Bar Confederation tries in vain
for Poland's independence from Russia.
|Treaty of Versailles , Corsica becomes French.||
first edition of the
Encyclopædia Britannica appears.
|1768 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1216/17 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1760/61 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1173/74 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2311/12 (southern Buddhism); 2310/11 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1130/31 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4101/02 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1146/47 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1181/82 (May 17/18)|
|Jewish calendar||5528/29 (September 11-12)|
|Coptic calendar||1484/85 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2078/79 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2079/80 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1824/25 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Poland / Russia / Ottoman Empire
- February 29 : Marek Jandołowicz founded with Adam Stanislaw Krasinski , Józef Pułaski and Wielkopolska Generalstarost Jerzy August Mniszech on the fortress of Bar , the Bar Confederation against the imperial Russian guardianship and end of the Golden freedom in Poland-Lithuania . The union of the small Polish aristocracy tries in vain for the independence of Poland from Russia .
- March 5 : A silent Sejm , the Repnin-Sejm , chooses Russia as the protective power for certain rights in Poland . Critics of the anti-Russian Bar Confederation are kept away from the deliberations.
- The Kolijiwschtschyna uprising of the Hajdamaks under the Zaporozhian Cossack Maksym Salisnjak brings the cities of Cherkassy , Smila , Korsun , Kaniw , Bohuslav , Zvenyhorodka and Lysjanka under its control. The uprising in right-wing Ukraine is directed against Polish feudal rule in the Bracław Voivodeship and is a reaction to the Confederation of Bar . Anti-Catholic propaganda emanating from Orthodox monasteries in the region supports the spread of the uprising.
- The Cossack Ivan Gonta , who commands a Cossack unit of the Voivode of the Kiev Province Franciszek Salezy Potocki , is supposed to fight the insurgents in front of Uman , which will be besieged from June 17, but instead defected with his unit to the rebels.
- June 21 : The city of Uman is handed over to the insurgents, despite the promise to spare the population. Contrary to the agreement, they immediately begin a massacre of several days against the Polish and Jewish population of the city, which kills around 20,000 people in the city and the surrounding area.
- The uprising is suppressed by order of the Russian Empress Catherine II , who fears that the uprising could spill over to the left-bank Ukraine under her administration . Don Cossack general Mikhail Kretschetnikow invites the rebels to a banquet on July 8 , at which he has the Hajdamaks, including Maksym Salisnjak and Ivan Gonta, captured. They are then tried. Maksym Salisnjak is sentenced to life-long forced labor and Iwan Gonta is handed over to Jan Klemens Branicki , the Grand Hetman of the Polish Crown , who has him tortured and executed for several days.
- September 25th : After a Russian Cossack regiment violated Ottoman territory near Balta , Sultan Mustafa III declared. Russia the war. The fifth war breaks out between the two empires. It ends victorious for the Russians under Catherine the Great in 1774 .
With the Treaty of Versailles of May 15, the Republic of Genoa transferred the island of Corsica to its ally France as security for the debts it had incurred in recent years as a result of the fight against the insurgents there. France receives the rights to use the island for a period of 10 years in return for an annual pension. Since it is foreseeable that Genoa will not be able to repay its debts , the agreement brokered by the French Foreign and War Minister Étienne-François de Choiseul amounts to a definitive assignment. However, when the French attempt to land on the island with 10,000 men in order to take possession of it, they are fought and driven out by the Corsican resistance fighters under the leadership of Pasquale Paoli and Carlo Buonaparte .
Holy Roman Empire
- Clemens Wenzeslaus of Saxony becomes Archbishop of Trier and thereby also elector . He succeeds Johann IX , who died on January 12th . Philipp von Walderdorff . With Clemens the long list of Trier electors will end in 1803/06 .
- May 27th : With the Gottorper Treaty, concluded through the mediation of Russia, Hamburg's official 300-year membership of the Danish- ruled Duchy of Holstein ends . Denmark recognizes the independence and imperial immediacy of the Hanseatic city . At the same time, an extensive area exchange is agreed. The Free Imperial City of Hamburg waives the Danish royal house and the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp liabilities in the amount of more than 1.3 million Reichstalers . In addition to the Russian Minister of State Caspar von Saldern , Heinrich Carl von Schimmelmann was also involved as a mediator between the parties. Christian VII of Denmark ratified the treaty on July 3 , the Hamburg citizenship on July 14 , Tsarina Katharina II on October 4, and Emperor Joseph II confirms the Gottorf settlement on May 30, 1769.
- December 31 : The Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana comes into force for the Austrian hereditary lands and the countries of the Bohemian Crown , although this penal code has been rejected by the State Council and State Chancellery because of its backwardness. It is in force until 1787 , but does not apply in Hungary . In addition to the desired standardization of criminal law in Austria, the Theresiana is also an attempt by Maria Theresa to regulate and restrict the torture methods customary at the time.
- November: After the British East India Company rejected a peace offer from the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali , after a bypass movement in the First Mysore War , the latter surprisingly appeared at the gates of the practically undefended city of Madras , forcing the British to the negotiating table.
At the turn of the year, Phraya Taksin crowns himself King of Siam after his victory over the Burmese occupation forces of King Hsinbyushin from the Konbaung dynasty , which was leaderless due to the destruction of its capital Ayutthaya the previous year. Instead of rebuilding the old capital, he founds the new Kingdom of Thonburi . However, since the previous year there have been numerous local warlords who do not recognize Thonburi's sovereignty .
Voyages of discovery
Louis Antoine de Bougainville
- April 6 : The Frenchman Louis Antoine de Bougainville hits his circumnavigation with the ship La Boudeuse on Tahiti and maintains itself until April 16 on the island.
- May 22nd : Louis Antoine de Bougainville discovered what he called Île de Pentecôte in the South Pacific at Whitsun on his journey .
- Bougainville's expedition explores numerous other Pacific islands, such as the New Hebrides , the Louisiads , which were named after King Louis XV. and the Solomon Islands , which rediscovered Bougainville after almost 200 years of oblivion, and whose northernmost island is named Bougainville .
- September: The expedition reaches the Moluccas .
Samuel Wallis / Philipp Carteret
- May 20th : After a journey of around two years, the HMS Dolphin arrives in England under the command of Samuel Wallis and completes its circumnavigation .
- June 3 : The HMS Swallow , the second ship of the expedition, which was separated from the Dolphin in the previous year , arrives under the command of Philipp Carteret on Batavia , which had left Valais a few months earlier.
- When Samuel Wallis, despite his merits, was refused command of the Endeavor and the associated Pacific voyage in favor of James Cook , he left the Navy and withdrew into private life.
- August 26th : The sailing ship Endeavor , put into service on May 26th, sets sail from Plymouth on her first major Pacific voyage under the command of James Cook with a crew of 94. On board are 94 people and above all astronomical instruments with which the Venus transit of 1769 is to be observed on behalf of the Royal Society under the presidency of the astronomer James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton . For this purpose, an observatory is to be built in Tahiti . In addition, Cook receives a secret order with the order not to open it until the first part of the journey - the observation of the passage of Venus - has been completed. In addition to the crew, there are numerous international scientists on board, including the astronomer Charles Green and the botanists Joseph Banks , Daniel Solander and Herman Diedrich Spöring .
- After a stopover in Madeira on September 12th, the Endeavor sails on to Rio de Janeiro , where it will arrive on November 13th . After being thoroughly overhauled, she set sail for Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horn in December .
- In the Grand Duchy of Tuscany , under Grand Duke Peter Leopold and his First Minister Franz Xaver Wolfgang von Orsini-Rosenberg, the general lease was repealed and tax collection was nationalized. The long lease is introduced for farm property. Furthermore, measures are taken to prevent the unproductive wealth from growing into the dead , whereby the state encroaches on the law of the church.
science and technology
- November 20 : Not far from Mauerkirchen a meteorite falls on Bavarian territory.
- December 6th : William Smellie publishes the first batch of the first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica in Edinburgh . From now on, weekly deliveries of this Scottish reconnaissance product will appear .
- King George III founds the Royal Academy of Arts in London . Angelika Kauffmann and Mary Moser are two women among the 34 founding members . Joshua Reynolds becomes the first president of the art institution devoted to teaching and promoting painting, sculpture and architecture .
- February 27th : The Irish-English author Laurence Sterne publishes the novel A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy ( Yorick's sensitive journey through France and Italy ). The novel remains unfinished as the author dies a few days after the first chapters are published before he can finish his novel.
- After Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Käthchen Schönkopf separated by mutual agreement in the spring after a two-year relationship, Goethe wrote the shepherd's play Die Laune des Verliebten . In July, Goethe fell seriously ill, whereupon he broke off his studies in Leipzig and returned to his parents' house in Frankfurt in August, where he was intensely concerned with religion and mysticism under the influence of Moravian canon Susanne von Klettenberg , a friend of his mother's. In November he begins work on his first comedy The Accomplices .
- Autumn: The opera house in Eszterháza opens with the premiere of the Opera buffa Lo Speziale ( The Pharmacist ) by Joseph Haydn .
Presumably on December 7th, the world premiere of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Singspiel Bastien und Bastienne will take place in Schwechat near Vienna . The libretto is by Friedrich Wilhelm Weiskern , Johann Heinrich Müller and Johann Andreas Schachtner. It is based on Charles-Simon Favarts , Marie Justine Benoîte Favarts and Harny de Guervilles Les amours de Bastien et Bastienne , a parody of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's one-act opera Le devin du village ( The Village Fortune Teller ). The Singspiel consists of one act and is written in German. Leopold Mozart calls it an operetta , for the librettist Weiskern it is “a French opera comique ”. This genre is very fashionable at this point.
In the same year Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed the opera La finta semplice . At the suggestion of Emperor Joseph II , he did this for the first time in the style of opera buffa . Due to intrigues, however, the work will not be performed until next year.
- The second version of the opera Solimano by Davide Perez has its world premiere in the Palazzo Ajuda in Lisbon. The libretto is by Giovanni Ambrogio Migliavacca . Perez's second version of the Solimano libretto is widely considered to be the composer's masterpiece.
- June 8th : The German archaeologist and art writer Johann Joachim Winckelmann is murdered by the convicted chef Francesco Arcangeli on his return trip from Germany to Rome in the Hotel Locanda Grande in Trieste .
- November 6 : Emperor Joseph II donates the Order of St. Joseph for the castle crew of the Reichsburg Friedberg and the associated burgraviate .
- December 7th : In Vienna, Prince Archbishop Christoph Anton von Migazzi inaugurates the orphanage church . However , there is no evidence for the traditional description that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed his orphanage mass for this purpose .
Historical maps and views
- January 7 : Joseph Bonaparte , King of Naples and Spain († 1844 )
- January 16 : Carl Andreas Göpfert , German composer († 1818 )
- January 17 : Sebastian Fahrländer , Swiss doctor and politician († 1841 )
- January 17 : Smith Thompson , American politician and lawyer († 1843 )
- January 23 : Franz Antoine , Austrian pomologist († 1834 )
- January 24 : Friedrich Erhard von Röder , Prussian cavalry general († 1834 )
- January 25 : Christoph Wilhelm Friedrich Penzenkuffer , German clergyman, educator and linguist († 1828 )
- January 25 : Justus Erich Walbaum , German typographer, type founder and stamp cutter († 1837 )
- January 28th : Friedrich VI. , King of Denmark and Norway († 1839 )
- February 1 : Alexandre-Jacques-Bernard Law de Lauriston , French general and Marshal of France († 1828 )
- February 1 : Charles Tait , American politician († 1835 )
- February 12 : Franz II. Joseph Karl , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and as Franz I, Emperor of Austria († 1835 )
- February 12 : Joseph von Hazzi , Bavarian tax officer, writer on forestry, agriculture and statistics († 1845 )
- February 13 : Édouard Adolphe Mortier , Marshal of France († 1835 )
- February 14 : Paul Usteri , Swiss publicist and politician († 1831 )
- February 20 : Vinzenz Ferrerius von Bianchi , Austrian general and Duke of Casalanza († 1855 )
- February 25 : Friedrich von Adelung , German lawyer and philosopher († 1843 )
- February 26 : Phra Phutthaloetla, as Rama II King of Siam († 1824 )
- March 1 : Pierre Coudrin , French priest and founder of the order († 1837 )
- March 4 : Johann Friedrich Kind , German writer († 1843 )
- March 10 : Karl Friedrich Gerhard Gruner , German businessman and politician († 1837 )
- March 15 : Maria Anna Czartoryska , Polish writer († 1854 )
- March 17 : Kaʻahumanu , reigning Queen of Hawaii († 1832 )
- March 19 : François Joseph Bosio , French sculptor († 1845 )
- March 21 : Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier , French mathematician and physicist († 1830 )
- March 27 : Joseph Schreyvogel , Austrian writer († 1832 )
- April 2 : Georg Friedrich Krause , Prussian State Councilor and forest scientist († 1836 )
- April 11 : Friedrich August Ludewig , German clergyman, educator and writer († 1840 )
- April 12 : Christopher G. Champlin , American politician († 1840 )
- April 14 : Wilhelm von Dörnberg , German general († 1850 )
- April 18 : Willie Blount , American politician († 1835 )
- April 22nd : Friedrich David Gräter , Württemberg theologian, philosopher and philologist, founder of scientific Nordic studies in Germany († 1830 )
- April 23 : José Álvarez Cubero , Spanish sculptor († 1827 )
- April 23 : Friedrich Groos , German doctor and philosopher († 1852 )
- April 27 : Jeremiah Mason , American politician († 1848 )
- May 3 : Agustín Eyzaguirre , Chilean President († 1837 )
- May 5 : Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck , Prussian Field Marshal General († 1848 )
- May 17 : Henry William Paget , British general and statesman († 1854 )
- May 25 : Kagawa Kageki , Japanese Tanka poet († 1843 )
- June 12 : Johann Gottfried Pahl , Wuerttemberg author, clergyman and politician († 1839 )
- June 13 : Girolamo Amati , Italian philologist, Graecist, epigraphist, palaeographer and manuscript scholar († 1834 )
- June 20 : William Findlay , American politician († 1846 )
- June 25 : Lazare Hoche , French general of the revolutionary era († 1797 )
- June 25 : Jakob Albrecht von Sienen , German lawyer and civil servant († 1837)
- July 6 : Heinrich Ofen , German composer and clarinetist († 1830 )
- July 13 : Peter Joseph Imhoff , German sculptor († 1844 )
- July 18 : Jean-Robert Argand , Swiss bookseller and amateur mathematician († 1822 )
- July 20 : Franz Anton Schubert , German church composer and instrumentalist at the Catholic Court Church in Dresden († 1824 )
- July 25 : William George Browne , English traveler to Africa and Asia († 1813 )
- July 26 : Johann Jakob Aders , German politician, banker and social reformer († 1825 )
- July 27 : Charlotte Corday , French nobleman and assassin († 1793 )
- July 27 : Joseph Anton Koch , Austrian painter († 1839 )
- July 29 : August Tischbein , German painter and lithographer († 1848 )
- August 1 : Karl Ludwig von Haller , Swiss constitutional lawyer († 1854 )
- August 6 : Jean-Baptiste Bessières , French general († 1813 )
- August 10 : Otto Christian Friedrich Kuhfahl , German educator († 1837 )
- August 11 : Johann Baptist Andres , German historian, theologian, philosopher and canon lawyer († 1823 )
- August 15 : Christoph von Schmid , German poet and author of young books († 1854 )
- August 17 : Louis-Charles-Antoine Desaix , French general († 1800 )
- August 22nd : Friedrich Delbrück , Prussian theologian and educator († 1830 )
- August 24 : Julius von Voss , German writer († 1832 )
- August 24 : Samuel Paynter , American politician († 1845 )
- August 26 : Ferdinand von Schau , German officer and district administrator († 1840 )
- August 27 : Joseph Vitus Burg , Bishop of Mainz († 1833 )
- September 4 : François-René de Chateaubriand , French writer and diplomat († 1848 )
- September 5 : Andreas Ludwig Christoph Kettembeil , German lawyer and editor († 1840 )
- September 6 : Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Thym , German Reformed theologian and educator († 1803 )
- September 11 : Karl Friedrich Alexander Freiherr von Arnswaldt , science politician and Minister of State († 1845 )
- September 12 : Benjamin Carr , English-American composer, organist, singer and music publisher († 1831 )
- September 20 : Johann Gottfried Steinhäuser , physicist, mathematician, mining specialist and lawyer († 1825 )
- September 21 : Louis Emmanuel Jadin , French composer and professor († 1853 )
- September 25 : Gottfried Mind , Swiss draftsman († 1814 )
- October 2 : William Carr Beresford , British general and Portuguese marshal († 1854 )
- October 6 : Josef Madersperger , Tyrolean master tailor and one of the inventors of the sewing machine († 1850 )
- October 6 : Samuel C. Crafts , American politician († 1853 )
- October 11 : Jean-Édouard Adam , French chemist and physicist († 1807 )
- October 17 : Israel Jacobson , German Jewish reformer († 1828 )
- October 17 : Sophie von Dönhoff , Prussian aristocrat, morganatic wife of King Friedrich Wilhelm II. († 1838 )
- October 26 : Karl Friedrich Franciscus von Steinmetz , German lieutenant general and cartographer († 1837 )
- October 28 : Johannes Daniel Falk , Prussian theologian and writer († 1826 )
- October 28 : Wilhelm Anton Ficker , German medic († 1824 )
- October 28 : Wilhelmine von Gersdorff , German nobleman and writer († 1847 )
- October 31 : Juan Egaña Risco , Chilean President († 1836 )
- October 31 : Simon Moritz von Bethmann , German banker († 1826 )
- November 1 : Christopher Ellery , American politician († 1840 )
- November 2 : Carl Bonaventura Witzka , German composer and Catholic theologian († 1848 )
- November 4 : Francesco Maria Appendini , Italian philologist and historian († 1837 )
- November 8 : Augusta Sophia , British-Hanoverian princess († 1840 )
- November 11th : Asaf Jah III. , Ruler of the Indian princely state of Hyderabad in the highlands of the Deccan († 1829 )
- November 18 : Zacharias Werner , German playwright († 1823 )
- November 21 : Friedrich Schleiermacher , Silesian Protestant theologian and philosopher († 1834 )
- November 24th : Georg Friedrich Rebmann , German publicist († 1824 )
- November 26 : Ferdinand von Bubna and Littitz , Austrian Lieutenant Field Marshal († 1825 )
- December 19 : Aimée du Buc de Rivéry , French noblewoman (lost around 1788 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Conrad Christoph von Ahlefeldt , heir and court lord from Ascheberg, chamberlain, regional and high court counselor in Glückstadt and provost of the monastery of Uetersen († 1853 )
- Christlieb Georg Heinrich Arresto , German actor and poet († 1817 )
- Friedrich Casimir Elias Eichler von Auritz , German officer († 1829)
- Starez Leonid , Russian monk and pastor († 1841 )
Born around 1768
First half of the year
- January 2 : Johann Simonis German Protestant theologian and orientalist (* 1698 )
- January 13 : Giuseppe Simone Assemani , Arab orientalist (* 1687 )
- January 13 : Pierre-Gabriel Buffardin , French flautist (* 1693 )
- February 5 : Karl von Arberg , German officer (* 1705 )
- February 13 : Adolf Gideon Bartholdi , Prussian pedagogue (* 1688 )
- February 27 : Johann Caspar Ulrich , Swiss Reformed pastor of a pietistic direction (* 1705 )
- March 1 : Hermann Samuel Reimarus , Prussian orientalist, philosopher and theologian, pioneer of scientific biblical criticism (* 1694 )
- March 3 : Nicola Antonio Porpora , Italian composer and singing teacher (* 1686 )
- March 11 : Giovanni Battista Vaccarini , Italian architect (* 1702 )
- March 18 : Laurence Sterne , British writer (* 1713 )
- April 4 : Philipp von Imhoff , lieutenant general in Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (* 1702 )
- April 9 : Sarah Fielding , English writer and translator (* 1710 )
- April 14 : François de Cuvilliés the Elder , Franco-German master builder (* 1695 )
- April 19 : Giovanni Antonio Canal , called Canaletto, Italian landscape painter (* 1697 )
- April 24th : Johann Valentin Tischbein , Thuringian painter in Laubach, Maastricht, The Hague, Hildburghausen (* 1715 )
- May 6 : Conrad Nahmmacher , German Protestant theologian and educator (* 1734 )
- May 25 : Siegfried Cäso von Aeminga , German legal scholar (* 1710 )
- May 26th : Félix de Berroeta , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and governor of Chile
- June 2nd : Moritz Casimir I. von Bentheim-Tecklenburg , reg. Count of Tecklenburg and Limburg, Lord of Rheda (* 1701 )
- June 8 : Johann Joachim Winckelmann , German archaeologist and art writer (* 1717 )
- June 24th : Johann Julius Hecker , Prussian theologian and founder of the practice-oriented secondary school (* 1707 )
- June 24th : Maria Leszczyńska , Polish nobleman, Queen of France and Navarre (* 1703 )
- June 28 : George Hadley , English physicist and meteorologist (* 1685 )
- June 28 : Johann Gottfried Tympe , German oriental philologist and Protestant theologian (* 1699 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : Johann Gottfried Borlach , Saxon mountain ridge (* 1687 )
- July 11 : José de Nebra , Spanish composer (* 1702 )
- July 14th : James Short , British mathematician, optician and telescope builder (* 1710 )
- July 20 : Francesco Arcangeli , Italian murderer (* 1737 )
- August 24th : Antonio de Guill y Gonzaga , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and governor of Panama and Chile (* 1715 )
- August 25 : Johann Conrad Seekatz , German painter (* 1719 )
- October 17th : Ludwig VIII , Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (* 1691 )
- October 19 : Agostino Masucci , Italian painter (* 1690 )
- October 28 : Michel Blavet , French flautist and composer (* 1700 )
- October 31 : Francesco Maria Veracini , Italian violinist and composer (* 1690 )
- November 10th : Johann Jacob Leu , Swiss encyclopedia, mayor of Zurich and banker (* 1689 )
- November 17th : Thomas Pelham-Holles , British politician (* 1693 )
- December 8th : Jean Denis Attiret , French Jesuit missionary and painter (* 1702 )
- December 13 : Johann Christoph von Dreyhaupt , German historian (* 1699 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Felix Benda , Bohemian composer (* 1708 )
- Christian Kretzschmar , German builder of the Baroque and Rococo (* around 1700 )