Calendar overview 1693
A severe earthquake shakes the island of Sicily ,
killing around 60,000 people.
|Palatinate War of Succession , the city of Heidelberg is taken by French troops and Heidelberg Castle is partially blown up.||
by Marc-Antoine Charpentier
is premiered in Paris.
|1693 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1141/42 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1685/86 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1098/99 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2236/37 (southern Buddhism); 2235/36 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1055/56 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4026/27 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1104/05 (turn of the year 1st / 2nd September)|
|Jewish calendar||5453/54 (September 30th / October 1st)|
|Coptic calendar||1409/10 (September 10/11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2003/04 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2004/05 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1749/50 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Palatinate Succession
- May 22nd : During the Palatinate War of Succession , the city of Heidelberg is taken by French troops. The next day the occupation of Heidelberg Castle surrenders . The French devastate the city and the Electoral Palatinate . The castle is set on fire and partially blown up.
- June 27th : Naval battle near Lagos - A French fleet under Admiral Tourville wins a victory over an Anglo-Dutch fleet near the Portuguese port city of Lagos .
- July 29th : Battle of Neerektiven - around 80,000 French troops fight under Marshal François-Henri de Montmorency-Luxembourg against around 50,000 Dutch-English troops under King Wilhelm III of England . The French gain little advantage.
- October 4th : In the Palatinate War of Succession , the French win the battle of Marsaglia in the Italian theater of war , where they face allied Imperial and Piedmontese troops.
Other events in Europe
- October 9th : The Hamburg settlement between Denmark and the Principality of Lüneburg ends the dispute over the fortification of the city of Ratzeburg carried out by the Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in the course of the occupation of the Duchy of Saxony-Lauenburg . The Danish King Christian V viewed this as a provocation directed against Danish interests in Holstein and besieged the city in 1693 and largely destroyed it.
- February 27 : The world's first women's magazine appears in London under the title The Ladies' Mercury . A few weeks later, the magazine initiated by the bookseller John Dunton ends.
Architecture and fine arts
- The plague column in Vienna, completed after 14 years of work under the project management of Paul Strudel , is consecrated.
Music and theater
- May 8 : The Oper am Brühl , which was built by Girolamo Sartorio in just four months , is the first Leipzig opera house to be opened in the presence of Elector Johann Georg IV with the Alceste opera by court conductor Nicolaus Adam Strungk . The German text after Aurelio Aureli comes from Paul Thymich .
- December 4 : The opera Médée ( H 491 ) by Marc-Antoine Charpentier based on a libretto by Thomas Corneille has its world premiere in the Palais-Royale in Paris. Although the play was well received, repeated several times and gallantly and benevolently discussed at the Mercure , it was not granted any further success, for which the sharp criticism from Jean-Baptiste Lully's followers is probably responsible.
- In London's St. James Street, Francis White founded a Chocolate House , later called White's Club .
- 9 / 11 January : Severe earthquakes shake the island of Sicily , Italy, about 60,000 deaths.
- June 7th : Parts of the Ottoman capital Istanbul are destroyed in a fire.
- Winter 1693/1694: The extremely cold winter kills hundreds of thousands of people in France.
- 1692–1694: Various epidemics such as dysentery, typhus, influenza and other febrile diseases are rampant in Italy, France and southwestern Germany.
First half of the year
- January 1 : Johann Philipp Crollius , German educator and historian († 1767 )
- January 20 : Carlo Francesco Durini , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Church († 1769 )
- January 23 : Georg Bernhard Bilfinger , Württemberg philosopher, master builder, mathematician and theologian († 1750 )
- January 26 : Beat Holzhalb , Swiss Pietist († 1757 )
- February 7 : Anna , Tsarina of Russia († 1740 )
- February 9 : Johann Ludwig Konrad Allendorf , German educator, Lutheran pastor and poet of hymns († 1773 )
- February 24 : Andreas Georg Wähner , German orientalist († 1762 )
- March 3 : James Bradley , English astronomer († 1762 )
- March 7th : Carlo della Torre Rezzonico , under the name of Clement XIII. Pope from 1758 to 1769 († 1769 )
- March 16 : Johann Engelhard Steuber , German Lutheran theologian († 1747 )
- March 17 : Elisabeth Auguste Sofie von der Pfalz , Electress of the Palatinate († 1728 )
- March 20 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Borcke , privy councilor and minister in Brandenburg-Prussia and Hesse-Kassel († 1769 )
- March 24th : Pierre-Gabriel Buffardin , French flautist († 1768 )
- March 24th : Campegius Vitringa the Younger , Dutch Reformed theologian († 1723 )
- March 31 : Elisabeth Albertine von Anhalt-Bernburg , Princess of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen († 1774 )
- April 1 : Melusina von der Schulenburg, Countess of Walsingham , German-English noblewoman († 1778 )
- April 3 : John Harrison , English watchmaker and inventor of the ship's chronograph († 1776 )
- April 16 : Anna Sophie von Reventlow , wife of the Danish king († 1743 )
- April 29th : Asmus Ehrenreich von Bredow , Prussian lieutenant general and governor of Kolberg († 1756 )
- May 17th : Georg Sigismund Caspari , German organ builder († 1741 )
- May 22 : Johann Salomon Brunnquell , German jurist († 1735 )
- May 24th : Georg Raphael Donner , Austrian sculptor († 1741 )
- May 31 : Bartolomeo Nazari , Italian painter († 1758 )
- June 2 : Alexei Petrovich Bestuschew-Ryumin , Russian field marshal and imperial chancellor († 1766 )
- June 2 : Johann Ernst Rentzsch (the younger) , German painter († 1767 )
- June 5 : Heinrich Martin Thümmig , German Protestant theologian († 1778 )
- June 7 : Siegmund Jakob Apinus , German philologist and educator († 1732 )
- June 9 : Bernd Siegmund von Blankensee , Royal Prussian Major General, holder of the Pour le Mérite († 1757 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : Valentin Johann Beselin , German lawyer and First Mayor of Rostock († 1755 )
- July 21 : Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne , British politician and Prime Minister († 1768 )
- Bampfylde Moore Carew , British impostor and folk hero († 1759 ) July:
- August 2nd : Johann Georg Zierenberg , mayor in the Duchy of Bremen († 1736 )
- August 8 : Laurent Belissen , French composer of the late Baroque († 1762 )
- August 9 : Sophie Wilhelmine of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld , Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt († 1727 )
- August 16 : Christian Ernst Endter , doctor and writer in Hamburg and Altona († 1775 )
- September 13 : Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach , Austrian architect († 1742 )
- September 25 : Johann Caspar Delius , founder of the entrepreneurial dynasty of the same name in Bielefeld († 1756 )
- October 1 : Adam Rudolf Solger , German Protestant clergyman and librarian († 1770 )
- October 3 : Hermann Post , German lawyer and Bremen's first full-time state archivist († 1762 )
- October 5 : Johann Christian Buxbaum , German botanist († 1730 )
- October 8 : Gottfried Anshelm von Lindenau , manor owner († 1749 )
- October 9 : Christian Hauschild , German Protestant theologian († 1759 )
- October 24th : Hans Moritz von Brühl , Real Privy Councilor, General of the Cavalry and Governor of the Deutschordensballei Thuringia († 1755 )
- October 29 : Christian Gottlieb Buder , German lawyer, historian and librarian († 1763 )
- November 10 : Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière , French naval officer, governor of New France and promoter of scientific research († 1756 )
- November 24th : Johann Gottfried Lessing , German Lutheran theologian († 1770 )
- December 3 : Claus von Reventlow , Danish-German lawyer, President of the Højesteret and canon in Lübeck († 1758 )
- December 11th : Johann Wolfgang Textor , German imperial, city and court school († 1771 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Christian Albrecht von Ahlefeldt , German chamberlain and colonel under Charles XII. of Sweden († 1755 )
- Ralph Allen , British entrepreneur († 1764 )
- Franz Andreas von Borcke , Royal Prussian Lieutenant General († 1766 )
- Cartouche , French robber, murderer and gang leader († 1721 )
- Robert Dinwiddie , British colonial administrator († 1770 )
- Josef Ferdinand Fromiller , Austrian painter († 1760 )
- Johannes Harpprecht († 1750 )
- Ahmad ibn Said , Imam Oman and founder of the Said dynasty († 1783 )
- Martin Schipani , German master watchmaker († 1759 )
First half of the year
- February 8 : Stephan Pilarick , Hungarian philosopher, ev.-luth. Clergyman and theologian (* 1615 )
- February 13 : Johann Caspar Kerll , German organist, harpsichordist and composer (* 1627 )
- February 15 : Emilie von Hessen-Kassel , Princess of Taranto and Talmont (* 1626 )
- February 15 : Christian von Klengel , German university professor and lawyer (* 1629 )
- April 5 : Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans , La Grande Mademoiselle , niece of Louis XIII, Duchess of Montpensier (* 1627 )
- April 5th : Christian Scriver , German theologian of the 17th century and hymn poet (* 1629 )
- April 9 : Roger de Bussy-Rabutin , French general and writer (* 1618 )
- April 17 : Rutger von Ascheberg , German-Baltic field marshal (* 1621 )
- April 17th : Xaver Jakub Ticin SJ , Sorbian linguist and theologian (* 1656 )
- April 20 : Claudio Coello , Spanish painter (* 1642 )
- June 18 : Johann Heinrich von Anethan , German vicar general and auxiliary bishop (* 1628 )
- June 30 : Christina zu Mecklenburg , abbess of the Gandersheim Monastery (* 1639 )
Second half of the year
- July 26 : Ulrike Eleonore of Denmark and Norway , Queen of Sweden (* 1656 )
- July 31 : Willem Kalf , Dutch painter (* 1619 )
- August 7th : Johann Georg II , ruling Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (* 1627 )
- August 25 : Johann Christoph Bach the Elder Ä. , Court musician, twin brother of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the father of Johann Sebastian Bach (* 1645 )
- September 6th : Odoardo II Farnese , son and heir of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese of Parma and Piacenza (* 1666 )
- September 19 : Johann Weichard Valvasor , Slovenian topographer and historian (* 1641 )
- October 9 : Marquard Sebastian Schenk von Stauffenberg , Prince-Bishop and Canon of Bamberg, Würzburg and Augsburg (* 1644 )
- October 25 : Theodor Heinrich von Strattmann , German diplomat and Reich Chancellor under Leopold I (* 1637 )
- October 26 : Coenraad van Beuningen , regent of Amsterdam (* 1622 )
- November 2 : Theodor Kerckring , Dutch anatomist and alchemist (* 1638 )
- November 9 : Cornelis Ryckwaert , Dutch builder
- November 12th : Maria van Oosterwijk , Dutch Baroque painter (* 1630 )
- November 23 : Job Adriaenszoon Berckheyde , Dutch painter (* 1630 )
- December 12 : Anna Magdalena von Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler , German noblewoman (* 1640 )
- December 16 : Willem van de Velde the Elder , Dutch painter (* around 1611 )
- December 22nd : Elisabetha Hevelius , Danzig astronomer (* 1647 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Otto von Ahlefeldt , German officer and squire of Fresenburg
- Constantin Cantemir , Prince of Moldova (* 1612 )
- Elias Tillandz , Finnish botanist (* 1640 )