Treaty of Utrecht to end
the War of the Spanish Succession is concluded.
|Ottomans take the Swedish King Charles XII. at Bender .||
Friedrich Wilhelm I
becomes king in Prussia .
|Christoph Weigel the Elder Ä. : Memorials of the 1713th year|
|1713 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1161/62 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1705/06 (New Year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1118/19 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2256/57 (southern Buddhism); 2255/56 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1075/76 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4046/47 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1124/25 (turn of the year January 27/28)|
|Jewish calendar||5473/74 (September 20-21)|
|Coptic calendar||1429/30 (10/11 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2023/24 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2024/25 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1769/70 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
Ottoman Empire / Khanate of Crimea
- January 14th : Sultan Ahmed III. orders the compulsory expulsion of the Swedish King Charles XII. from the Ottoman Empire , in which he received asylum in 1709 after the defeat at Poltava . Karl, who received the personal travel order on January 31 , refused to leave the country. The Ottoman commanders commissioned with the execution, the Turkish Seraskan Ismail Pascha and the Tatar Khan Devlet II Giray , have clear instructions to storm the Swedish fortifications at Bender if the monarch refuses to march.
- February 12 : In the scuffle of Bender , Janissaries take Karl XII. after heavy resistance, after most of its soldiers and officers deserted. Charles XII. is first brought to Demotika Castle and then to Adrianople in April . The most important point of contention with Russia in the Third Russian Turkish War is thus eliminated.
- June 27 : Sultan Ahmed III. confirmed in the Peace of Adrian Opel the Treaty of the Pruth . The Ottoman Empire and Russia pledge to abandon their weapons for 25 years.
- Devlet II. Giray , Khan of the Crimean Tatars , is deposed and goes into exile in Rhodes. His successor is Qaplan I. Giray .
The war in the Baltic Sea region
- January 18 : Swedish troops under Field Marshal Magnus Stenbock begin the siege of the practically undefended city of Altona in the Great Northern War . After their conquest will take place on January 20 the of the city systematically cremation at the instigation of the Hamburg governor Mauritz Vellingk . 959 houses and 274 stalls fell victim to the conflagration. Only the three churches and about 30 houses are spared. The practice is later condemned across Europe.
- February: Duke Karl Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf violates his neutrality and allows Swedish troops to visit the Tönning fortress . Danish-Russian-Saxon units under Alexander Menshikov then begin the siege of Tönning . Danish troops also occupy Gottorp's share of the Duchy of Schleswig .
- March 16 : The Danish King Friedrich IV appoints Christian Detlev von Reventlow as the new President of Altona and on March 18, by decree, instructs him to rebuild the city. The first 100 stone houses will be built in April.
- May 16 : The Swedish troops under Field Marshal Magnus Stenbock , who moved into Tönning fortress in February, surrender to the Danish troops. However, the siege of the city continued until February 1714.
- May 21 : A Russian squadron under General Admiral Fyodor Apraxin lands off Helsingfors ( Helsinki ). The Swedish garrison withdraws without a fight and burns the city down.
- May 25 : The Russian galley fleet under General Admiral Fjodor Apraxin occupies Borgå (Finland). The Swedish troops under Lieutenant General Georg Lybecker give up the city without a fight.
- July 4th : Russian and Saxon troops occupy the island of Rügen .
- Early August: Russian and Saxon units begin the siege of Szczecin .
- August 17 : A Russian command under General Michail Golitsyn and the galley fleet under Rear Admiral Iwan Botsis occupy the town of Abo in Finland .
- September 29th : The siege of Szczecin ends with the capitulation of the Swedish occupation and the handover of the city to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm. The garrison of the Swedish fortress of Stettin under the command of Infantry General Johan August Meijerfeldt the Elder surrenders to the Russian army under Prince Alexander Danilowitsch Menshikov .
- October 6 : Under the direction of Holstein Minister Georg Heinrich von Goertz and the Saxon Count Jacob Heinrich von Flemming includes Prussia and Russia, Saxony-Poland , and Denmark-Norway the Treaty of Schwedt . This includes that King Friedrich Wilhelm I has to pay his allies 400,000 thalers as a replacement for the war costs. For this purpose, the city of Stettin, the Western Pomerania district up to the Peene , the city of Wolgast , the island of Usedom and the city of Wollin are placed under Prussian sequestration. In addition, Prussia, together with the Holstein-Gottorp family, undertakes to ensure that the Swedes do not carry out any attacks on Poland or Russia from Pomerania . The lands are to remain under Prussian and Holstein sequestration until Sweden has paid back the 400,000 thalers in compensation to Prussia. After that, they should again be subject to the Swedish crown. After signing the contract, the Swedes will vacate Stettin and withdraw to Stralsund . This city and the Western Pomerania district between the Peene, Trebel and Recknitz as well as the island of Rügen remain in Swedish hands. The Russian troops are also withdrawing from Western Pomerania.
- October 17 : The Russian army under General Admiral Fyodor Matwejewitsch Apraxin and General Michail Michailowitsch Golitsyn defeats the Swedish army under General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt in the Battle of Pälkäne .
War of the Spanish Succession / Queen Anne's War
- March 11th : Great Britain and France close, recorded by Johann Jacob Vitriarius , the Peace of Utrecht . It is the most important of the treaties to end the War of the Spanish Succession and at the same time ends the acts of war in Queen Anne's War in the North American colonies. Great Britain recognizes Philip V as King of Spain . In return, Spain and France undertake that the two countries would never be united in a Bourbon personal union. The possessions of Spain are divided. The main land and the colonies remain with Philip. Most of the so-called secondary countries go to Austria. This mainly applies to the Spanish Netherlands , the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Duchy of Milan . The Kingdom of Sicily goes to Duke Viktor Amadeus II of Savoy . Great Britain receives Gibraltar and Menorca . In North America, Britain receives Acadia in the Old Borders, Newfoundland , the Hudson Bay region and the Caribbean island of St. Kitts . The United Netherlands can secure a number of barrier fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands to protect itself against further French attacks . Emperor Charles VI. initially does not recognize the agreement because of further claims.
- July 25 Spanish-French forces begin siege of Barcelona after the city rejects the call for submission. Barcelona is held by Catalan troops who do not recognize the peace of Utrecht and do not want to accept Philip as their king. The city was only blocked for a year because the Spaniards were too weak to attack. Since they also have too few ships, food can be brought into the city by sea.
- August 20 : In the War of the Spanish Succession , the French general Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars conquered the town of Landau in the Palatinate and then set fire to the Electoral Palatinate and Baden with his armed forces .
Habsburg hereditary lands
- April 19 : Charles VI. determines in its Pragmatic Sanction , turning away from the Lex Salica , that in the absence of male descendants in the House of Habsburg, females are entitled to inheritance.
With the death of his father Friedrich I , King Friedrich Wilhelm I takes power in Prussia and Brandenburg on February 25th . As soon as he took office, he informed his ministers that he was demanding “neither advice nor reasoning, but obedience”. He describes it as a principle for every ruler that he "must do all his affairs himself". As a first official act, he declares the current budget of his state to be null and void. In order to get down from the 20 million thalers national debt of his father, mass layoffs and radical cuts in salaries are the result. In this way he succeeds in reducing farm costs from 276,000 to 55,000 thalers. A first standardization of the financial administration follows on August 13th , when the previously private royal caskets are made domain goods and the entire royal land property is declared indivisible and inalienable. In order to guarantee fixed, predictable income for the state, Friedrich Wilhelm leases this to citizens for management purposes. In addition, the king creates a central financial directorate for all domain income. In the same year Friedrich Wilhelm also began to expand the Prussian army .
- April: The three-year-old Tokugawa Ietsugu is formally introduced into his office as the 7th Shogun of the Edo period in Japan . He is under the tutelage of advisor Arai Hakuseki .
- After Kingkitsarat's death, his younger brother Inthasom and cousin Ong Kham agree to rule the kingdom of Luang Prabang together .
- In the southernmost part of the Kingdom of Lan Xang , which was divided up in 1707 , the Kingdom of Champasak is formed , the area of which does not appear to be of interest to either of the two successor kingdoms Luang Prabang and Vientiane . The charismatic monk Phra Khru Phon Samet , who until then had acted as the de facto ruler, proclaims Soi Sisamut as king. This strengthens Buddhism in his realm.
- Farrukh Siyar defeats and kills his uncle Jahandar Shah in the Battle of Delhi and ascends the throne of the Mughal Empire . He makes Qamar ud-Din governor of the Deccan provinces.
- August: Johann Andreas Kraut founds the Royal Warehouse on behalf of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I , from which the Prussian Army can meet its needs at any time.
- Christoph Gottfried Nicolai founds the Nicolaische Verlagbuchhandlung in Berlin .
- In Two Bridges is Pfälzische Mercury founded.
science and technology
- August 3 : The Marquis of Villena and friends found the Real Academia Española , the main institution for the care of the Spanish language .
- Hans Carl von Carlowitz publishes Sylvicultura oeconomica, or haußwirthliche message and natural instruction for wild tree breeding , the first complete work on forestry . In it he formulates the principle of sustainability for the first time .
- In England, coke is produced for the first time by coking coal .
The Gottorf giant globe
- February 6th : Tsar Peter I and the Danish King Friedrich IV meet in Gottorf Castle . The tsar was also interested in the giant Gottorf globe , which was known throughout Europe and which was then transported to the tsar's art chamber in Saint Petersburg a few weeks later .
- The Scriblerus Club is founded in London . Members include the poet and writer Alexander Pope , the satirist Jonathan Swift , the poet and writer John Gay , John Arbuthnot , polymath and personal physician Queen Annes , the politician and philosopher Henry St. John and the poet Thomas Parnell . Occasionally, the Queen's Treasurer, Robert Harley , who sponsors the group , also attends the meetings.
Music and theater
- January 10th : Georg Friedrich Handel's third London opera Teseo has its world premiere . The opera represents the first collaboration with the musician and poet Nicola Francesco Haym . For the libretto, he used the French Thesée , which Philippe Quinault wrote for Jean-Baptiste Lully in 1675 . The adoption of the structure of this tragédie lyrique means that Teseo Handel is the only opera with five acts.
- Georg Friedrich Handel writes the Ode for the Birthday of Queen Anne . Since Anne on her birthday, the 6./16. February is ill, the work will probably not be premiered until a year later.
- July 13 : After a public rehearsal on March 5, Handel's Te Deum and Jubilate in Utrecht will be officially premiered on the occasion of the Peace of Utrecht at a service in St Paul's Cathedral in London. The work earns the composer an annual pension from Queen Anne and is subsequently performed each year at the Festival of the Sons of the Clergy .
- May 17th : Ottone in villa , an opera in three acts by Antonio Vivaldi with a libretto by Domenico Lalli , has its world premiere at the Teatro delle Grazie in Vicenza.
- June 28th : The cantata What I like is just the lively hunt by Johann Sebastian Bach is premiered in Weißenfels on the occasion of Christian von Sachsen-Weißenfels' 31st birthday . The libretto is by Salomon Franck .
- September 8th : The papal bull Unigenitus Dei filius by Clement XI. condemns 101 sentences from the reflection morales of the Jansenist Pasquier Quesnel as heretical.
First half of the year
- January 2 : Marie Dumesnil , French actress († 1803 )
- January 12 : Johann Gottfried Arndt , Livonian historian († 1767 )
- January 26 : Julius Hieronymus Zollikofer , Mayor of St. Gallen (Switzerland) († 1802 )
- February 11 : Diane-Adélaïde de Mailly-Nesle , French nobleman and mistress of Louis XV. († 1760 )
- February 13 : Domènech Terradellas , Spanish opera composer († 1751 )
- February 28 : Louis Auguste Augustin Comte d'Affry , Swiss military († 1793 )
- March 15 : Nicolas Louis de Lacaille , French astronomer († 1762 )
- April 7 : Nicola Sala , Italian composer († 1801 )
- April 11 : Luise Adelgunde Victorie Gottsched , German writer († 1762 )
- April 12 : Guillaume Thomas François Raynal , French writer († 1796 )
- April 21 : Louis de Noailles, duc de Ayen , Marshal of France († 1793 )
- May 3 : Alexis-Claude Clairaut , French mathematician and physicist († 1765 )
- May 21 : Andreas Faulhaber , German chaplain and martyr of the County of Glatz († 1757 )
- May 25 : John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute , British statesman († 1792 )
- June 16 : Meshech Weare , American politician († 1786 )
- June 17 : Antonio Eugenio Visconti , Cardinal of the Catholic Church († 1788 )
- June 24 : Johann Gottlieb Gonne , German lawyer and university professor († 1758 )
Second half of the year
- July 9 : John Newbery , English publisher and bookseller, known for his children's books († 1767 )
- July 10 : Anna Rosina de Gasc , German portrait painter († 1783 )
- August 1st : Charles I , Duke of Braunschweig († 1780 )
- August 1st : Jean-Baptiste Salomon , French violin maker († 1767 )
- August 2 : Ernst Thom , German literary scholar, rhetorician, ethnologist and economist († 1773 )
- August 11 : Christlieb Ehregott Gellert , German metallurgist and mineralogist († 1795 )
- August 30 : Johann Georg Benda , Bohemian composer († 1752 )
- September 10 : John Turberville Needham , English priest and naturalist († 1781 )
- September 17 : Johann Heinrich Waser , German translator († 1777 )
- September 21 : Domingo de Boenechea , Spanish navigator and explorer († 1775 )
- September 23 : Ferdinand VI. , King of Spain († 1759 )
- October 3 : Johann Friedrich Flattich , Protestant pastor and educator († 1797 )
- October 5 : Denis Diderot , French writer and philosopher († 1784 )
- October 9 : Mikhail Nikititsch Volkonsky , Russian general and envoy († 1788 )
- October 13 : Allan Ramsay , portraitist and court painter to George III. († 1784 )
- October 13 : Heinrich Gottfried Haferung , German Lutheran theologian († 1759 )
- October 23 : Pieter Burman the Younger , Dutch philologist († 1778 )
- October 23 : Johann Wendler , German bookseller, publisher and founder († 1799 )
- November 6th : Thomas Osborne, 4th Duke of Leeds , British aristocrat (peer) († 1789 )
- November 7th : Johann Martin Bernigeroth , Saxon engraver († 1767 )
- November 24 : Philipp Heinrich Kisling , court painter and portraitist at the court of the Margrave of Baden-Durlach in Karlsruhe († 1767 )
- November 24th : Junípero Serra , Spanish Franciscan, is considered the founder of the city of San Francisco († 1784 )
- November 24th : Laurence Sterne , British writer († 1768 )
- December 6 : Christian Heinrich Wilhelm von Arnstedt , Prussian colonel and commander († 1785 )
- December 9 : Jan Michał Budar , Sorbian manor owner, lawyer and founder († 1789 )
- December 23 : Maruyama Gondazaemon , third yokozuna in Japanese sumo wrestling († 1749 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- before February 27: Philipp Pfaff , German doctor and dentist, court dentist of Frederick the Great († 1766 )
First half of the year
- January 1 : Giuseppe Maria Tomasi , Italian cardinal (* 1649 )
- January 7th : Katherine Lowther , English noblewoman (* 1653 )
- January 8th : Arcangelo Corelli , Italian composer and violinist (* 1653 )
- January 20 : Paul Ritter Vitezović , Croatian writer, historian and politician (* 1652 )
- January 26th : Jean Chardin , French explorer (* 1643 )
- February 1 : Michael Apafi II , Prince of Transylvania (* 1676 )
- February 2 : Marko Mesić , Croatian pastor and freedom fighter (* around 1640 )
- February 12 : Jahandar Shah , Indian Grand Mughal (* 1661 )
- February 15 : Anthony Ashley-Cooper , English politician and nobleman (* 1671 )
- February 21 : Kanō Tsunenobu , Japanese painter (* 1636 )
- March 13 : Johann Samuel Adami , German theologian, writer and linguist (* 1638 )
- March 15 : Philipp Müller , German Lutheran theologian (* 1640 )
- March 18 : Juraj Jánošík , Slovak sildat and robber leader (* 1688 )
- March 26th : Paul I. Esterházy de Galantha , Hungarian magnate and imperial field marshal (* 1635 )
- March 27 : Giovanni Carlone , Italian painter (* 1636 )
- April 17 : David Hollaz , German Protestant theologian (Lutheran dogmatist) (* 1648 )
- April 18 : Dorothea Maria of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg , Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen (* 1674 )
- April 27 : Marie Elisabeth zu Mecklenburg , Abbess of the Gandersheim Monastery (* 1646 )
- May 5 : Heinrich Andreas Lohe , German painter (* 1648 )
- May 15 : George Meister , court gardener and botanist from the Electorate of Saxony, traveler to Asia (* 1653 )
- May 16 : Maximilian Dreianzigmark , German sculptor (* 1643 )
- May 20 : Thomas Sprat , English bishop and author (* 1635 )
- May 26th : Veith Steinböck , Austrian master builder for St. Stephan (* 1656 )
- May 28 : Caspar Corswant , Mayor of Stargard in Pomerania (* 1664 )
- May 28 : Georg Otho , German orientalist (* 1634 )
- June 1 : Johan Runius , Swedish poet (* 1679 )
- June 11 : Felix Meyer , Swiss landscape painter (* 1653 )
- June 23 : Paul Rabe , German philologist and philosopher (* 1656 )
Second half of the year
- July 7th : Henry Compton , English bishop (* 1632 )
- July 24th : Peter Witte , Bailiff of Fehmarn (* 1641 )
- July 31 : Friedrich Wilhelm I , Duke of Mecklenburg in the Mecklenburg-Schwerin region (* 1675 )
- August 3 : Johann Caspar de Gabrieli , German plasterer (* 1685 )
- before August 8: Severin Gottlieb Ziegenbalg , German sculptor (* 1681 )
- August 13 : Anna Maria Braun , German painter, medalist and wax boss (* 1642 )
- August 18 : Ida Hedwig von Brockdorff , German benefactress, conventual and prioress of the Uetersen monastery (* 1639 )
- August 19 : Atanasia Anghel , Transylvanian bishop
- August 20 : John Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale , Lord Chancellor of Scotland (* 1645 )
- September 6 : François-Séraphin Regnier-Desmarais , French diplomat, poet, philologist, Romance scholar, grammarian and translator (* 1632 )
- September 9 : Giovanni Antonio Viscardi , Italian builder of the Baroque, who mainly worked in Bavaria (* 1645 )
- September 16 : Michael Khöll , Viennese master stonemason (* 1660 )
- September 22nd : Mark Schwaner , German Quaker (* 1639 )
- September 29 : Jakob van Oost the Younger , Flemish painter (* 1637 )
- October 4 : Valentin Molitor , Swiss composer and organist (* 1637 )
- October 13 : Andreas Lange , German lawyer and poet (* 1680 )
- October 15 : Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , German painter and engraver (* 1666 )
- October 17th : Peter Lackmann , German Protestant theologian and sacred song writer (* 1659 )
- October 20 : Archibald Pitcairne , Scottish doctor and poet (* 1652 )
- October 28 : Paolo Lorenzani , Italian composer and conductor (* 1640 )
- October 31 : Ferdinando de 'Medici , Hereditary Prince of Tuscany (* 1663 )
- November 6th : Franz Karl von Auersperg , Prince of Auersperg, Duke of Münsterberg and Imperial General (* 1660 )
- November 7th : Gabriele von Liechtenstein , Princess of Liechtenstein (* 1692 )
- November 9th : Armand-Charles de La Porte , Duke of Mazarin, of Meilleraye and of Mayenne (* 1632 )
- November 17 : Abraham van Riebeeck , Governor General of the Dutch East Indies (* 1653 )
- November 24th : Lucas van de Poll , Dutch legal scholar (* 1630 )
- December 6th : Georg Theodor Barthold , German medic (* 1669 )
- December 15 : Carlo Maratta , Italian painter (* 1625 )
- December 17th : Nicolò Beregan , Italian lawyer, poet and librettist (* 1627 )
- December 18 : Friedrich Heinrich , Duke of Saxony-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt (* 1668 )
- December 27 : Balthasar Adelmann , German Jesuit and teacher (* 1645 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Susanna Eger , Leipzig cook and cookbook author (* 1640 )
- Kingkitsarat , King of Luang Phrabang
- Edward Lloyd , London restaurateur (* around 1648 )