Calendar overview 1851
|Victoria opens the Great Exhibition in London.|
|French president Charles-Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte receives dictatorial powers in a coup.||
Hong Xiuquan ,
leader of the Taiping Uprising ,
proclaimed the "Heavenly Realm of Supreme Peace" in China
|1851 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1299/1300 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1843/44 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Baha'i calendar||07/08 (turn of the year 20/21 March)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1246/47 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2394/95 (southern Buddhism); 2393/94 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1213/14 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4184/85 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1229/30 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1267/68 (October 26-27)|
|Jewish calendar||5611/12 (September 26-27)|
|Coptic calendar||1567/68 (September 11-12)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1266/67 (March 1st)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2161/62 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2162/63 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1907/08 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- July 15: The Gotha Treaty is signed between 17 of the German states. It regulates questions of citizenship.
- November 18: After the death of King Ernst August I , his son Georg V takes over the reign of the Kingdom of Hanover .
- December 31: The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I signs the New Year's Eve patent and thus repeals the October constitution .
- End of Schleswig-Holstein survey , which also (first) Schleswig-Holsteinischer war and in Denmark war three year old is called
- December 2: A coup d'état by French President Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, modeled on the 18th Brumaire VIII, heralds the end of the Second Republic . Then there was bloody fighting all over France, which Napoleon finally won on December 5th. On December 21, he organized a referendum on a new constitution that granted him dictatorial powers. 7.5 million French vote for, 640,000 against him. Karl Marx processed these events a year later in the book The Eighteenth Brumaire by Louis Bonaparte .
Other events in Europe
- January 1: Josef Munzinger becomes President of Switzerland .
- April 26th: Forced by an uprising by army officers, Queen Maria II dismisses her favorite, the Marquis of Tomar, as Prime Minister of Portugal and appoints the Duke of Saldanha as his successor.
- December 22: Foreign Secretary Palmerston leaves the UK Cabinet. The unauthorized official approval of the coup d'état of French President Charles-Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte on December 2nd leads to his involuntary resignation.
- November 13th: The Denny family, called the Denny Party , lands at Alki Point; this is seen as the birth of Seattle .
- January 11: The sect leader Hong Xiuquan proclaims the Heavenly Kingdom of Supreme Peace in China during the Taiping Uprising and proclaims himself the Heavenly King .
- February 12: Edward Hammond Hargraves finds gold in Summer Hills Creek , New South Wales, Australia . The news triggers a gold rush .
- July 20: the smallholders Thomas Peters takes on William Barker 's Mount Alexander station traces of gold in today's Specimen Gully . This find was published in Melbourne's The Argus newspaper on September 8th and led to a gold rush at Mount Alexander and Forrest Creek in what is now Castlemaine .
- July / August: Just a few weeks after the official detachment from New South Wales , gold is found in the Australian state of Victoria on Andersons Creek near Warrandyte , 30 km northwest of Melbourne . Further finds in Clunes and Buninyong lead to the Victorian gold rush . Melbourne becomes boomtown , Canvas Town is set up.
The Great Exhibition in London
- May 1 to October 11: The so-called Great Exhibition is being held in London's Hyde Park on the initiative of the British Royal Society of Arts . For this first world exhibition , Charles Fox built the Crystal Palace as an exhibition building within 17 weeks according to plans by the architect Joseph Paxton . 94 sovereign states and dependent territories participate in the exhibition. The official closing ceremony will take place on October 15th.
- May 6: The American doctor John Gorrie receives a patent on the refrigeration machine he invented . He is laughed at and has no economic success with it.
- March 22nd: The Kingdom of Württemberg separates from the private Thurn-und-Taxis-Post and sets up a state enterprise for the postal service .
- May 1st: The Grand Duchy of Baden issues its first postage stamps. The Baden-Misprint 9 Kreuzer , a great rarity in philately, was discovered 43 years later .
- February 1: Salomon Volkart and his brother Johann Georg found the Volkart Brothers trading house , based in Winterthur and Bombay . The colonial goods trade developed into one of the world's largest cotton traders for decades .
- February 10: The Illinois Central Railroad is founded with the support of the Illinois General Assembly to build a line from Cairo at the confluence of the Ohio River into the Mississippi River to Centralia and from there with two branches to Galena and Chicago .
- June 15: Baltimore-based dairy trader Jacob Fussell opens its first ice cream factory in the world .
- September 18: The first issue of the US daily The New York Times appears under the title The New York Daily Times .
- October 15: The Disconto-Gesellschaft , which later developed into a major bank , opens its business in Berlin.
- October: Paul Julius Reuter founds the Reuters news agency .
- The clothing manufacturer Fruit of the Loom is founded under the name BB and R. Knight Corporation .
science and technology
Astronomy, meteorology, physics
- January 3: The French physicist Léon Foucault conducts an experiment with a pendulum for the first time in the basement of his house , with which he succeeds in demonstrating the rotation of the earth .
- March 26th: The scientist Léon Foucault carried out a third experiment with the pendulum named after him, this time in the Panthéon in Paris . With the help of a 67 meter hanging rope, he proves the earth's rotation with the experiment .
- July 23: In the Austrian Empire, Emperor Franz Joseph I authorizes the establishment of a central institute for meteorological and magnetic observations . This creates the world's first state weather service , today's Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG).
- October 24th: William Lassell discovers the Uranus moons Ariel and Umbriel .
- George Gabriel Stokes released the equations of Navier-Stokes the hydrodynamics (in Cambridge Transactions 9 (1851), 8 )
Teaching and Research
- January 28: In the state of Illinois is Northwestern University was founded.
- July 10: The private University of the Pacific is founded in Stockton, California .
- January 16: A gardener finds Velp's treasure .
- July 15: After a five-year construction period, the Göltzschtalbrücke , the world's largest brick bridge , designed by Johann Andreas Schubert , opens in Vogtland .
- August 4th: Missionary and Africa explorer David Livingstone reaches the upper reaches of the Zambezi .
- October 3: The American pastor and beekeeper Lorenzo L. Langstroth discovered the bees distance ( bee space ).
- Arthur Schopenhauer publishes the writings Parerga and Paralipomena in two volumes .
- September 25th: The Andreasbrunnen in Deidesheim is inaugurated.
- The stalls of the Province of Prussia have the equestrian statue of King Friedrich Wilhelm III in Königsberg . erect.
- June 5th: The first part of the serial novel Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly ( Uncle Tom's Cabin ) by Harriet Beecher Stowe appears in the journal The National Era .
- July: Jules Verne publishes his first prose work , the short story L'Amérique du Sud , in the magazine Musée des familles . Études historiques. Les premiers navires de la marine mexicaine ( A Drama in Mexico ).
- October 18: The writer Herman Melville first published the novel Moby-Dick in London, and a short time later in New York. While the British edition receives benevolent criticism, the US criticism is devastating, which is mainly due to the passages in the book that are critical of religion.
- Nathaniel Hawthorne published the successful novel The House of the Seven Gables ( The House of the Seven Gables ), a work of showers romance , which among others the horror writer HP Lovecraft is inspired.
- Two years after the play of the same name, the French writer Henri Murger published the novel Les scènes de la vie de bohème , which half a century later would become the template for Giacomo Puccini's opera La Bohème .
Music and theater
- January 8th: The play in one act Fantasy by “ Kosma Prutkow ” is premiered in St. Petersburg.
- January 20: The comic opera Die Opernprobe or The Noble Dilettantes by Albert Lortzing has its world premiere at the Stadttheater in Frankfurt am Main , while the composer is dying in Berlin.
- March 11th: Giuseppe Verdi's opera Rigoletto with the libretto by Francesco Maria Piave based on the drama Le roi s'amuse by Victor Hugo is premiered in Venice. The opera is a great success.
- April 16: The first version of the opera Sapho ( Sappho ) by Charles Gounod with the libretto by Émile Augier premieres at the Grand Opéra in Paris.
- August 20: The world premiere of the romantic opera Aurelia, Duchess of Bulgaria by Conradin Kreutzer takes place in Kassel.
- Stephen Foster released the song Old Folks at Home .
- Richard Wagner composes the Ride of the Valkyries .
- January 21: In the Avenwedde railway accident, a train from Minden to the Rhineland derailed on the main line of the Cologne-Minden Railway Company , killing three people. Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia, who later became Emperor Friedrich III., Who is slightly injured, also travels on the train .
- December 24th: A fire rages in the Library of Congress . 35,000 books and other furnishings, including an original portrait of Christopher Columbus, are destroyed by flames.
- May 27th: History of the game of chess : The German Adolf Anderssen wins the first international chess tournament organized by Howard Staunton in London.
- June 21: In a friendship game outside of the tournament, Adolf Anderssen plays the " Immortal Game " against Lionel Kieseritzky .
- August 22nd: The American schooner yacht America , which was specially built in the same year and led by skipper Richard “Old Dick” Brown , wins the One Hundred Sovereigns Cup off the British Isle of Wight against 15 British yachts. The crew donated the won cup to the New York Yacht Club six years later and with this award founded the America's Cup , which, however, was not held for the first time until 1870.
Historical maps and views
- Daniel Dee Burnes , American politician († 1899) January 4:
- Giuseppe Gallignani , Italian composer and music teacher († 1923) January 9:
- January 13: Franz Friedrich Kohl , Austrian entomologist and folk song researcher († 1924)
- January 14: Reinhold von Sydow , German politician of the imperial era († 1943)
- January 15: Martinus Theodorus Houtsma , Dutch orientalist († 1943)
- January 18: Heinrich Friedjung , Austrian historian, publicist and journalist († 1920)
- January 19: David Starr Jordan , American zoologist, ichthyologist and peace activist († 1931)
- January 19: Jacobus C. Kapteyn , Dutch astronomer († 1922)
- January 21: Giuseppe Allamano , Seliger, Italian priest and founder of the order († 1926)
- January 23: Ludwig Schupmann , German professor of architecture and designer of telescopes († 1920)
- January 24: Marcus A. Smith , American politician († 1924)
- January 25: Arne Garborg , Norwegian writer († 1924)
- January 28: Fredrik Ludvig Andreas Vibe Aubert , Norwegian art historian and art critic († 1913)
- January 29: Richard Reverdy , German construction manager and civil servant († 1915)
- January 30th: Henry Ogg Forbes , Scottish explorer and botanist († 1932)
- January 31: Peter Emil Isler , Swiss politician († 1936)
- Lina Hähnle , founder of the Federation for Bird Protection († 1941) February 3:
- Wilhelm Trübner , German Romantic painter († 1917) February 3:
- Hanna Bieber-Böhm , German women's rights activist and pioneer of social work († 1910) February 6:
- Arthur Garner , Australian actor and theater entrepreneur († after 1898) February 8:
- Hugo Zorn von Bulach , Alsatian politician of the imperial era, Member of the State Council, State Secretary († 1921) February 8:
- February 12: Eugen Böhm von Bawerk , Austrian economist († 1914)
- February 13: Paul Chapuis , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1904)
- February 14: Jacobus Johannes Hartman , Dutch classical philologist († 1924)
- February 20: Ernst von Heydebrand and der Lasa , German politicians († 1924)
- February 20: Richard Weitbrecht , German theologian and writer († 1911)
- February 21: Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach , German painter and social reformer († 1913)
- February 21: Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg , Austrian diplomat and travel writer († 1918)
- February 21: Thomas Sterling , American politician († 1930)
- February 26: Carl Albert Purpus , German plant collector († 1941)
- Adolf Quensen , Braunschweig court decoration and church painter of historicism († 1911) March 2:
- Franz von Liszt , Professor of Criminal Law and International Law († 1919) March 2:
- Alexandros Papadiamantis , Greek writer († 1911) March 4:
- Hunold von Ahlefeld , German Vice Admiral of the Imperial Navy († 1919) March 5:
- Václav Brožík , Czech painter († 1901) March 5:
- Karl Schlau , pastor and martyr from Livonia († 1919) March 6:
- Paul Vittorelli , Austrian judge († 1932) March 9:
- March 12: Charles Chamberland , French bacteriologist († 1908)
- March 14: James P. Walker , American politician († 1890)
- March 16: Franz Wärme , German theologian and parliamentarian († 1921)
- March 16: Martinus Willem Beijerinck , Dutch microbiologist († 1931)
- March 19: Friedrich Franz III. , Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin († 1897)
- March 19: Roque Sáenz Peña , Argentine lawyer and politician († 1914)
- March 23: Siegmund Theodor von Berckheim , German diplomat and lord of the castle von Weinheim († 1927)
- March 26: Julius Langbehn , German writer and cultural critic († 1907)
- March 27: Ruperto Chapí y Lorente , Spanish composer and professor († 1909)
- March 27: Vincent d'Indy , French composer and music theorist († 1931)
- March 28: Melville Best Anderson , American Romanist, Italianist and Anglist († 1933)
- March 28: Bernardino Machado , Portuguese politician († 1944)
- March 30: Adalbert Ricken , German mycologist († 1921)
- March 31: Karoline von Arnim , German writer († 1912)
- Kristofer Randers , Norwegian writer († 1917) April 1:
- Adolph Brodsky , Russian violinist († 1929) April 2:
- Hans Droysen , German classical philologist and historian († 1918) April 4:
- Guillaume Bigourdan , French astronomer and President of the Académie des sciences († 1932) April 6:
- Otto Klauwell , German composer († 1917) April 7:
- Thor Lange , Danish writer and translator († 1915) April 9:
- April 10: Maggie Moore , American-Australian actress († 1926)
- April 10: Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte , Italian cardinal († 1948)
- April 12: Edward Walter Maunder , British astronomer and Bible researcher († 1928)
- April 17: Friedrich von Duhn , German archaeologist († 1930)
- April 18: Ricardo García Granados , Mexican engineer, politician, diplomat and historian († 1930)
- April 20: Eduardo Acevedo Díaz , Uruguayan writer and politician († 1921)
- April 20: Young Tom Morris , Scottish golfer († 1875)
- April 21: Henning August von Arnim-Schlagenthin , German Count († 1910)
- April 22nd: Karl Börgemann , German architect († 1938)
- Karoline Breitinger , first doctor in Württemberg († 1932) May 4:
- Clément Broutin , French composer († 1889) May 4:
- Adolf von Harnack , German-Baltic Protestant theologian and church historian († 1930) May 7:
- May 12: Joseph Toole , American politician († 1929)
- May 12: Samuel Dickstein , Polish mathematician († 1939)
- May 16: Johann Baptist von Anzer , Bishop of the German Mission in Shandong Province († 1903)
- May 17: Aleksander Michałowski , Polish pianist, music teacher and composer († 1938)
- May 18: August Karl Freiherr von der Heydt , banker and patron of the arts († 1929)
- May 18: James Budd , American politician († 1908)
- May 20: Emil Berliner , German inventor of the record and the gramophone († 1929)
- May 21: Léon Bourgeois , French lawyer and statesman, Nobel Prize winner († 1925)
- May 22: Anton Cyril Stojan , Archbishop of Olomouc (Czech Olomouc) († 1923)
- May 22: Anton von Henle , Bishop of Passau and Regensburg († 1927)
- May 23: Antoni Stolpe , Polish composer († 1872)
- May 25: Johann Peisker , Czech sociologist († 1933)
- May 29: Fred Dubois , American politician († 1930)
- May 29: Otto Wilhelm Scharenberg , German architect and urban planner († 1920)
- Isaac Peral , Spanish engineer and submarine pioneer († 1895) June 1:
- William Davis Daly , American politician († 1900) June 4:
- Ladislav Rott , founder of the company VJ Rott († 1906) June 5:
- Jacques-Arsène d'Arsonval , French doctor and physicist († 1940) June 8:
- Charles Joseph Bonaparte , American politician († 1921) June 9:
- Sigmund Bergmann , German entrepreneur and inventor († 1927) June 9:
- June 10: Anton Matosch , Austrian librarian and dialect poet († 1918)
- June 11: Oscar Borg , Norwegian composer, conductor, organist and flautist († 1930)
- June 11: Theodor von Scheve , German chess master († 1922)
- June 12: Oliver Lodge , British physicist († 1940)
- June 14: Ernst Fuchs , Austrian ophthalmologist († 1930)
- June 15: James F. Stewart , American politician († 1904)
- June 22nd: Jacques Martin , Belgian composer and conductor († 1930)
- June 27: Josef Garbáty , German cigarette manufacturer († 1939)
- June 28: Robert Friedberg , German economist and politician († 1920)
- June 28: Waldemar Mueller , German banker and politician († 1924)
- Anton Baumann , German master brewer and founder of the spa and bathing industry in Bad Schwartau († 1907) July 5:
- Arthur Evans , British archaeologist († 1941) July 8:
- James Dunsmuir , Canadian politician and industrialist († 1920) July 8:
- Berthold Englisch , Austrian chess master († 1897) July 9:
- July 10: Friedrich Leo , German classical philologist († 1914)
- July 10: Friedrich von Wieser , Austrian economist († 1926)
- July 15: William Carlile Arnold , American politician († 1906)
- July 20: Arnold Pick , German-Jewish psychiatrist and neurologist († 1924)
- July 23: Peder Severin Krøyer , Norwegian-Danish painter from the Skagen artists' colony († 1909)
- July 27: Guillermo Billinghurst , Peruvian President († 1915)
- July 27: Ivar Eggert Hedenblad , Swedish composer, conductor and music teacher († 1909)
- July 29: Ahmed Kamāl , Egyptian Egyptologist († 1923)
- Benno Orenstein , German railroad industrialist († 1926) August 2:
- George Francis FitzGerald , Irish philosopher († 1901) August 3:
- August 10: Gottfried Karl Wilhelm Asselmann , German clergyman and local researcher († 1917)
- August 11: Fernando de Arteaga y Pereira , Spanish poet, Romanist and Hispanist († 1934)
- August 12: Frank O. Briggs , American politician († 1913)
- August 13: Felix Adler , German-American philosopher († 1933)
- August 14: Doc Holliday , American gunslinger († 1887)
- August 14: Guido Herzfeld , German actor of the silent film era († 1923)
- August 15: John M. Gearin , American politician († 1930)
- August 17: Marthe Renate Fischer , German writer († 1925)
- August 17: Carl Hintze , German mineralogist and crystallographer († 1916)
- August 20: Abraham Berge , Norwegian right-wing liberal politician († 1936)
- August 22: Richard Andersson , Swedish composer, pianist and music teacher († 1918)
- August 23: Alois Jirásek , Czech writer and historian († 1930)
- August 27: Emil Pott , German animal breeding scientist († 1913)
- August 28: Ivan Tavčar , Slovenian lawyer, politician and writer († 1923)
- August Freudenthal , German author and journalist († 1898) September 2:
- Richard Voss , German writer († 1918) September 2:
- Olga Konstantinovna Romanowa , wife of George I of Greece († 1926) September 3:
- Wilhelm Pelizaeus , Spanish consul in Egypt († 1930) September 6:
- September 12: Carl Johann Theodor Abs , German wrestler († 1895)
- September 12: Francis Edward Clark , American pastor and founder of the youth association Christian Endeavor († 1927)
- September 13: Meier Appel , German rabbi († 1919)
- September 13: Walter Reed , American bacteriologist († 1902)
- September 16: Emilia Pardo Bazán , Spanish writer († 1921)
- September 17: James Simon , German entrepreneur and patron († 1932)
- September 20: Henry Arthur Jones , British playwright († 1929)
- September 21: Susan Hannah Macdowell , American painter, photographer and New Woman († 1938)
- September 24: Federico Boyd , Panamanian President († 1924)
- September 25: Carl Jatho , German Protestant pastor († 1913)
- September 29: Auguste Eichhorn , German suffragette († 1902)
- Rafael Jácome Lopes de Andrade , Portuguese officer and colonial administrator († 1900) October 1:
- Ferdinand Foch , French marshal in World War I († 1929) October 2:
- Richard Müller , German politician († 1931) October 6:
- October 12: Conrad Wahn , German architect and municipal building officer († 1927)
- October 19: Myeongseong , Queen of the Korean Kingdom of Joseon († 1895)
- October 23: Guillaume Couture , Canadian music teacher, music critic, conductor, choir director, composer, organist and singer († 1915)
- October 30: Carl Josef Alois Bourdet , German painter and watercolorist († 1928)
- October 31: Louise of Sweden-Norway , as the wife of King Frederick VIII, Queen of Denmark († 1926)
- Charles Dupuy , French Prime Minister († 1923) November 5:
- Rudolf Smend , German theologian († 1913) November 5:
- November 10: Richard Armstedt , German philologist, historian and teacher († 1931)
- November 10: Francis Maitland Balfour , English zoologist († 1882)
- November 11: Rudolf Bendemann , German history painter († 1884)
- November 12: Eduard Engel , German literary historian and stylist († 1938)
- November 15: Henny Jebsen , German flower and landscape painter († 1905)
- November 16: Minnie Hauk , American opera singer († 1929)
- November 18: Robert J. Wynne , American politician († 1922)
- November 20: John Merle Coulter , American botanist († 1928)
- November 20: Margaret of Italy , Queen of Italy († 1926)
- November 21: Désiré-Joseph Mercier , Archbishop of Mechelen and Cardinal († 1926)
- November 23: August Ansorge , Austrian-Bohemian politician († 1932)
- November 25: Gottfried Georg Andrä , German manor owner, secret economist and politician († 1923)
- November 28: Albert Gray, 4th Earl Gray , British politician and statesman († 1917)
- November 29: William Worth Dickerson , American politician († 1923)
- Gustav Schönleber , German painter († 1917) December 3:
- Mary Krebs-Brenning , German pianist († 1900) December 5:
- Thomas H. Paynter , American politician († 1921) December 9:
- December 10: James Albert Manning Aikins , Canadian attorney († 1929)
- December 10: Melvil Dewey , American librarian († 1931)
- December 15: Felix Cardinal von Hartmann , Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Cologne († 1919)
- December 15: Johannes Metger , German chess player and chess teacher († 1926)
- December 17: Ernest Lavigne , Canadian composer, conductor, cornetist and music publisher († 1909)
- December 17: Otto Schott , German chemist and glass technician († 1935)
- December 20: Theodore E. Burton , American politician († 1929)
- December 20: Knut Wicksell , Swedish economist († 1926)
- December 26th: Melchior Treub , Dutch botanist († 1910)
- December 28: Joseph Mackey Brown , American politician († 1932)
- December 29: Richard Graham Frost , American politician († 1900)
- December 29: Wilhelm Marx , German local and structural politician († 1924)
- December 31: Henry Carter Adams , American finance and economist († 1921)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Seyyit Abdülkadir , Ottoman Kurdish politician († 1925)
- Ahmed Cevad Pasha , General of the Ottoman Army and statesman († 1900)
- Mary Grant Carmichael , English composer († 1935)
- Bridget Driscoll , first fatality in a car accident († 1896)
- Clarence Eddy , American organist and composer († 1937)
- Viriato Figueira , Brazilian composer, flautist and saxophonist († 1883)
- Agustina Gutiérrez Salazar , Chilean painter and draftsman († 1886)
- Elliott Haslam , Canadian music teacher and choir director († 1915)
- Najaf Qoli Chan Samsam al-Saltane , Iranian Prime Minister († 1931)
- Heinrich Friedrich Link , German scientist (* 1767) January 1:
- Friedrich Gotthilf Fritsche , German Protestant clergyman (* 1799) January 4th:
- January 10: Joseph Biles Anthony , American politician (* 1795)
- January 16: Karl von Müffling , Prussian field marshal, military writer and geodesist (* 1775)
- January 17th: Johann Heinrich Schmülling , German Roman Catholic theologian, clergyman and university professor (* 1774)
- January 19: Esteban Echeverría , Argentine poet (* 1805)
- January 20: Samuel Ward King , American politician (* 1786)
- January 21: Albert Lortzing , German composer, librettist, actor, singer and conductor (* 1801)
- January 22nd: Johann Friedrich Heinrich Schlosser , German lawyer and imperial councilor (* 1780)
- January 24th: Gaspare Spontini , Italian opera composer and conductor (* 1774)
- January 26: Nikolaus von Flüe , Swiss officer in the Spanish service and governor (* 1788)
- January 27: John James Audubon , American ornithologist (* 1785)
- January 27: Cornelius P. Comegys , American politician (* 1780)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Kauffer , German lawyer (* 1786) February 1:
- Mary Shelley , English writer (* 1797) February 1:
- Benjamin Williams Crowninshield , American politician (* 1772) February 3:
- Nicholas Vansittart , British politician and statesman (* 1766) February 8:
- February 15: Michel Théodore Leclercq , French writer (* 1777)
- February 18: Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi , German mathematician (* 1804)
- February 20: Pierre Roll , French composer (* 1787)
- February 20: Joseph Schweinacher , German organ builder (* 1766)
- February 25: Georg Leopold von Zangen , German lawyer (* 1792)
- Alexander Alexandrovich Aljabjew , Russian composer (* 1787) March 6:
- Egid von Löhr , German lawyer and university professor (* 1784) March 6:
- Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Weise , German civil servant and politician (* 1779) March 6:
- Hans Christian Ørsted , Danish physicist and chemist (* 1777) March 9:
- March 11: Heinrich Ernst von Hoff , German officer and civil servant (* 1782)
- March 12: Franz Xaver Christoph Arentz , German Benedictine priest and scientist (* 1766)
- March 13: Karl Lachmann , German philologist and Germanist (* 1793)
- March 13: Peter Feddersen Stuhr , German university professor and historian (* 1787)
- March 14th: Laurids Engelstoft , Danish historian (* 1774)
- March 14: Ferdinand Gotthelf Hand , German classical philologist (* 1786)
- March 18: Conrad Graf , German-Austrian piano maker (* 1782)
- March 19: Friedrich Bird , German medic (* 1791)
- March 20: Karl Gustav Hesse , German medic and writer (* 1795)
- March 21: Louis Chollet , French organist and composer (* 1815)
- March 22nd: Isaac Hill , American politician (* 1789)
- March 22nd: Göran Wahlenberg , Swedish botanist (* 1780)
- March 23: Christian Friedrich Goedeking , German civil servant (* 1770)
- March 27: Hans von Raumer , German politician, member of the Frankfurt National Assembly (* 1820)
- March 28: Carl Ludwig Heusler , German entrepreneur and mining official (* 1790)
- March 30th: Julius Georg Knoll , German lawyer (* 1790)
- Rama III. , Siamese king (* 1788) April 2nd:
- Christian Wilhelm August Königsdörffer , German civil servant (* 1781) April 4:
- Julius Miller , German musician (* 1772) April 7:
- April 12: Martin Schrettinger , German priest and librarian (* 1772)
- April 17: Friedrich Georg von Stein , German officer and landowner (* 1769)
- April 18: Christian Friedrich Nasse , German psychiatrist (* 1778)
- April 19: Georg Franz August von Buquoy , Czech entrepreneur (* 1781)
- April 21: Christian Georg Wagner , German lawyer (* 1762)
- April 22: Friedrich Bröhmer , German civil servant (* 1796)
- April 23: Mikhail Petrovich Lasarew , Russian naval officer and admiral (* 1788)
- April 24: Johannes Aberli , Swiss medalist, stone and stamp cutter (* 1774)
- April 30: Rupert Jäger , German teacher and philologist (* 1809)
- May 12th: Ferdinand Freiherr von Andrian-Werburg , Bavarian District President (* 1776)
- May 12: Christian Friedrich Tieck , German sculptor (* 1776)
- May 13: Auguste Amalia Ludovika , Vice Queen of Italy, Duchess of Leuchtenberg and Princess of Eichstätt (* 1788)
- May 15: Johann Traugott Leberecht Danz , German Lutheran church historian and theologian (* 1769)
- May 23: August Wilhelm Francke , German Lord Mayor (* 1785)
- May 27: Karl Burkart , German administrative lawyer (* 1798)
- May 31: Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm Christian Karl von Tabor , Belgian general (* 1776)
- Wilhelm Ernst Schwabe , German lawyer (* 1775) June 3:
- June 15: Elard Johannes Kulenkamp , German lawyer (* 1777)
- June 16: Johann Friedrich Küttlinger , German medic and botanist (* 1778)
- June 21: Franz Xaver von Pflimmern , Bavarian civil servant (* 1769)
- June 23: Anna Kraus-Wranitzky , Austrian opera singer (* 1801)
- June 24th: Moritz Bauschke , German writer, publisher, bookseller and publicist (* 1809)
- June 29: Friedrich Wilhelm von Mauvillon , Prussian colonel and military writer (* 1774)
- June 30th: Jan Theobald Held , Czech doctor and composer (* 1770)
- Juliana Blasius , German robber bride of Johannes Bückler (* 1781) July 3:
- Giovanni Scudieri , Italian architect and chief architect of Tbilisi (* 1817) July 5:
- July 10: Louis Daguerre , French painter and inventor (* 1787)
- July 17th: Béni Egressy , Hungarian composer, librettist, translator and actor (* 1814)
- July 20: Albert von Schultze , German forest officer (* 1781)
- July 21: Horace-François Sébastiani , French general, Marshal of France (* 1772)
- July 26: Ernst Friedrich Köhler , German Lutheran clergyman (* 1788)
- July 29: Barnabas Huber , Benedictine abbot (* 1778)
- Wilhelm Joseph Behr , German lawyer, politician and writer (* 1775) August 1:
- Franz Seraph Bedall , Bavarian general (* 1781) August 6:
- Gottfried Raaff , German landscape architect (* 1750) August 6:
- Johann Gottfried Gruber , German literary historian and writer (* 1774) August 7th:
- August 11: Lorenz Oken , German natural historian and scientist (* 1779)
- August 27: Ferdinand Georg August , Lieutenant Field Marshal in Austrian service (* 1785)
- August 28: Christian Martin Joachim Frähn , German orientalist and numismatist (* 1782)
- Anton Aloys Buchmayer ; Bishop of St. Pölten (* 1770) September 2:
- Joseph Anselm Feuerbach , German archaeologist and professor of philology (* 1798) September 8:
- Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet , American clergyman (* 1787) September 9:
- September 13: Franz Raveaux , German revolutionary of the March Revolution (* 1810)
- September 14: James Fenimore Cooper , American writer (* 1789)
- Manuel de Godoy , Spanish politician (* 1767) October 4:
- Franz von Egger , Austrian lawyer and university professor (* 1765) November 2:
- November 18: Ernst August I , 1st Duke of Cumberland (* 1771)
- November 21: James Ellsworth De Kay , American zoologist (* 1792)
- November 21: Johann Friedrich Christian Werneburg , German mathematician and physicist (* 1777)
- November 30th: Wilhelm Meinhold , German writer and pastor (* 1797)
- Anton Arrigoni , Austrian painter (* 1788) December 6th:
- André Jolivard , French landscape painter (* 1787) December 8th:
- Ramón Freire y Serrano , Chilean officer and President (* 1787) December 9:
- December 10: Karl Drais , German inventor (* 1785)
- December 19: William Turner , English impressionist artist (* 1775)
- December 21: Carl Friedrich Rungenhagen , German composer and music teacher (* 1778)
- December 25: Abraham Constantin Mouradgea d'Ohsson , French-Armenian Mongolist (* 1779)
- December 31: Friedrich Karl Ludwig Textor , German lawyer and dialect writer (* 1775)
Exact date of death unknown
- Ahmed Bey bin Muhammad Sharif , Bey of Constantine (* 1786)