Calendar overview 1639
|Johan Banér and the Swedes win the battle of Chemnitz .||
Octavio Piccolomini and the Imperialists win the
Battle of Diedenhofen .
Jeremiah Horrocks succeeds for
the first time in measuring and observing a passage through Venus .
|1639 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1087/88 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1631/32 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1044/45 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2182/83 (southern Buddhism); 2181/82 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1001/02 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3972/73 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1017/18 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1048/49 (May 4th / 5th)|
|Jewish calendar||5399/5400 (September 28-29)|
|Coptic calendar||1355/56 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1949/50 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1950/51 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1695/96 (April)|
Politics and world events
- April 14 : In the Battle of Chemnitz , the Swedes under Johan Banér defeat the imperial troops under Matthias Gallas in the Thirty Years' War .
- June 7th : In the Battle of Diedenhofen the imperial troops under Octavio Piccolomini defeat the French commanded by Manassès de Pas, Marquis de Feuquières .
- Summer: The First Episcopal War , an episode of the wars between the three kingdoms between England and Scotland, begins.
- July 27th : Spanish troops take Turin .
- September 3 : The Milan capitulate ends the turmoil in Graubünden . Spain and Austria equip the Three Leagues , the Valtellina back.
- The siege of Bautzen ends on October 17th with the occupation of the city by the Swedes.
- October 31 : In the naval battle of the Downs in the English Channel , during the Eighty Years' War, the fleet from the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, under the command of Maarten Tromp , wins a victory over Spanish-Portuguese warships.
- November 21 : After the commandant of the city, Braun von Schmidtburg zu Schweich, defected to them, the city of Kreuznach was taken by French and Saxon-Weimar troops under Duke Henri II. D'Orléans-Longueville .
- The Château de Joux near La Cluse-et-Mijoux is occupied by troops from Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar .
- May 17 : The Safavids ruling Iran sign the Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin with the Ottoman Empire under Murad IV , which defines the border between the two countries. The treaty ends around 150 years of sporadic wars between the two states over territorial conflicts.
- August 22nd : The Briton Francis Day purchases a piece of land on the Coromandel Coast from the Nayak ruler for the British East India Company . The trading post develops into the city of Madras , today Chennai .
- Russian hunters and soldiers advance to the Pacific .
- Founding of Ulaanbaatar under the name Örgöö (Urga).
- Closure of Japan : expulsion of the last Spaniards and Portuguese from Japan by Edict of Tokugawa Iemitsu , end of the Nanban trade
America and the Caribbean
- The House of Burgesses in Barbados holds its first session after England took over the Caribbean island from Portugal in 1625 .
- Jonas Bronck was the first to settle in the Dutch colony of Nieuw Nederland in what is now the Bronx .
- The first small brewery is founded in today's Aischgründer Bierstraße .
science and technology
- June 28 William Laud , Chancellor of Oxford University and Archbishop of Canterbury , donates the Peterborough Chronicle manuscript to the Bodleian Library .
- December 4 : The English astronomers Jeremia Horrocks and William Crabtree succeed for the first time in observing a passage through Venus that they have calculated in advance .
- The Archbishop's Ursuline School in Cologne is founded.
- The Brunswick-Lüneburg Duchess Anna Sophia von Brandenburg founds the Anna-Sophianeum as a Latin school in Schöningen .
- January 24th : The world premiere of the opera Le nozze di Teti e di Peleo by Francesco Cavalli takes place in Venice.
- July 20th : The lace maker Kirsten Svendsdatter discovers the longer of the two gold horns from Gallehus . They are the most famous archaeological finds in Denmark . The shorter one is also found by chance in 1734 .
- around 1639: The French baroque painter Georges de la Tour completes the painting The Fortune Teller .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 3 : Eleonore d'Olbreuse , French noblewoman, Duchess of Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle († 1722 )
- January 5 : Otto Wilhelm von Königsmarck , Venetian generalissimo against the Turks († 1688 )
- February 5 : Sibylla Schuster , German writer and poet († 1685 )
- February 6 : Daniel Georg Morhof , well-known literary historian and polyhistor († 1691 )
- May 2 : Michael Friedrich Lederer , German legal scholar († 1674 )
- May 8 : Giovanni Battista Gaulli , Italian painter († 1709 )
- May 16 : Pietro degli Antonii , Italian composer and conductor († 1720 )
- May 24th : Olof Bromelius , Swedish botanist and doctor († 1705 )
- May 24 : Friedrich von Dönhoff , lieutenant general in Brandenburg-Prussia († 1696 )
- June 21 : Increase Mather , Puritan pastor and President of Harvard University († 1723 )
Second half of the year
- August 8 : Christina zu Mecklenburg , Abbess of the Gandersheim Monastery († 1693 )
- August 28 : Maria Mancini , French nobleman, Mazarinette and mistress of Louis XIV († 1715 )
- October 1 : Ida Hedwig von Brockdorff , German benefactress, conventual and prioress of the Uetersen monastery († 1713 )
- October 14 : Simon van der Stel , the first governor of the Cape Colony († 1712 )
- November 21 : Fortunatus Hueber , German Franciscan, theologian and historian († 1706 )
- November 30th : Ernst Jacob von Audorf , Bohemian captain of the Breslau city garrison, military engineer and novelist († 1705 )
- December 4 : Heinrich Balthasar Roth , German legal scholar († 1689 )
- December 5 : Johann Christoph Pezel , German town piper and composer († 1694 )
- December 22nd : Jean Racine , important French classical author; especially author of well-known tragedies that are still played today († 1699 )
Exact date of birth unknown
First half of the year
- January 20 : Mustafa I , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1592 )
- January 24th : Jörg Jenatsch , Swiss pastor and politician (* 1596 )
- January 24th : Sophie von Braunschweig-Lüneburg , Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach and Duchess of Jägerndorf (* 1563 )
- February 5 : Augusta of Denmark , Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (* 1580 )
- March 30th : Zacharias Hegewald , German sculptor (* 1596 )
- April 1 : Johann Philipp , Duke of Saxony-Altenburg (* 1597 )
- May 15 : Enoch Heiland , German legal scholar (* 1582 )
- May 21 : Tommaso Campanella , Italian philosopher (* 1568 )
- June 1 : Melchior Franck , German composer (* 1580 )
- June 6th : Peter Crüger , German philologist, astronomer and mathematician (* 1580 )
Second half of the year
- July 18 : Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar , General in the Thirty Years War (* 1604 )
- July 22nd : Rutilio Manetti , Italian painter (* 1571 )
- August 1 : Thomas Thynne , English nobleman and politician (* around 1578 )
- August 2nd : Jakub Kryštof Rybnický , Bohemian composer (* 1583 )
- August 13 : Walter Aston, 1st Lord Aston of Forfar , Anglo-Scottish nobleman and diplomat (* 1584 )
- August 20 : Martin Opitz , was the founder of the Silesian Poet School and member of the Fruitful Society (* 1597 )
- August 20 : Jakob Bidermann , German playwright (* 1578 )
- October 14 : Shōkadō Shōjō , Japanese painter (* 1582 )
- October 28 : Stefano Landi , Italian singer, bandmaster and composer (* 1587 )
- November 3 : Martín de Porres , Peruvian saint, Dominican (* 1579 )
- November 9th : Sistine Amama , Dutch theologian and orientalist (* 1593 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Aaron Rechja di Modena , Italian Kabbalist