Johann Gottfried Gruber

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Johann Gottfried Gruber

Johann Gottfried Gruber (born November 29, 1774 in Naumburg / Saale , † August 7, 1851 in Halle (Saale) ; pseudonyms: Adolph Grimm , Joseph from the pit , Iocosus Hilarius ) was a German polymath , lexicographer and writer .


As the son of the poor tailor Johann Gottfried Gruber († 1814) and his wife Maria Christina Heinße († 1825), Gruber attended the council school in his native Naumburg. From 1792 he studied classical philology , history and philosophy in Leipzig , where he passed the master’s examination in December 1793 and then worked as a freelance writer and publicist . After Gruber had completed his habilitation at the University of Jena in 1803 , he taught there as a private lecturer in philosophy and aesthetics until he moved to Weimar in 1805 . In the learned city Gruber u. a. with Christoph Martin Wieland . After the battle of Jena , his household effects were looted by the French troops .

Almost penniless, Gruber accepted a call to the newly created professorship for historical auxiliary sciences at the University of Wittenberg in 1811 . As a result of the partition of Saxony (→ Congress of Vienna ) he was entrusted by the Prussian state government with the negotiations on the merging of the universities in Halle and Wittenberg. After the successful merger of the two institutions, Gruber received a professorship for philosophy at the now United Friedrichs University in Halle-Wittenberg and was elected its first vice-rector in 1817 . He took up this position in 1818, 1819, 1820, 1830 and 1840.

In Halle Gruber continued his relations after Weimar. He held u. a. Lectures on aesthetics, the history of philosophy , literary history , mythology and philosophical anthropology and arranged a complete edition of the works of Christoph Martin Wieland, to which he added a biography of the poet.

Gruber achieved particular importance as a co-founder of the " General Encyclopedia of Sciences and Arts , in alphabetical order " ("ersch Gruber "), a monumental, unfinished scientific encyclopedia , of which a total of 168 volumes were published between 1818 and 1889. After his co-editor , Johann Samuelersch , died in 1828, Gruber de facto took over sole editing and continued the 1st section (vol. 18–54) until his death.


Gruber was married twice. He married his first wife in 1797; she died without children in 1809. In 1811 he married Sophie Louise Christiane Richter , a stepdaughter of the economist Friedrich Gottlob Leonhardi . The couple had two sons:

  • August Otto (* 1816), teacher
  • Adolph Julius (1820-1896), doctor

Works (selection)

  • System of educational science. Leipzig 1794.
  • Cupid and Hymen. Leipzig 1794.
  • Jesus and Socrates. Leipzig 1796.
  • Pieces of files in the matter of Fichte's atheism. 2 volumes, Leipzig 1799.
  • About the destiny of man. 2 volumes, Zurich / Leipzig 1800.
  • Hell on earth in the story of the Fredini family: Against Salzmann's heaven on earth. Leipzig 1800.
  • Manners and customs of the strangest nations. 2 volumes, Leipzig 1803.
  • with Johann Traugott Leberecht Danz : Characteristics Johann Gottfried v. Herders. Leipzig 1805.
  • Spirit and history of all religions. Leipzig 1806.
  • History of the human race from the point of view of humanity. 2 volumes, Leipzig 1806/07.
  • Dictionary of ancient classical mythology and religion. 3 volumes, Weimar 1810–1815.
  • August Lafontaine's life and work. Hall 1833
  • (Ed.): CM Wieland's entire works. (53 volumes, Leipzig 1818–1828)
  • (Ed.): Klopstock's Oden. (2 volumes, Leipzig 1831)
  • (Ed. With Johann Samuel Ed. ): General Encyclopedia of Sciences and Arts, in alphabetical order. (167 volumes, Leipzig 1818–1889; digitized version )


Entries in biographical dictionaries

Other literature

  • Johann Gottfried Gruber, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Halle, b. Nov. 27, 1774, died Aug. 7, 1851. In: New Nekrolog der Deutschen. Volume 29, No. 1, 1851, pp. 602-609.
  • Gustav Hertzberg: On the history of the union of the universities of Wittenberg and Halle. In: University of Halle-Wittenberg (Hrsg.): To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the unification of the universities of Halle and Wittenberg. Self-published, Halle 1867, pp. 1–35, Google Books .
  • Friedrich Prillwitz: The union of the University of Wittenberg with the University of Halle. In: University of Halle-Wittenberg (ed.): 450 years of Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg. Volume 2. Self-published, Halle 1952, pp. 241–250.
  • Reinhard Markner: Johann Gottfried Gruber and the order of knowledge. in: Gerald Hartung, Wolf-Peter Klein (ed.): Between foolishness and wisdom. Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1997, ISBN 3-487-10282-X , pp. 288-318, (PDF; 375 kB).
  • Walter Zöllner : Historical auxiliary sciences at the old university. In: Werner Freitag (Ed.): Halle and the German historical science around 1900. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2002, ISBN 3-89812-109-7 , pp. 172–178 ( Studies on regional history. Volume 5).
  • Kai Agthe : A second Diderot or the science of knowledge creation. The encyclopaedist Johann Gottfried Gruber (1774-1851). In: Saale-Unstrut-Yearbook. Volume 10, 2005, pp. 32-37, ISSN  1431-0791 .
  • Bettina Rüdiger: The "Sch / Gruber". Conception, printing and history of the impact of the General Encyclopedia of Sciences and Arts. In: Leipzig yearbook on book history. Volume 14, 2005, pp. 11-78, ISSN  0940-1954 .

Web links

Commons : Johann Gottfried Gruber  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Johann Gottfried Gruber  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Rudolf Tischner : History of Homeopathy. Springer, Wien 1998, p. 136 ( preview in the Google book search).