is in English captivity , allegedly replies to a letter from Anthony Babington . To this day, the authenticity of this document is still in dispute.
- August: In England , Francis Walsingham uncovers the Babington conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth I , in which Mary Queen of Scots is also involved. The first seven conspirators, including Anthony Babington and John Ballard , were hanged, drawn and quartered on September 20th . Elisabeth is so horrified after the descriptions of the executions that she orders a faster execution for the next day, on which another seven conspirators are to be executed. The trial of Mary Queen of Scots, who will be relocated to Fotheringhay Castle at the end of September and whose correspondence is now closely monitored, will take place in October. On October 25th, she was found guilty of high treason . At the parliamentary assembly on October 29th, the upper and lower houses petitioned unanimously for immediate execution. However, Elisabeth refused to sign the petition presented to her on November 12th in Richmond by the end of the year .
Holy Roman Empire
- March 2 : After the capture of Werl by Martin Schenk von Nideggen in the Truchsessian War , the Duchy of Westphalia offers a state contingent alongside a few mercenaries. Schenk moves towards his opponents and defeats the contingent in the battle of Werl . However, the defeat has no consequences, as Schenk withdraws due to the advancing relief troops.
- October 5th : The seven Catholic towns of the Old Confederation found the Golden Covenant . Allies promise to maintain the old faith and vow to help one another in case of danger.
- Pope Sixtus V repeals the provisions of the Bull Hebraeorum gens from 1569 and allows the expelled Jews to return to the Papal States .
- In the area of today's Voronezh , a wooden border fortress is being built to protect against the frequent incursions of the Crimean Tatars .
science and technology
- Simon Stevin discovers the hydrostatic paradox .
- The Danish Sorø Monastery is dissolved during the Reformation and converted into a school, the Sorø Akademi .
- Commissioned by Elector August begins in the Electorate of Saxony , the first electoral Saxon land survey by the surveyor and cartographer Matthias Oeder .
- September 10th : Under the direction of the Swiss architect Domenico Fontana , an obelisk is erected in front of St. Peter's Basilica on today's St. Peter's Square in Rome . Pope Sixtus V had him transported from Nero's circus .
- The so-called women's costume book by the Nuremberg engraver Jost Amman and the poet Thrasibulus Torrentinus Mutislariensis is published in Frankfurt am Main .
- The half-timbered church Wartha , the oldest and still the smallest half-timbered church in Thuringia, is built.
- January 5th : In the bull Coeli et terrae creator , Pope Sixtus V confirms the prohibition on the practice of divination astrology with the exception of weather forecast .
- With his bull Postquam verus of September 3, Pope Sixtus V sets the number of members in the college of cardinals at a maximum of 70.
- Pope Sixtus V has the Martyrologium universale published.
- December 10th : Biggest town fire : 56 houses and 23 barns of an estimated 100 "households" in Höchst am Main burn. The western city gate towards Mainz, known as the “Specht” or “Untertor”, and the town hall are also destroyed.
- An eruption of the Kelut volcano on Java kills around 10,000 people.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 29 : Ludwig Friedrich , Duke of Württemberg-Mömpelgard († 1631 )
- January 30th : Johann Hermann Schein , musician and composer of baroque music († 1630 )
- February 8 : Jacob Praetorius the Younger , German organist and composer († 1651 )
- February 13 : Paris von Lodron , Archbishop of Salzburg († 1653 )
- February 19 : Pieter de Carpentier , Governor General of the Dutch East Indies († 1659 )
- April 2 : Pietro della Valle , Italian traveler and travel writer († 1652 )
- April 17 : John Ford , English playwright († 1639 )
- April 20 : Rosa von Lima , Catholic saint, Spanish mystic and Dominican-Terzian in South America († 1617 )
- April 23 : Johann Georg II. Fuchs von Dornheim , Prince-Bishop of Bamberg, counter-reformer and witch hunter († 1633 )
- April 23 : Martin Rinckart , German poet, Protestant theologian and church musician († 1649 )
- May 1 : Balthasar Walther , German philologist and Lutheran theologian († 1640 )
- 7 May : Francesco IV Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua († 1612 )
- June 17 : Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna , Swedish statesman († 1656 )
- June 28 : Paul Siefert , German organist and composer († 1666 )
Second half of the year
- July 31 : Hans Jakob Ammann , Swiss surgeon, traveler to Egypt and travel writer († 1658 )
- 4th August : Dorothea von Ahlefeldt , landlady of Kollmar, Drage and Heiligenstedten († 1647 )
- August 17 : Johann Valentin Andreae , German writer and theologian († 1654 )
- October 9 : Leopold V , Bishop of Passau and Strasbourg, Regent of Tyrol († 1632 )
- October 17 : Nikolaus Elerdt , German Lutheran theologian and song poet († 1637 )
- October 20 : Luis Jerónimo de Cabrera , Spanish colonial administrator and viceroy of Peru († 1647 )
- October 20 : Luke Fox , English explorer († 1635 )
- November 18 : Mikhail Wassiljewitsch Skopin-Shuiski , Russian military leader and statesman († 1610 )
- November 20 : Polycarp Leyser II , German Lutheran theologian († 1633 )
- December 2 : Johann Heinrich von Lindenau , manor owner in the Electorate of Saxony († 1615 )
- December 14 : Georg Calixt , German theologian († 1656 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Gerard de Malynes , English merchant († 1641 )
- John Poulett, 1st Baron Poulett , English nobleman, military man and politician († 1649 )
- Theophraste Renaudot , French doctor, advisor to the king and editor of the first French newspaper († 1653 )
Date of death secured
- January 18 : Margaret of Parma , governor of the Spanish Netherlands (* 1522 )
- January 25 : Lucas Cranach the Younger , son of Lucas Cranach the Elder, German painter and graphic artist (* 1515 )
- January 27th : Oswald III. von dem Bergh , officer in the general state and Spanish service during the Eighty Years War (* 1561 )
- April 8 : Martin Chemnitz , German Lutheran theologian (* 1522 )
- April 10 : Louise de La Béraudière du Rouhet , French mistress (* 1530 )
- April 24th : Dietrich IX. von Gemmingen , landlord of Tiefenbronn (* 1517 )
- April 27 : Adam Henricpetri , Swiss lawyer and historian (* 1534 )
- May 26 : Walburgis , Countess of Rietberg (* 1555 / 56 )
- May 29 : Adam Lonitzer , German naturalist, doctor and botanist (* 1528 )
- June 5 : Matthias Wesenbeck , Flemish lawyer (* 1531 )
- June 28 : Primož Trubar , Protestant preacher; is considered the founder of Slovenian literature (* 1508 )
- August 17th : Sebastian Starck , German Lutheran theologian (* 1528 )
- August 29 : Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of March , Scottish nobleman (* around 1517 )
- September 10 : Hans Walther , German sculptor and mayor of Dresden (* 1526 )
- September 11th : Kaspar Arnurus , German moral philosopher and logician (* around 1520 )
- September 15 : Michael Teubner , German legal scholar (* 1524 )
- September 18 : Ottavio Farnese , Duke of Parma and Piacenza (* 1524 )
- September 20 : Anthony Babington , English nobleman, main accused of the Babington conspiracy (* 1561 )
- September 20 : John Ballard , English Jesuit priest and mastermind of the Babington conspiracy
- September 21 : Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle , Bishop of Arras, Archbishop of Mechelen, Cardinal Bishop of Sabina, Archbishop of Besançon and Minister in the Spanish Netherlands (* 1517 )
- October 1 : Adolf I , Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (* 1526 )
- October 15 : Elisabeth of Denmark and Norway , Duchess of Mecklenburg (* 1524 )
- October 15 : Filippa Duci , Piedmontese noblewoman and mistress of the French King Henry II (* 1520 )
- October 15 : Johannes Fädminger , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* around 1520)
- October 19 : Ignazio Danti , Italian mathematician, astronomer, cosmologist and cartographer (* 1536 )
- October 27 : Philip Sidney , English prose writer (* 1554 )
- October 28 : Johann Günther I , Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (* 1532 )
- November 6th : Wilhelm IV. Von dem Bergh , Reichsgraf von dem Bergh (* 1537 )
- November 24th : Johann Leisentrit , dean of the Bautzen collegiate chapter and diocesan administrator of the Meißen diocese (* 1527 )
- December 6th : Joachim Ernst , Prince of Anhalt (* 1536 )
- December 12th : Stephan Báthory , King of Poland and Prince of Transylvania (* 1533 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Benedikt I von Ahlefeldt , heir to Haseldorf
- Andrea Gabrieli , Venetian organ player and composer (* around 1510 )