Calendar overview 1774
|Louis XVI ascends the throne of France. He becomes the last king of the Ancien Régime .||
Abdülhamid I becomes Sultan of
the Ottoman Empire .
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe published
the Sturm und Drang -Werk The Sorrows of Young Werther .
|1774 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1222/23 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1766/67 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1179/80 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2317/18 (southern Buddhism); 2316/17 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1136/37 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4107/08 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1152/53 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1187/88 (March 13-14)|
|Jewish calendar||5534/35 (September 5-6)|
|Coptic calendar||1490/91 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2084/85 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2085/86 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1830/31 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
England and its American colonies
- June 1 : The UK's reaction to the Boston Tea Party is the ban on the port of Boston under the Intolerable Acts .
- June 2nd : Parliament in Great Britain passes the Quartering Act , according to which English troops can be quartered in private houses in the colonies .
- June 22nd : The King of England approves the Quebec Act .
- September 1 : Powder alert in Massachusetts
- September 5 : The First Continental Congress , a gathering of delegates from the regional assemblies of the Thirteen Colonies in British North America , is formed.
- December 1st : In the thirteen colonies in North America, the boycott of British goods begins , which the first continental congress decided with the association articles of October 20th .
- Connecticut and Rhode Island prohibit the continuation of the import of slaves. However, merchants from these two colonies continue to sell slaves to other colonies.
Europe and Asia
- January 21 : Change of throne in the Ottoman Empire. On the deceased Mustafa III. follows Abdülhamid I.
- May 10th : With the death of his grandfather Louis XV. will Louis XVI. King of France and Navarre .
- July 18 : Friedrich Karl Joseph von Erthal becomes Archbishop of Mainz and thereby also elector. He succeeds the late Emmerich Joseph von Breidbach zu Bürresheim . Von Erthal is the last permanent elector of Mainz. His successor Karl Theodor von Dalberg will only hold this office for a short time.
- July 21 : The Peace of Küçük Kaynarca ends the Russo-Turkish War that has been going on since 1768 . The Russo-Turkish War ends victoriously for the Russians under Tsarina Catherine the Great .
- December 6th : The education system in Austria is redesigned by Empress Maria Theresia . It issues the General School Regulations designed by Johann Ignaz von Felbiger , which stipulate a six-year compulsory education in elementary school, standardized textbooks and regular teacher training.
Australia and Oceania
- September 4th : James Cook lands with his crew on the second voyage to the South Seas in what he calls New Caledonia .
- October 5th : Today's Guardia di Finanza is founded in Sardinia-Piedmont under the name Legione Truppe Leggere as a border guard, which is responsible in particular for combating smuggling.
- The Gothaischen learned newspapers appear for the first time.
science and technology
- August 1st : The scholar Joseph Priestley describes oxygen for the first time , but does not recognize it as a chemical element .
- Johann Gottfried Herder publishes the historical-philosophical treatise Also a Philosophy of History for the Education of Humanity .
- During a smallpox epidemic, farmer Benjamin Jesty immunized his family against the disease with a cowpox vaccination .
Literature and theater
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe writes The Sorrows of Young Werther , on April 12th his play Götz von Berlichingen will be premiered in Berlin, directed by Heinrich Gottfried Koch .
- Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz writes and publishes the tragic comedy Der Hofmeister or Benefits of Private Education .
- The first parts of the satirical novel Die Abderiten by Christoph Martin Wieland appear in sequels in the magazine Der Teutsche Merkur , which he edited .
- The literary magazine Iris, specially aimed at women . The quarterly magazine for women appears for the first time.
Music and musical theater
- April 19 : The world premiere of the opera Iphigénie en Aulide by Christoph Willibald Gluck takes place under the direction of the composer in Paris.
- October 2 : A revised version of the opera Orfeo ed Euridice by Christoph Willibald Gluck from 1762 based on the libretto by Ranieri de 'Calzabigi is premiered in French in Paris. The title role of this tenor version is sung by Joseph Legros .
- October 11th : Antonio Salieri's opera La Calamità de 'cuori is premiered at the Kärntnertortheater in Vienna. The work received mixed reviews.
- November 4 : The premiere of the comedy Berthe by François-Joseph Gossec takes place at the Théâtre de la Monnaie in Brussels. The world premiere of the opera Lucio Silla by Johann Christian Bach takes place in Mannheim on the same day .
- December 6 : Archduchess Maria Theresia makes the general school regulations designed by Johann Ignaz von Felbiger for the German normal, secondary and trivial schools in all of the royal hereditary countries with six years of compulsory teaching, standardized textbooks and state-regulated teacher training as the basis of the education system in Austria .
- From March onwards, Pope Clement XIV's health deteriorated noticeably. He dies in Rome on September 22nd . On October 5 is the conclave opened, however, it is not possible until the end of the year to choose a successor.
- Michael Denis publishes the Advent song Tauet, Heaven, the righteous .
nature and environment
- January 5 : Johannes Aberli , Swiss medalist, stone and die cutter († 1851 )
- January 8 : Wilhelm von Türk , Thuringian cartographer and publisher († 1846 )
- January 13 : Anton Dreyssig , German musician († 1815 )
- January 18 : Johann Heinrich Bernhard Dräseke , Protestant theologian, general superintendent and bishop († 1849 )
- January 31 : Thomas Veazey , American politician († 1842 )
- February 2 : Johann Christian Friedrich Patzig , German civil servant († 1840 )
- February 3 : Carl Brandan Mollweide , Prussian mathematician and astronomer († 1825 )
- February 3 : Emanuel von Bretfeld zu Kronenburg , Bohemian officer († 1840 )
- February 4 : Frederick Traugott Pursh , German-Canadian botanist and gardener († 1820 )
- February 8 : Karl Friedrich Heinrich , German classical philologist († 1838 )
- February 15 : Wilhelm Georg Friedrich von Oranien-Nassau , son of the inheritance holder Wilhelm V of the Netherlands († 1799 )
- February 16 : Pierre Rode , French violinist († 1830 )
- February 24 : Ignaz Maria Graf von Attems-Heiligenkreuz , Austrian Privy Councilor and Governor of Styria († 1861 )
- February 24 : Adolph Friedrich, Duke of Cambridge , British Field Marshal († 1850 )
- February 26 : Heinrich von Pechmann , German architect and author († 1861 )
- March 5 : Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse , Danish composer († 1842 )
- March 16 : Matthew Flinders , British explorer († 1814 )
- March 18 : Johann Friedrich Hütter , lawyer and mayor († 1840 )
- March 19 : Johann Baptist Heinrich , German politician and Lord Mayor of Mainz († 1838 )
- March 20 : John Braham , English opera singer († 1856 )
- March 26 : Ernst von Hügel , Württemberg General and Minister of State († 1849 )
- March 30th : Friedrich Starke , German horn player, conductor and composer († 1835 )
- March 31 : Karl Gottfried Erdmann , German medic and botanist († 1835 )
- April 1 : Gottfried Daniel Krummacher , Prussian Protestant theologian († 1837 )
- April 1 : Gustav von Rauch , Prussian general and minister of war († 1841 )
- April 4 : Arnold Ignaz Ernst Ferdinand Cajetan Theodor , German writer and organist († 1812 )
- April 17 : Friedrich Koenig , German printer and inventor († 1833 )
- April 17 : Václav Jan Křtitel Tomášek , Czech music teacher and composer († 1850 )
- April 19 : Johann Nepomuk von Schmiel , Swiss politician and officer († 1850 )
- April 21 : Jean-Pierre Aumer , French dancer and choreographer († 1833 )
- April 21 : Jean-Baptiste Biot , French physicist and mathematician († 1862 )
- April 24th : Jean Itard , French doctor and teacher for the deaf and dumb († 1838 )
- April 26 : Anne-Jean-Marie-René Savary, duc de Rovigo , French general and Duke of Rovigo († 1833 )
- April 26 : Leopold von Buch , German geologist († 1853 )
- April 30 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Mauvillon , Prussian colonel and military writer († 1851 )
- May 7 : Francis Beaufort , Irish-British admiral and hydrographer († 1857 )
- May 8 : Leonhard Johann Bertholdt , German Protestant theologian and university professor († 1822 )
- May 12 : Friederike von Reden , wife of the Prussian Minister Friedrich Wilhelm von Reden († 1854 )
- May 16 : Johann Baptist von Keller , German bishop († 1845 )
- May 18 : Johann Christoph Friedrich Schulz , German Protestant theologian († 1806 )
- May 18 : Georg Leonhard Zili , Swiss businessman and banker († 1860 )
- June 9 : Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall , Austrian diplomat and translator († 1856 )
- June 14th : Johann Carl Freiesleben , Saxon chief miner († 1846 )
- June 21 : Viktor Joseph Dewora , German Catholic clergyman and educator († 1837 )
- June 21 : Daniel D. Tompkins , American politician († 1825 )
- June 27 : Johann Baptist Seele , German painter († 1814 )
- June 29 : Christiane Amalie , Hereditary Princess of Anhalt-Dessau († 1846 )
- June 29 : Friedrich Johann Jacobsen , lawyer († 1822 )
- July 12 : Jonathan Friedrich Bahnmaier , German theologian and hymn poet († 1841 )
- July 14 : Hans Graf von Bülow , Westphalian-Prussian statesman († 1825 )
- July 20 : Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont , French general († 1852 )
- July 20 : Johann Ernst Daniel Bornschein , German playwright a. Novelist († 1838 )
- July 20 : Auguste-Frédéric-Louis Viesse de Marmont , French general († 1852 )
- July 26th : Johann Georg Friedrich Wendell , German printer and newspaper publisher († 1836 )
- July 30 : Charles de Graimberg , French engraver and landscape painter († 1864 )
- August 1 : Ferdinand Beneke , German lawyer and politician († 1848 )
- August 2 : Johann Conrad Arnold , Hessian politician († 1840 )
- August 7 : Cayetano Carreño , Venezuelan composer († 1836 )
- August 12 : Robert Southey , English historian and poet († 1843 )
- August 12 : August Ludwig Diemer , German legal scholar († 1855 )
- August 17 : Augustin Andreas Geyer , Catholic clergyman and fossil collector († 1837 )
- August 18 : Meriwether Lewis , American soldier and explorer († 1809 )
- August 28 : Elisabeth Anna Bayley Seton , American saint († 1821 )
- September 1 : Johann Jakob Bernhardi , German botanist († 1850 )
- September 4 : Johann Friedrich Fuchs , German physician († 1828 )
- September 5 : Caspar David Friedrich , German Romantic painter († 1840 )
- September 8 : Anna Katharina Emmerick , Prussian religious sister and mystic († 1824 )
- September 9 : Salomon Rothschild , founder of the Austrian branch of the Rothschild family († 1855 )
- September 14 : William Cavendish-Bentinck , British general and statesman († 1839 )
- September 17 : Giuseppe Mezzofanti , Italian cardinal and linguistic genius († 1849 )
- September 21 : Ludwig Friedrich Heindorf , German classical philologist († 1816 )
- September 26 : Johnny Appleseed , American ecological pioneer († 1847 )
- October 2 : Gustav Ludwig Ferdinand Raabe , Saxon artillery general († 1837 )
- October 11 : Peter von Nobile , Austrian architect († 1854 )
- October 18 : Adolf Müllner , German lawyer and writer († 1829 )
- October 24 : Karl Ernst Schmid , German legal scholar († 1852 )
- October 30 : Johannes Friedrich Ludwig Schröder , German Lutheran theologian and mathematician († 1845 )
- November 3rd : Gottlieb Friedrich Wagner , German teacher, politician; Swabian dialect poet († 1839 )
- November 4 : Ignaz Heinrich von Wessenberg , Saxon Catholic theologian († 1860 )
- November 5 : Johann Christian August Clarus , German medic († 1854 )
- November 11 : Martin von Dunin , Archbishop of Gniezno and Posen († 1842 )
- November 14 : Gaspare Spontini , Italian opera composer and conductor († 1851 )
- November 16 : Jean-Lucq d'Arriule , French general († 1850 )
- November 22 : Karl Heinrich Siegfried Rödenbeck , German historian († 1860 )
- November 22nd : Samuel Christian Pape , German writer, poet and theologian († 1817 )
- November 23 : Johann Heinrich Schmülling , German Roman Catholic theologian, clergyman and university professor († 1851 )
- November 26 : Georg Cancrin , German-Russian general and statesman († 1845 )
- November 28 : Friedrich IV. , Saxon Duke († 1825 )
- November 29 : Carl Johan Fahlcrantz , Swedish painter († 1861 )
- November 29 : Johann Gottfried Gruber , German literary historian († 1851 )
- December 2 : Laurids Engelstoft , Danish historian († 1851 )
- December 12 : William Henry , English chemist († 1836 )
- December 13 : Nathan Fellows Dixon , American politician († 1842 )
- December 23 : Ludwig von Vincke , Prussian reformer († 1844 )
- December 26 : Ferdinand Oechsle , German mechanic, goldsmith and inventor († 1852 )
- December 27 : Pierre Tobie Yenni , Bishop of Lausanne-Geneva († 1845 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Heinrich Andriano , German businessman and politician († 1836 )
- Louis-Philibert Brun d'Aubignosc , French count († 1847 )
- Antal Csermák , Hungarian composer († 1822 )
- Franziskus Fröhlicher , Swiss clergyman († 1848 )
- Friedrich Wilhelm Hermann , German lawyer († 1822)
- Johann Majoleth ( Gigerhannesli ), Swiss folk music pioneer, broom-maker and "Bündner Münchhausen" († 1856 )
- Ramón de la Quintana , Argentine Franciscan priest and educator (date of death unknown)
- Marie-Denise Villers , French classicism painter († 1821 )
First half of the year
- January 21 : Florian Leopold Gassmann , Austrian composer (* 1729 )
- January 21 : Mustafa III. , Ottoman Sultan (* 1717 )
- January 22nd : Gottlieb Wernsdorf I. , German pedagogue, rhetorician and author (* 1717 )
- January 28 : Antonio Galli da Bibiena , Italian decorative painter and architect (* 1697 / 1698 )
- January 30th : František Ignác Tůma , Czech composer (* 1704 )
- February 25 : Johann Georg Chevalier de Saxe , Saxon general and governor of Dresden (* 1704 )
- March 15 : Johann Ernst Faber , German university professor (* 1745 )
- March 30th : Henriette Karoline von Pfalz-Zweibrücken , daughter of Count Palatine Christian III. and his wife Karoline von Nassau-Saarbrücken (* 1721 )
- April 4 : Oliver Goldsmith , Irish writer and doctor (* 1728 )
- April 23 : Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich , Saxon painter and engraver (* 1712 )
- April 26 : Martin Kröncke , German mint master (* 1705 )
- April 28 : Takebe Ayatari , Japanese poet and painter (* 1719 )
- May 3 : Heinrich August de la Motte Fouqué , Prussian general (* 1698 )
- May 3 : Johann Nikolaus Tischer , German composer (* 1707 )
- May 4th : Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Russian general and Prince of Braunschweig (* 1714 )
- May 10 : Louis XV. , French king (* 1710 )
- May 17 : Francisco Javier de Morales , Spanish officer and governor of Chile (* 1696 )
- May 26 : Wilhelm Reinhard Graf von Neipperg , Austrian military leader (* 1684 )
- June 11 : Emmerich Joseph von Breidbach zu Bürresheim , Elector and Archbishop of Mainz and Prince-Bishop of Worms (* 1707 )
Second half of the year
- July 11th : William Johnson , British-Irish trader, politician and general in the British colonies in North America (* 1715 )
- July 13 : Otto von Münchhausen , German botanist (* 1716 )
- July 24th : Johann George Schmidt , German builder of the late Baroque and council carpenter in Dresden (* 1707 )
- July 27 : Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin , Wuerttemberg botanist and naturalist (* 1744 )
- August 14 : Johann Jacob Reiske , German founder of Arabic studies as a sovereign science (* 1716 )
- August 19 : Johann Ernst Schubert , German Protestant theologian (* 1717 )
- August 25 : Niccolò Jommelli , Italian composer (* 1714 )
- September 19 : Karl Gottlob Hofmann , German Lutheran theologian and historian (* 1703 )
- September 22nd : Clement XIV. , Pope (* 1705 )
- October 1 : Erhard Andreas Frommann , German Protestant clergyman and educator (* 1722 )
- October 8 : Ahmad Shah , emperor of the north Indian Mughal empire (* 1727 )
- October 15 : Dmitri Wassiljewitsch Uchtomski , Russian architect (* 1719 )
- October 29 : August von Hallerstein , German Jesuit and China missionary (* 1703 )
- November 20 : Georg Ludwig Alefeld , German medic and physicist (* 1732 )
- November 22nd : Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive , British general and statesman (* 1725 )
- November 23 : Gottfried Bernhard Göz , Moravian painter and engraver of the Rococo (* 1708 )
- December 2 : Johann Friedrich Agricola , Thuringian musician, composer and music writer (* 1720 )
- December 16 : François Quesnay , French doctor and engraver (* 1694 )