Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thomas Pelham-Holles in a portrait by William Hoare , around 1752

Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne KG (born July 21, 1693 in London , † November 17, 1768 ibid) was a British politician and Prime Minister .


Thomas Pelham-Holles was born in 1693 to the eldest son of Sir Thomas Pelham, 4th Baronet , and his second wife, Lady Grace Holles, the younger sister of John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne . When his uncle died in 1711, he inherited his large estates. The same happened in 1712 after the death of his father, whose title Baron Pelham , of Laughton, also passed to him. At the age of majority in 1714, Lord Pelham was one of the greatest landowners in the whole of the UK.

Like his father and uncle, he was politically affiliated with the Whigs' party . He held them together at the death of Queen Anne against the Tories and exercised considerable influence on the people of London in order to lift King George I to the throne. His services were rewarded with the appointment of Earl of Clare in 1714 and Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1715. In 1718 he became Lord Lieutenant in the counties of Middlesex and Nottingham and Knight of the Order of the Garter . With the marriage of Lady Henrietta Godolphins, the granddaughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , he allied himself in 1717 with the Whigs party.

In 1717 he took up his first office as Lord Chamberlain of the Household . In 1724, under Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, he became Secretary of State "for the Southern Territories" (Roman Catholic Europe and Colonies) instead of John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville . He held this office from 1724 to 1754. In addition to his immeasurable wealth, his talent for speech and the support of the Whigs' party were decisive reasons for his long tenure. When his brother Henry became Prime Minister in 1743, he was pulling the strings of power. After his death in 1754, Thomas Pelham-Holles succeeded his brother in office. However, he lost his support and in November 1756 he had to hand over the office to William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire .

For his services he finally received the title of Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne . Since Pelham-Holles had no children because of the poor health of his wife, this title was given a special succession clause at his request, according to which, unlike the dignities that Pelham-Holles had been bestowed up to then, it also applied to his nephew Henry Pelham-Clinton , 9th Earl of Lincoln , of which he was guardian. A similar clause had already received the title of Baron Pelham , of Stanmer, awarded in 1762 in favor of his cousin Thomas Pelham .

In July 1757 he became prime minister again because William Pitt, despite his statesmanship, failed to keep the party under control. England flourished under the renewed rule. However, there were differences with King George III. so that John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute , was appointed Prime Minister in May 1762. This was the last time the king recalled a prime minister for personal reasons alone.

Pelham-Holles now led the opposition. In 1765 he became Lord Seal Keeper in the government of Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess Rockingham , for a few weeks , but had to resign when the government resigned. He died in November 1768.


predecessor Office successor
New title created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
Henry Pelham-Clinton
New title created Baron Pelham , of Stanmer
Thomas Pelham
New title created Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Title expired
New title created Earl of Clare
Title expired
Thomas Pelham Baron Pelham , of Laughton
Title expired