Jean-Jacques Rousseau's work Du Contract Social ou Principes du Droit Politique
Catherine the Great
is defeated by a coup
against her husband Peter III.
Empress of Russia .
|Frederick the Great wins the Battle of Reichenbach against Austria under Leopold Joseph von Daun .|
|1762 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1210/11 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1754/55 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1167/68 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2305/06 (southern Buddhism); 2304/05 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1124/25 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4095/96 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1140/41 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1175/76 (July 22-23)|
|Jewish calendar||5522/23 (September 17/18)|
|Coptic Calendar||1478/79 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2072/73 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2073/74 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1818/19 (turn of the year April)|
The year 1762 marked a turning point in the war that had been going on in Europe since 1756 . After the death of the Russian Tsarina Elisabeth , her nephew Peter III arrives . , an admirer of Frederick the Great , to power. Although the new tsar was overthrown by supporters of his wife Katharina after six months and murdered a little later, during his short reign Russia made the peace treaty of St. Petersburg with Prussia and thus left the anti-Prussian coalition. Friedrich then succeeds in making peace with Sweden as well . The coronation of Catherine II as emperor on October 3rd does not change anything in the new situation in Europe, which is favorable for Prussia. The Battle of Freiberg on October 29th ultimately becomes the final battle of the Seven Years' War.
In the colonies, too, the war only flared up once more. The French attack on Newfoundland was finally repulsed by the British after just under three months.
The French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau published his state-theoretical work Du Contract Social ou Principes du Droit Politique , which was immediately banned in several states and earned him an arrest warrant in Paris and Geneva.
In Rome , the Trevi Fountain was completed after several years of construction, and Leopold Mozart from Salzburg arranged a first concert tour through Europe for his six-year-old son Wolfgang and his four-year-old sister Nannerl .
Politics and world events
- January 5th: After the death of Empress Elisabeth , her nephew Peter III mounts. the Russian throne. The new emperor introduced an extensive reform program.
- February 18: With the Liberation Manifesto of Peter III. If the lifting of the noble service duty .
- July 9: Catherine II is proclaimed sole empress after a coup by the Imperial Guard under Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov , Katharina's lover, her husband Peter III , who is outside of Saint Petersburg . Totally surprised by the development. He is forced to sign a deed of abdication and interned on the imperial estate of Ropša under the guard of Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov .
- July 17th: Peter III. dies in his country house Ropscha near Saint Petersburg under unexplained circumstances. It is not clear whether he dies of natural causes or is murdered by the conspirators.
- October 3: In the Moscow Dormition Cathedral is Catherine II. Crowned empress.
- October 14: Katharina issues a manifesto in which the Imperial Senate expressly receives permission to allow foreigners to settle in the country . The manifesto has not yet received the desired response abroad .
The Seven Years War in Europe
- January 4th: British Prime Minister John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute , so far a staunch opponent of war with Spain , declares war on the Kingdom of Spain.
- January 5th: The accession to the throne of Peter III. in Russia leads to the second miracle of the House of Brandenburg : Peter, an admirer of Frederick the Great , turns around in the Seven Years' War .
- March 16: August Wilhelm , Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern , concludes an armistice with Russia for Prussia in Stargard .
- April 7: Sweden and Prussia conclude the Ribnitz armistice, limited to three months .
- May 5: Russia and Prussia make the Treaty of Saint Petersburg . Russia is leaving the front of the opponents of Prussia and is giving back the occupied or already annexed areas of East Prussia , Pomerania and Neumark without compensation . It is also agreed to create an alliance with which Peter III. wants to enforce his dynastic goals in Holstein with Prussian support. Friedrich agrees without hesitation and promises to provide 20,000 men for it.
- May 12: In the battle near Döbeln , Prussian troops under Prince Heinrich of Prussia defeat an Austrian corps. The Austrian commander von Zedtwitz is captured. With the victorious advance, the main Prussian goal of preventing the unification of the Imperial Army and the Austrians is achieved. The military action also successfully opened the Prussian campaign in Saxony.
- May 22: Sweden and Prussia conclude the Treaty of Hamburg , which restores the situation before the war between the two countries.
- June 24th: Allied and French troops clash near the castle of the same name in the battle of Wilhelmsthal . After the Allied victory, the French had to withdraw from northern Germany.
- July 21: In the Battle of Burkersdorf , the Prussians under Frederick the Great win because he succeeds in engaging the Austrians under Leopold Joseph Daun with withdrawing Russian units and thereby weakening their combat strength.
- August 15: Frederick the Great also wins the battle of Reichenbach , but refrains from pursuing the Austrians, as he sees his main task in the conquest of Schweidnitz , which falls on October 9th.
- September 21: The allies of Prussia and France meet in a battle at the Brücker mill, a stone road bridge over the Ohm near Amöneburg . After 14 hours, more than 500 dead and 1,300 wounded, the battle remained without a clear winner. On November 15th, an armistice was signed by those involved in the mill.
- October 29: The battle near Freiberg in the Electorate of Saxony turns out to be the last armed conflict in the Seven Years War . Friedrich's brother Heinrich von Prussia defeated his Austrian opponent Andreas Hadik von Futak .
- November 24th: The Spanish invasion of Portugal , which began on May 9th, fails.
- November 24th: Prussia and Austria sign an armistice. The Saxon Crown Prince Friedrich Christian visits Friedrich II at his headquarters in Meißen in order to initiate peace negotiations with him in coordination with the Warsaw court and on behalf of Austria.
- December 30th: Peace negotiations begin at Hubertusburg Castle in Saxony.
The war in the colonies
North America and the Caribbean
- Beginning of the year: Strong British fleet contingents are relocated from Canada to the Caribbean.
- June 24th: The French land 1,500 soldiers coming from Brest under the command of Charles-Henri-Louis d'Arsac de Ternay on Newfoundland and occupy St. John's .
- June 13th: The siege of Havana by British troops begins.
- August 13: British troops capture Havana , the capital of the Spanish colony of Cuba , after a two-month siege .
- September 18: French troops in Newfoundland surrender to the British. Commander Ternay manages to escape to France.
- September 23: The British East India Company's navy, sent from Madras, India, to invade the Spanish-ruled Philippines in August , reaches Manila Bay with 14 ships . The Spaniards are completely surprised by the appearance of the British. Only 565 soldiers are stationed in the outdated fortress of Intramuros . Other defense forces consist of militias that were briefly organized by monks of the Augustinian order, but have no military training.
- October 6: British troops capture Manila , the capital of the Spanish- ruled Philippines , after only two days of bombardment . The city is then plundered because it can only raise part of the ransom demanded by the conquerors. However, the British can only occupy parts of the present-day provinces of Bulacan, Cavite, Rizal and Laguna, so that in large parts of the Philippines the old Spanish colonial administration remains intact and functional.
- November 3: The Palaris uprising of peasants against Spanish colonial rule breaks out in the province of Pangasinan . The uprising spread very quickly in the communities of Paniqui , Malasiqui , Bayambang , Manaoag , Santa Barbara , San Jacinto , Dagupan , Calasiao , and Mangaldan .
Holy Roman Empire / Italy
- April 29th: After Prince Joseph's death , his son Joseph Wenzel becomes Prince of Fürstenberg-Stühlingen .
- May 31: After the death of Francesco Loredan on May 19, Marco Foscarini is elected as the new Doge of Venice . Shortly after being elected, he fell seriously ill.
King George III recalled Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne , as Prime Minister for personal reasons in May, replacing him with John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute .
- September 19: After the treaty with the Ndyuka in 1760, the Dutch colonial power in Suriname, after several months of negotiations, also concludes a peace treaty with the Maroons group of Saramaccans , who settle on the upper reaches of Suriname and Saramacca . In addition to the Dutch and the former slaves, the contract is also signed by three locals .
- August 31: After Momozono's death , his sister Go-Sakuramachi becomes 117th Tennō of Japan . She is the last of a total of ten Japanese empresses .
- Erekle II becomes king of Kartlien after the death of his father and unites it with his kingdom of Kakheti .
- April 30th: With the appointment of a restoration commission, Elector August II and Heinrich von Brühl set up the rétablissement , with which the Saxon economy, which suffered badly from the Seven Years' War , is supposed to get going again. Thomas von Fritsch is appointed President of the Commission .
- July 1: In Austria, based on a patent from Archduchess Maria Theresa with a banco slip, the Wiener Stadtbanco issued paper money for the first time .
- December 16: Landgrave Friedrich II of Hessen-Kassel publishes an announcement according to which a mass should always take place 14 days before the Frankfurt Easter and Michaelmas Fair in Kassel . The first trade fair in Kassel opens on August 29, 1763.
- The chemical factory Gebrüder Gravenhorst , founded in 1759 by the brothers Johann Heinrich and Christoph Julius Gravenhorst , begins with the production of Braunschweiger salmiak .
science and technology
Philosophy and pedagogy
In April, Jean-Jacques Rousseau's political science work Du Contract Social ou Principes du Droit Politique ( On the Social Contract or Principles of Constitutional Law ) is published in Amsterdam and is immediately banned in France, the Netherlands, Geneva and Bern. An arrest warrant is issued against him in Paris and Geneva. His educational work Émile ou De l'éducation ( Émile or About Education ), published in the same year, is also banned. The Paris Archbishop Christophe de Beaumont attacks the work sharply.
Teaching and Research
- December 13th: Empress Maria Theresia of Austria founds the Bergakademie Schemnitz for mining science education.
- The second part of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach's musical textbook An attempt on the true way of playing the piano appears.
The second, baroque building of the St. Michaelis Church, which burned down in 1750 , one of Hamburg's five main churches , based on a design by Johann Leonhard Prey and Ernst Georg Sonnin , will be consecrated on October 19th.
The British painter George Stubbs made his most famous painting Whistlejacket around 1762 . Stubbs is best known for the scientifically accurate reproduction of his animal motifs.
Music and theater
- January 20: The world premiere of the opera Alessandro nell'Indie by Johann Christian Bach takes place at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples .
- January 22nd: The tragicomic fairy tale Turandot by Carlo Gozzi has its world premiere at the Teatro San Samuele in Venice.
- January 23: The play Much Ado in Chiozza by Carlo Goldoni is in Venetischem dialect in the Teatro San Luca premiered in Venice.
- October 5: The world premiere of the opera Orfeo ed Euridice ( Orpheus and Eurydice ) by Christoph Willibald Gluck with the libretto by Ranieri de 'Calzabigi takes place in Vienna .
- October 19: The inauguration of the St. Michaelis Church takes place with the oratorium for the inauguration of the new St. Michaelis Church by Georg Philipp Telemann .
- The Salzburg Hofviolinist Leopold Mozart arranged earlier this year a first concert tour for his six year old son Wolfgang and his four years older sister Nannerl to Munich and another in the fall of Passau to Vienna , to the nobility to present the talented children.
Caroline von Satzenhofen is elected abbess of the noble women's monastery in Vilich . At this point she is already the lover of the first minister of the Electorate of Cologne, Caspar Anton von Belderbusch . In the same year she was confirmed in her new office by the Archbishop of Cologne , Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels .
Historical maps and views
- Henry Molleston , American politician († 1819) January 1:
- Constanze Weber , wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart († 1842) January 5:
- January 13: Johann Gottfried Hagemeister , German actor, poet, publicist and teacher († 1806)
- January 19: Cécile Stanislas de Girardin , French politician († 1827)
- January 20: Jérôme-Joseph de Momigny , French composer and musicologist († 1842)
- January 20: Johann Ludwig Völkel , German classical philologist and archaeologist († 1829)
- January 23: Christian August Vulpius , German writer († 1827)
- January 27: Karl Christian Daniel Baurschmidt , German Protestant clergyman and educator († 1837)
- January 29: Giuseppe Nicolini , Italian opera composer († 1842)
- January 31: Lachlan Macquarie , British governor of the colony of New South Wales († 1824)
- Girolamo Crescentini , Italian castrato soprano and composer († 1846) February 2:
- Gia Long , Vietnamese emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty († 1820) February 8:
- February 18: Peter Jochims , German civil servant († 1844)
- February 23: Johanna Antoni , German writer († 1843)
- February 28: Eberhard von Wächter , German painter († 1852)
- March 10: Jeremias Benjamin Richter , Silesian chemist († 1807)
- March 18: Karl Christian Gmelin , German botanist and naturalist († 1837)
- March 24: Marcos António Portugal , Portuguese composer of operas and church music († 1830)
- March 25th: Thomas Alexandre Dumas , French general, father of Alexandre Dumas the Elder and grandfather of Alexandre Dumas the Younger († 1806)
- Stephen Storace , British composer († 1796) April 4:
- Friedrich von Kleist , Prussian Field Marshal General († 1823) April 9:
- April 14: Giuseppe Valadier , Italian architect, town planner, archaeologist and goldsmith († 1839)
- April 24: Johann Karl Sigmund Kiefhaber , German civil servant and lawyer († 1837)
- April 26: Pierre-Jean Garat , French singer (baritone) († 1823)
- April 28: Johann Melchior Mohr , Swiss politician († 1846)
- April 29: Jean-Baptiste Jourdan , Marshal of France († 1833)
- Johann Heinrich Abicht , German philosopher († 1816) May 4:
- May 11th: Jacob Johan Anckarström , murderer of the Swedish King Gustav III. († 1792)
- May 19: Johann Gottlieb Fichte , German philosopher († 1814)
- May 25: Walter Leake , American politician († 1825)
- Edmund Ignatius Rice , Irish missionary and founder of the order, († 1844) June 1:
- Bushrod Washington , American judge († 1829) June 5:
- June 10: Maria del Pilar Teresa Cayetana de Silva y Álvarez de Toledo , Duchess of Alba († 1802)
- June 10: Georg Friedrich Benecke , German scholar († 1844)
- June 16: Carl Christian Agthe , German composer and organist († 1797)
- June 16: Giuseppe Bernardino Bison , Italian classicist painter († 1844)
- June 20: Anton Aloys Meinrad Franz , Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen († 1831)
- June 24: Johann Paul Wessely , Czech composer († 1810)
- Thomas Hislop, 1st Baronet , British General and Deputy Governor of Trinidad († 1843) July 5:
- Ludwig Wilhelm Neumann , honorary citizen of Berlin († 1847) July 7:
- July 12: James Ross , American politician († 1847)
- July 20: Victor Hugues , French colonial administrator under Robespierre, Napoleon I and Louis XVIII. († 1826)
- July 21: Wilhelm Gustav Friedrich Bentinck , German Imperial Count († 1835)
- July 30: Juan O'Donojú , Spanish lieutenant general and viceroy of New Spain († 1821)
- August 12: George IV , King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover († 1830)
- August 12: William Branch Giles , American politician († 1830)
- August 12: Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland , German doctor († 1836)
- August 15: Johann Otto Thiess , German Lutheran theologian († 1810)
- August 20: Elisabeth von Matt , Austrian astronomer and geodetician († 1814)
- August 23: Johann Samuel Göbel , Saxon finance secretary and historian († 1798)
- August 25: Anton Wilhelm Möller , German Protestant clergyman († 1846)
- August 31: Josef Achammer , Tyrolean freedom fighter and rifle captain von Sillian († 1810)
- Theodorus Frederik van Capellen , Dutch naval officer († 1824) September 6:
- September 13: Antoine Christophe Merlin, known as Merlin de Thionville , French politician († 1833)
- September 28: Michael Andreaš , Slovenian poet († 1821)
- September 30th: Karl Stülpner , Saxon folk hero († 1841)
- Charles Abbott, 1st Baron Tenterden , British lawyer († 1832) October 7:
- October 12: Jan Willem Janssens , Governor of the Cape Colony and Governor General of the Dutch East Indies († 1838)
- October 16: Paul Hamilton , American politician († 1816)
- October 16: Christian Georg Wagner , German lawyer († 1851)
- October 17: Samuel Gottlieb Wald , German Protestant theologian († 1828)
- October 18: Lazarus Bendavid , German mathematician and philosopher († 1832)
- October 21: George Colman the Younger , English writer († 1836)
- October 21: Herman Willem Daendels , Dutch general († 1818)
- October 21: Georg Anton Christoph Scheffler , German educator and philologist († 1825)
- October 24: Johann Wilhelm Tolberg , Westphalian medic († 1831)
- October 26: Amos Stoddard , American politician († 1813)
- October 27: Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp , Dutch statesman († 1834)
- October 28: Karl Philipp Conz , German poet and writer († 1827)
- October 29: André Chénier , French writer († 1794)
- October 31: Traugott August Seyffarth , German Lutheran theologian († 1831)
- Spencer Perceval , British politician and Prime Minister († 1812) November 1:
- November 29: Pierre André Latreille , French entomologist († 1833)
- November 30th: Johann Christoph Gottlob Weise , German botanist and author († 1840)
- Franciszek Ksawery Dmochowski , Polish writer and translator († 1808) December 2:
- Traugott Karl August Vogt , German medic († 1807) December 2:
- Gotthelf Wilhelm Christoph Starke , German Protestant theologian and educator († 1830) December 9:
- December 20: David von Andrássy , Hungarian military († 1813)
- December 21: Friedrich Karl Gottlob Hirsching , German polymath and lexicographer († 1800)
- December 24th: Selim III. , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire († 1808)
- December 26: Johann Gaudenz von Salis-Seewis , Swiss poet († 1834)
- December 26: Franz Wilhelm Tausch , German clarinet virtuoso and composer († 1817)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Dudley Adams , English instrument manufacturer († 1830)
- William Anderson , American politician († 1829)
- Jacques Balmat , French mountaineer († 1834)
- Marie-Geneviève Bouliar , French classicist painter († 1825)
- Feliks Janiewicz , Polish composer and violinist († 1848)
- Susanna Rowson , American writer and actress, († 1824)
- William Smith , American politician († 1840)
January to April
- Elisabeth , Empress of Russia (* 1709) January 5:
- Teimuras II , King of Georgia (* 1680) January 8:
- January 11: Louis-François Roubiliac , French sculptor (* 1695)
- Jean-Baptiste Desmarets , French general and Marshal of France (* 1682) February 7th:
- February 12: Laurent Belissen , French late Baroque composer (* 1693)
- February 20: Tobias Mayer , German cartographer, geographer, mathematician and astronomer (* 1723)
- February 21: Andreas Georg Wähner , German orientalist (* 1693)
- Johannes Zick , Bavarian Baroque fresco painter (* 1702) March 4:
- Antoinette Amalie , Duchess of Braunschweig and Lüneburg and Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (* 1696) March 6th:
- March 10: Jean Calas , French Protestant, victim of judicial murder (* 1698)
- March 18: Paul II. Anton Esterházy de Galantha , Hungarian field marshal (* 1711)
- March 18: Johann Baptist Regondi , imperial court stonemason and sculptor (* 1703)
- March 21: Nicolas Louis de Lacaille , French astronomer (* 1713)
- March 22nd: Johann Philipp Graumann , Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel expert on money and coinage (* 1690 or around 1706)
- March 24th: Johann Gottfried Zentgrav , German Protestant theologian, rhetorician and literary scholar (* 1722)
- March 26: Johann Peter Ernst Rohrer , German builder (* 1687)
- March 30th: Johann Georg Bergmüller , German painter of the Augsburg Baroque (* 1688)
- Ernst Friedrich Arendt , Prussian civil servant (* 1709) April 3:
- Hermann Werner von Bossart , Prussian priest, diplomat and canon in Cologne (* 1695) April 6:
- April 29: Joseph , Prince of Fürstenberg, Imperial Principal Commissioner at the Reichstag in Regensburg (* 1699)
May to August
- May 15: Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł , Grand Hetman of Lithuania (* 1702)
- May 16: Ernst Christian Hesse , German Kapellmeister, composer and viol player (* 1676)
- May 19: Christoph II. Von Dohna-Schlodien , Prussian general (* 1702)
- May 19: Francesco Loredan , Doge of Venice (* 1685)
- May 21: Aleksander Józef Sułkowski , Electoral Saxon-Polish statesman (* 1695)
- May 24th: Charles-Daniel Prince , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1689)
- May 27: Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten , German philosopher (* 1714)
- George Anson, 1st Baron Anson , British naval officer and theorist (* 1697) June 6th:
- Johann Ernst von Flörcke , German lawyer (* 1695) June 9:
- June 13: Dorothea Christiane Erxleben , first German doctor with a doctorate (* 1715)
- June 22nd: Dorothea Christina von Aichelberg , German noblewoman (* 1674)
- June 23: Wolfgang Dietrich Majer , Württemberg painter (* 1698)
- June 26th: Luise Adelgunde Victorie Gottsched , German writer (* 1713)
- Jakob Adlung , German organist, composer, music writer and instrument maker (* 1699) July 5:
- July 12: Jangheon , heir to the throne of Joseon in Korea (* 1735)
- July 13: James Bradley , English astronomer and pastor (* 1693)
- July 17th: Peter III. , Emperor of Russia and Duke of Holstein-Gottorf (* 1728)
- July 20: Christoph Nichelmann , German composer (* 1717)
- July 20: Paul Troger , Austrian late Baroque painter (* 1698)
- July 27: Edmé Bouchardon , French sculptor and architect (* 1698)
- July 29: Françoise-Louise de Warens , friend and lover of Jean Jacques Rousseau (* 1699)
- July 30th: Johann Valentin Görner , German baroque composer (* 1702)
- August 20: Shāh Walī Allāh ad-Dihlawī , Indian-Islamic scholar (* 1703)
- August 21: Mary Wortley Montagu , English writer (* 1689)
- August 29: Stanisław Poniatowski , Polish politician (* 1676)
- August 31: Momozono , Emperor of Japan (* 1741)
- August 31: Pietro Rotari , Italian painter (* 1707)
September to December
- September 17th: Francesco Geminiani , Italian violinist and composer (* 1687)
- September 30th: Jacques Daviel , French doctor (* 1693/1696)
- October 14: Hieronymus Pez , Austrian Benedictine monk, philologist and historian (* 1685)
- October 22: Carl Aigen , Austrian painter (* 1685)
- October 22: Johann Henrich von Seelen German Lutheran theologian and educator (* 1687)
- October: Gizziello , Italian castrato (* 1714)
- Georg Besenbeck , German Protestant clergyman and educator (* 1731) November 7th:
- December 13: Jonathan Krause , German Protestant theologian and hymn poet (* 1701)
- December 23: Johanna Gabriele of Austria , daughter of Emperor Franz I and Maria Theresia (* 1750)
- December 24th: Johann Friedrich Constabel , German organ builder (* 1690)
- December 26th: Petrus Frans Theunissen , priest in the Teutonic Order (* 1713)
- December: Mary Collyer , British writer and translator (* around 1716/17)
Exact date of death unknown
- Charles-Louis d'Authville Des Amourettes , French military, author and encyclopedist (* 1716)
- Richard Bathurst , English doctor and writer (* 1722/1723)
- Charlotte Mercier , French painter (* 1738)