Calendar overview 1727
Anglo-Spanish War begins with the siege of Gibraltar .
|George I of Great Britain dies.||Peter II becomes Emperor of Russia .|
|1727 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1175/76 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1719/20 (turn of the year 11th / 12th September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1132/33 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2270/71 (southern Buddhism); 2269/70 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1089/90 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4060/61 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||1139/40 (turn of the year 18/19 August)|
|Jewish calendar||5487/88 (September 15/16)|
|Coptic calendar||1443/44 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2037/38 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2038/39 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1783/84 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- May 17th : After the death of the Empress Catherine I , the grandson of Peter I , the minor Peter II , takes over the Russian throne according to the will of the Empress . According to Katharina's will, the only 12-year-old Tsar is under the tutelage of her confidante Alexander Danilowitsch Menshikov and her two daughters Anna and Elisabeth . Elisabeth shows no political ambitions, however, and the ambitious Menshikov causes Anna to leave for Kiel in order to further expand his position of power at court.
- September 20 : Alexander Danilowitsch Menshikov , the hitherto all-powerful advisor at the imperial court, is arrested under the influence of Vasily Vladimirovich Dolgorukov and exiled with his family to Beryosov in Tobolsk Governorate in western Siberia . His fortune falls to the crown.
- October 21 : In the first Kjachta Treaty between China and Russia, the border between the two empires is laid down and border trade is regulated. The previously valid Treaty of Nerchinsk in the year 1689 has the Qing Empire in 1722 terminated due to the content, disputes and closed the border.
Great Britain / Spain
- January 1 : In a note, Spain announces the passage in the Treaty of Utrecht which guarantees the Kingdom of Great Britain the possession of Gibraltar .
- February 11th : The Anglo-Spanish War begins with Spain's attack on Gibraltar . It soon became apparent that the Spaniards were at a disadvantage. The British fleet limited the attack possibilities to the narrow headland, which, however, was under fire from the British fortress artillery. The Spanish general De las Torres therefore plans to first destroy the fortifications with artillery fire and then storm them with his infantry. On March 24th, the Spanish guns were positioned so far that the bombing could begin. This lasts ten days and causes numerous damage to the British positions, which can only be insufficiently repaired even with the help of all civilians in the fortress. Another bombardment took place from May 7th to 20th, putting numerous British guns out of action. But then the supplies of powder and cannonballs failed. After Spain failed to expand the war to Europe and after a few skirmishes in Paris on May 31, a preliminary peace was concluded between Great Britain and the Holy Roman Empire , an armistice was also concluded outside Gibraltar on June 23 .
- June 22nd : After the death of George I of Great Britain, his son George II succeeds him to the throne. The coronation will take place together with his wife Caroline von Brandenburg-Ansbach on October 22nd in Westminster Abbey . Georg Friedrich Handel composed the four Coronation Anthems for this .
- March 9 : The West African kingdom of Dahomey conquers the neighboring kingdom of Sahé under King Dossou Agadja . Its capital Ajudá is renamed Ouidah , the previous king Hufon is newly appointed as prince. The march of conquest was made possible primarily by a shock squad of female cavalry, which later became a dynastic tradition.
- The Royal Bank of Scotland is established by royal statute . This is intended to facilitate loans to the British Crown, as the Bank of Scotland , which was already in existence, can only grant loans to the state with the consent of the Scottish Parliament.
Business start-ups and recruitment
- The St. Petersburgische Zeitung , the oldest German-language foreign newspaper , is founded.
- The weekly magazine Duisburgische Adresse- und Intelligentz-Zettel appears for the first time.
- The later Frommann-Holzboog Verlag is founded as a bookstore in Züllichau .
- The Portuguese Francisco de Melo Palheta smuggled the first coffee beans to Brazil .
- The Ottoman scholar and diplomat İbrahim Müteferrika receives on the initiative of Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha from Sultan Ahmed III. permission to operate a printing press for the production of non-religious printed matter.
science and technology
- March 18 : Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt's multi-year research trip through Siberia on behalf of Peter the Great ends in Saint Petersburg.
- The Marian column in Racibórz , donated after two cholera epidemics and created by Johann Melchior Österreicher , is completed.
- The Mohrenbrunnen in Eisenberg , Thuringia, created by Johann Schellenberg , is completed.
Music and theater
- January 7th : The world premiere of the opera Lucio Vero, imperator di Roma by Attilio Ariosti takes place at the King's Theater in London. The libretto , which was set to music for the first time in 1699 , is by Apostolo Zeno , probably in an arrangement by Nicola Francesco Haym . In May the work will be premiered in a further setting by Antonio Bioni at the Theater im Ballhaus in Breslau.
- January 31st : The opera Admeto by George Frideric Handel is premiered at the King's Theater in London's Haymarket. The author of the libretto is unknown; it is probably by Nicola Francesco Haym . L'Antigona delusa da Alceste by Aurelio Aureli served as a literary model .
- February 6th : World premiere of the opera Don Chisciotte in corte della duchessa by Antonio Caldara at the Teatrino di corte in Vienna
- February 10 : The world premiere of the opera Farnace by Antonio Vivaldi based on a libretto by Antonio Maria Lucchini takes place at the Teatro Sant'Angelo in Venice.
- October 21 : The world premiere of the opera Teuzzone by Attilio Ariosti takes place at the King's Theater in London.
- November 10th : Antonio Vivaldi's opera Orlando furioso premieres at the Teatro Sant'Angelo in Venice. Vivaldi has revised Grazio Braccioli's libretto based on the literary model Der Rasende Roland by Ludovico Ariosto so thoroughly that he is no longer mentioned as a librettist.
- November 11 : The opera Riccardo Primo by Georg Friedrich Händel is premiered at the King's Theater in London. It is Handel's third opera for the triumvirate Faustina Bordoni , Francesca Cuzzoni and Senesino . The libretto is by Paolo Antonio Rolli .
- April 11 : The St. Matthew Passion by Johann Sebastian Bach has its world premiere at the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig.
- August 30th : The British King George II awards his eldest daughter Anna the title Princess Royal . She is the second holder of this title.
- The Teutschübende Poetic Society is newly founded under the name Deutsche Gesellschaft . The aim of the linguistic society based in Leipzig is to create a national German standard language that has been cleared of foreign words and free of dialect colors.
- Benjamin Franklin and 12 friends found the Junto Club .
- Electress Maria Amalia of Bavaria lays the foundation stone for the monastery church of St. Anna im Lehel . The architect of the monastery church, which was built until 1733, is Johann Michael Fischer .
Disasters, nature and the environment
- The Icelandic volcano Hvannadalshnúkur erupts and puts an end to settlement in its vicinity for the time being.
January to April
- January 2 : James Wolfe , British general in the American colonies († 1759 )
- January 6 : Juan de Velasco , Spanish Jesuit priest († 1792 )
- January 30th : József Batthyány , Archbishop of Gran, Prince Primate of Hungary and Cardinal († 1799 )
- February 6 : David Claparède , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1801 )
- February 6 : Mary Coke , English nobleman, diary and letter writer († 1811 )
- February 14 : Friedrich Wilhelm Richter , German clergyman and teacher († 1791 )
- February 16 : Friedrich von der Trenck , Prussian officer and adventurer († 1794 )
- February 21 : Christian Just Wiedeburg , German lawyer and government official of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach († 1804 )
- February 25 : Charles Eugène Gabriel de La Croix de Castries , French minister, Marshal of France († 1801 )
- February 25 : Armand-Louis Couperin , French composer and organist († 1789 )
- February 27 : Karl Theophil Döbbelin , German theater director and actor († 1793 )
- March 4 : Martin Planta , Swiss clergyman and educator († 1772 )
- March 7 : André Morellet , French economist and writer († 1819 )
- March 14th (baptized): Johann Gottlieb Goldberg , German harpsichordist and organist († 1756 )
- March 14th : Adolph Friedrich Hamberger , German medic († 1750 )
- March 18 : Ferdinand Berthoud , Swiss watchmaker († 1807 )
- March 22 : Jean-Frédéric de La Tour du Pin Gouvernet , French officer and minister of war († 1794 )
- April 5 : Pasquale Anfossi , Italian conductor and composer († 1797 )
- April 5 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Westphalen , Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim and Paderborn († 1789 )
- April 7 : Michel Adanson , French botanist, ethnologist and naturalist († 1806 )
- April 10th : Samuel Heinicke , German educator and inventor of the German method of deaf education († 1790 )
- April 14th : Johanna von Hohenzollern-Berg , heiress of the county of Berg and Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen († 1787 )
- April 20 : Florimond Claude von Mercy-Argenteau , Austrian diplomat († 1794 )
- April 27 : Charles DeWitt , American politician († 1787 )
- April 29 : Jean Georges Noverre , French dancer and choreographer († 1810 )
May to August
- May 10 : Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, baron de l'Aulne , French statesman and economist of the pre-classical period († 1781 )
- May 11 : Ludwig Joseph von Welden , Prince-Bishop of Freising († 1788 )
- May 14 : Thomas Gainsborough , English painter († 1788 )
- June 1 : Diego José Abad , Spanish Jesuit, writer, educator and humanist in New Spain and Italy († 1779 )
- June 1 : Francesco Casanova , Italian painter († 1803 )
- June 10 : Ernst Friedrich III. , Duke of Saxony-Hildburghausen († 1780 )
- June 15 : Marie Duronceray , French actress and writer († 1772 )
- June 15 : Charlotte Elisabeth Nebel , German hymn poet and author of edification († 1761 )
- July 22nd : François Thurot , French privateer and naval officer († 1760 )
- July 24 : Maria Anna Sagar , Austrian writer († 1805 )
- August 14 : Anne Henriette de Bourbon , Princess of France and gambist († 1752 )
- August 14 : Marie Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon , Infanta of Spain and Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla († 1759 )
- August 16 : Friedrich August Fischer , German legal scholar († 1786 )
- August 19 : Thomas Albrecht Pingeling , German engraver († 1803 )
- August 23 : Friedrich Hartmann Graf , German composer and flautist († 1795 )
- August 27 : Gian Battista Frizzoni , Swiss pastor and hymn poet († 1800 )
- August 30 : Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo , Italian painter († 1804 )
- August 30 : Georg Andreas Will , German historian († 1798 )
September to December
- September 12th : Johann Gerhard von Angelbeek , German-Dutch lawyer and colonial administrator, governor of the Dutch East India Company in Malabar and Ceylon († 1799 )
- September 19 : Renatus von Zinzendorf , German hymn poet († 1752 )
- September 20 : Mateo de Toro Zambrano y Ureta , Creole officer, Spanish governor of Chile († 1811 )
- September 23 : Christoph Karl Friedrich von Bardeleben , Prussian major general († 1798 )
- October 9 : Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne , French politician and cleric († 1794 )
- October 11 : Elizabeth Griffith , Irish writer, actress and editor († 1793 )
- October 24 : Johann Martin Will , German engraver, artist, publisher and editor († 1806 )
- October 28 : Conrad Siegmund Drag , German Lutheran theologian and doomsday prophet († 1780 )
- November 2 : Johann Ignaz Schiffermüller , Austrian, theologian, architecture professor, lepidopterologist and zoologist († 1806 )
- November 12th : Ivan Iwanowitsch Schuwalow , Russian count, favorite of the Empress Elisabeth of Russia, promoter of the Enlightenment and founder of the University in Moscow and the St. Petersburg Academy of Art († 1797 )
- November 20 : Maria Josefa von Harrach , Princess of Liechtenstein († 1788 )
- November 22nd : Ercole III. d'Este , Duke of Modena and Reggio († 1803 )
- November 26 : Artemas Ward , American Army officer in the Revolutionary War and politician († 1800 )
- December 1st : Stepan Iwanowitsch Scheschkowski , Russian privy councilor and highest investigator into particularly secret state affairs († 1794 )
- December 2 : Caroline von Keyserling , Königsberg aristocrat, artist and socialite († 1791 )
- December 4th : Johann Gottfried Zinn , German medic and botanist († 1759 )
- December 8 : Joseph Maria Schneidt , German lawyer, university professor and historian († 1808 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ahmad Shah , Emperor of the Northern Indian Mughal Empire († 1774 )
- Johann Fuchs , Lower Styrian church builder († 1804 )
- Niel Gow , Scottish fiddler († 1807 )
- Jakob Friedrich Grundmann , German woodwind instrument maker († 1800 )
- Joseph Jones , American politician († 1805 )
- Johann Christoph Oesterlein , German musical instrument maker († 1792 )
- Jacques-François Villiers , French doctor, translator and encyclopedia († 1794 )
- Xiao Yi Chun , Chinese Imperial Concubine († 1775 )
First half of the year
- January 5 : Giovanni Antonio Burrini , Italian painter (* 1656 )
- January 13 : Johann Conrad Ziesenis , German sculptor (* 1671 )
- January 24th : Philippe de Bourbon , Duke of Vendôme, Duke of Penthièvre, French general and Grand Prior of the Order of Malta in France (* 1655 )
- January 30th : Franz Josef von Manteuffel , Truchsess and Bavarian Chamberlain (* 1663 )
- January 31 : Johann Wilhelm Petersen , German theologian, mystic and chiliast (* 1649 )
- February 1 : Giuseppe Sala , Venetian music publisher, printer and bookseller (* around 1643 )
- February 2nd : Andreas Gärtner (Sorbian Handrij Zahrodnik ), electoral Saxon model master, scientist and inventor (* 1654 )
- February 13 : Adam Schöttl , Bavarian rebel and forester (* around 1658 )
- March 8 : Balthasar Mentzer III , German mathematician (* 1651 )
- March 16 : Francis Nicholson , British colonial governor of various American colonies (* 1655 )
- March 22nd : Francesco Gasparini , Italian composer (* 1661 )
- March 22nd : Mulai Ismail , Sultan of the Alawid dynasty in Morocco (* around 1645 )
- March 22nd : Johann Leonhard Rost , German writer and astronomer (* 1688 )
- March 24th : Marie-Anne Horthemels , French engraver (* 1682 )
- April 9 : Thomas von Westen , Norwegian missionary (* 1682 )
- April 11 : Heinrich Theobald Schenk , German Protestant theologian and hymn composer (* 1656 )
- April 18 : Matthias Steinl , Austrian architect and sculptor (* around 1644 )
- April 29th : François Coudray , French sculptor in Saxony (* 1678 )
- May 2 : Giuseppe Maria Jacchini , Italian cellist and composer (* 1663 )
- May 4th : Louis Armand II. De Bourbon , Prince of Conti and Field Marshal (* 1695 )
- May 17th : Catherine I , Empress of Russia (* 1684 )
- May 17th : Lebrecht , Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (* 1669 )
- May 26 : Francesco Farnese , Duke of Parma and Piacenza (* 1678 )
- May 31 : Karl August von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , Prince-Bishop of Lübeck (* 1706 )
- June 1 : Cornelis Huysmans , Flemish painter (* 1648 )
- June 8 : August Hermann Francke , German theologian and social worker (* 1663 )
- June 18 : Georg Wartmann , Mayor of St. Gallen (* 1645 )
- June 22nd : George I , King of Great Britain and Ireland, Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, bearer of archbanners and treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire (* 1660 )
Second half of the year
- July 9 : Veronica Giuliani , Italian nun and saint of the Catholic Church (* 1660 )
- July 10 : Mauritz Vellingk , Swedish diplomat, privy councilor, general and governor general of Bremen-Verden (* 1651 )
- July 14 : Cornelius Cruys , Norwegian-Dutch admiral in the service of the Russian tsar (* 1657 )
- July 18 : Franz Anton von Harrach , Prince-Bishop of Vienna and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg (* 1665 )
- August 5th : Khangchenne , Tibetan nobleman and minister
- August 14 : William Croft , British organist and composer (* 1678 )
- August 18 : Franz Anton von Landsberg , general and governor of the city of Münster (* 1656 )
- August: Arent de Gelder , Dutch painter (* 1645 )
- September 4th : Christiane Eberhardine von Brandenburg-Bayreuth , Electress of Saxony and titular queen of Poland (* 1671 )
- September 6 : Ernst Friedrich von Windisch-Graetz , statesman in the service of the Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire, President of the Reichshofrat (* 1670 )
- September 25 : Jacques Abbadie , French theologian and writer (* 1654 )
- October 2 : Johann Konrad Brunner , Swiss doctor (* 1653 )
- October 7th : Jeanne-Agnès Berthelot de Pléneuf , Marquise of Plasnes, mistress of the French Prime Minister Louis IV. Henri de Bourbon, prince de Condé (* 1698 )
- October 8 : Georg Sandrart , German merchant and tobacco dealer in Magdeburg (* 1665 )
- October 10 : Gottfried Vockerodt , German educator (* 1665 )
- October 29 : Ioan Giurgiu Patachi , Romanian-Greek-Catholic Bishop of Făgăraș (* 1682 )
- November 9th : Giambattista Ragusa , Sicilian sculptor
- November 11th : Johann Andreas Eisenbarth , German craft surgeon, surgeon and star engraver (* 1663 )
- November 26 : Edward Russell, 1st Earl of Orford , British Admiral (* 1653 )
- December 1 : Johann Heinrich Buttstedt , German organist and composer (* 1666 )
- December 4th : Sophie Wilhelmine of Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld , Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (* 1693 )
- December 6th : Abraham Bogaert , Dutch pharmacist, surgeon and writer (* 1663 )
- December 10 : Georg Hösle , German Roman Catholic theologian (* 1649 )
- December 20 : Johann Andreas Danz , German Lutheran theologian and orientalist (* 1654 )
- December 25th : Sarah Kemble Knight , entrepreneur and diary writer in New England (* 1666 )
- December 26 : Baltasar de Zúñiga y Guzmán , Spanish nobleman and colonial administrator, viceroy of Navarre, Sardinia and New Spain (* 1658 )
- December: Tsewangrabtan , ruler of the Jungars (* 1643 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Carmine Nicolao Caracciolo , Spanish colonial administrator of Italian origin, Viceroy of Peru (* 1671 )
- Hannah Callowhill Penn , second wife to William Penn and administrator of Pennsylvania (* 1671 )