William Turner

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Self-Portrait, 1798, Tate Gallery
Four portraits of Turner at different stages of life

Joseph Mallord William Turner RA (born April 23, 1775 in London , † December 19, 1851 in Chelsea , London) was an English painter , watercolorist and draftsman. He is considered the most important visual artist in England during the Romantic era . Landscapes and seascapes were his preferred subjects, with light and atmosphere being his special interest. Because his mode of representation went as far as the dematerialization of the representational and he made the light and the color of sunlight, fire and water the actual subject of his pictures in a completely new way, he strongly influenced the Impressionists . Turner was a fast working and enormously productive artist. Most of his paintings on display can be seen in London museums and other Anglo-Saxon collections.


William Turner's father was a barber , his mother the daughter of a butcher. They lived in an apartment on Maiden Lane, Covent Garden , near the River Thames in London. His mother became mentally ill by 1786 at the latest and was admitted to the Bethlem Royal Hospital in 1799 , where she died four years later. This is probably why the young gymnast spent a lot of time with relatives in the country. Here he learned to color copperplate engravings . Turner began to copy them and soon filled his sketchbooks with drawings from nature. The father valued the son's talent and exhibited his drawings in his shop. As a result, sponsors became aware of him in 1789 and enabled him to receive a scholarship at the Royal Academy in the same year .

At the same time, together with his friend Thomas Girtin , he earned his living with the decorative completion of architectural drawings or the coloring of copperplate engravings. Turner soon made a name for himself with his own topographical watercolors , one of which was shown in the Academy's annual exhibition as early as 1790. He toured Wales in 1792 and 1795 and the Lake District in northern England in 1797 . Turner provided preliminary drawings for landscape copperplate engravings for the Copper-Plate Magazine (1794–1798) and the Oxford Almanac (1798–1804). From the 1790s, coloristic and graphic commissioned work followed for Edward Lascelles, 1st Earl of Harewood , the architect and collector John Soane , Sir Richard Colt Hoare, William Beckford and other collectors, art dealers and engravers. Since 1794 Turner and Girtin have been participants in the "Monro Circle", a group of young artists who have worked in a kind of private academy run by doctor Dr. Thomas Monro was encouraged and instructed in drawing with watercolors and developed his own watercolor style. As a student at the Royal Academy, he also learned oil painting from Loutherbourgh in 1795 , which has since played an increasing role in his work.

In 1796 he exhibited his first oil painting ( Fishermen at Sea ) and three years later became an associate member of the Royal Academy of Arts . At the time, Turner was already financially independent, so he moved out of his parents' house and rented a room on Harley Street. During a visit to William Beckford (1799), one of his sponsors, Turner was inspired by the works of Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin to grapple with the great traditions of European painting. At the turn of the century, the architectural-topographical interest in Turner's pictorial themes declined significantly in favor of nature and landscape. In 1801 he visited Scotland . The Peace of Amiens enabled him to travel to France and Switzerland in 1802, i.e. between the Napoleonic Wars , to see the pictures stolen by Napoleon and exhibited in the Louvre .

In the same year Turner was accepted as a full member of the Royal Academy , and in 1803 he was a temporary member of the board. He remained connected to her all his life, even if his position there did not remain unchallenged. Although he was hostile to contemporary art criticism, Turner gained recognition from collectors and colleagues at an early stage and remained financially independent until his death. As early as 1804 he was so wealthy that he was able to have a gallery added to his house in which he exhibited his own works. This was something completely new in the English art world.

In 1807 he became professor of perspective at the Royal Academy , where he taught from 1811 to 1828. Turner was now one of the leading English landscape painters alongside John Constable . Many of his works were shown in two larger exhibitions in 1819.

In the same year Turner made his first trip to Italy. The southern light confirmed his conception of light and color. Within four months he created more than 2000 pencil sketches of urban and natural landscapes on the route Rome-Naples-Venice. Back in England, he began to realize his concept of the power of light in oil painting . One example is the painting Modern Rome - Campo Vaccino from 1819 . Turner did not change his style abruptly, but he made a clear distinction between his commissioned work and his experiments, in which his ideas fully unfolded. In 1829 his father, who had organized his household, done his business and primed canvases, died. Since then, he has often stayed longer with one of his patrons, the Earl of Egremont , who lived a revealing lifestyle in Petworth House and Turner set up a studio. In 1828/1829 he went again to Rome, in 1833 and 1840 to Venice. His interest shifted more and more to elementary phenomena. Other trips, often in connection with publishing projects, led to Switzerland, Savoy , France, Wales and Scotland until 1845 . Around 1840 a friendly relationship developed with John Ruskin , who with his Modern Painters (1843) became Turner's most influential partisan.

Many of his best pictures were taken in the last years of his life. Turner withdrew from the public at the age of 70 after buying a house in Chelsea, also because his health deteriorated more and more. The last picture Turner sent to the Royal Academy was The Visit to the Grave .

Turner was buried in the south crypt of St Paul's Cathedral , the so-called Painters' Corner, next to Sir Joshua Reynolds .

Turner was a non-conformist, in some ways quirky, and eccentric personality. Although he received a lot of attention, he remained closed, silent and at times sullen. He was negligent in his appearance, he jealously guarded his working methods, and kept silent about his private life. At least it is known that between 1833 and 1851 he spent a lot of time in Margate with his lover, a widow named Sophia Caroline Boothe, with whom he also lived temporarily. Turner remained unmarried.

Turner as a draftsman and graphic artist

Series of engravings depicting landscapes were popular and widespread in England since the 18th century. Single sheets served as wall decorations, portfolios satisfied the demand on the collector's market. The preference for the English topography makes it clear that this genre was understood as an expression of patriotic sentiments. Turner traveled through Great Britain and the countries of Central Europe almost every year, filling numerous sketchbooks. For him, these views, some of which were painted in watercolors, became a source of motifs that he used in the long term. In addition, single sheets were created with pictorial watercolors, for which there was a lucrative market. From 1814 onwards, Turner supplied the preparatory drawing material, carefully worked out in sepia or watercolor, for series of etchings and book illustrations, which were mostly implemented on printing plates by other artists:

  • Southern Coast (1814-1826)
  • History of Richmondshire (1818)
  • The Rivers of England (1824)
  • The Ports of England (1824-1828)
  • Picturesque Views on England and Wales (1826–1838)
  • The Rivers of France (1833-1835)

"Liber Studiorum"

The Liber Studiorum, planned with a programmatic approach, plays a special role among the topographical cycles . With him he imitated the Liber Veritatis , in which Claude Lorrain's landscape compositions were distributed in England. Even if the work, published 1807-1819, was not a commercial success, it conveyed Turner's ideas of landscape art, its thematic subdivision and its ideal representation to the English public.

It was published in 14 deliveries, each containing five sheets each from one of the categories pastoral, seascape , mountain landscape, architecture, historical landscape or epic-rural landscape , including the title sheet there are 71 sheets. Turner not only provided in Sepia templates executed but erased considerable parts himself. His (with him unrelated) namesake Christian Turner, from Episode 5 then other Stecher, completed in mezzotint plates executed (mezzotint).

Turner's style of painting

As revolutionary and “out of time” as Turner may appear, his style was neither completely without preconditions nor apart from the zeitgeist. The interest in the unreal in romantic literature, the contemporaries' preference for watercolors and his suitability for brightly lit landscapes, Rembrandt's dramatic light effects, Lorrain's atmospheric scenes, Gainsborough's colourfulness , and Goethe's color theory all flowed into Turner's painting style. In 1833 he traveled via Berlin, Dresden, Prague and Vienna to study the old masters in the major museums.

Around 1800 Turner's sometimes rather dark paintings were still under the influence of Richard Wilson , the painter of the grandeur of English landscapes. In 1802 he was impressed by Titian's rough, impasto painting style in the Louvre . In the second decade the palette brightened: his first trip to Italy (1819) gave him impressions that made him a painter of light. Even in the works of his youth, it is used effectively when it bursts out of the clouds, dramatically increasing the picture narration.

The sun itself, which was hardly the subject of painting as a source of light before Turner (exception: Claude Lorrain), already appears in the early landscapes, which mostly reproduce a mood illuminated in the morning or evening. If the details here are more detailed and populated with staffage figures , the subjects in the late work more and more dematerialize and the contours dissolve into diffuse transitions. A minimum of representational objects is reproduced with a maximum of atmospheric color and brightness gradations. It is these paintings that make Turner appear as forerunners of abstract art . However, Turner was not interested in formal experiments; his method of representation was always an expression of what was sensually experienced and what was just as sensual. His style of painting, especially in the landscapes that were not about topographical fidelity, did not follow meticulous preliminary drawings . Often the painter started out with spatula strokes made with a palette knife on the canvas. In the further painting process they were worked out, taking random suggestions into account. Although his many drawings and a few of his watercolors were created in front of nature, they were by no means large oil paintings. This presupposed the use of tube colors , which were only available in the second half of the 19th century and made open-air painting possible by the Impressionists.

His style of painting became increasingly free and in his late work often contradicted the taste of the time. "In his last landscape paintings , the representational reading is less and less clear, they seem incomplete and sketchy."

Non-artistic influences on Turner's colourfulness

From scientific side has been suggested that the increase in color in the picturesque playback atmospheric phenomena in painting around and after 1816 with the actual changes in the morning and evening sky by the global spread of dust as a result of 1815 erupted in the Pacific volcano Tambora related .

There are several reasons for this change in Turner's style, since Turner had repeatedly painted bright yellow-orange sunsets before 1815; these external stimuli were not the only prerequisite. However, clouding of the eyes as the cause of Turner's intense color design is controversial.

Picture themes

Turner's impressive self-portrait should not hide the fact that the portrait plays almost no role in his work. In general, figurative elements only appear marginally, for example as accessories in historical landscapes or as barely recognizable creatures exposed to the forces of nature.

Following the example of Dutch marine painters, such as Willem van de Velde the Younger , he liked to depict ships in stormy seas at the beginning of the century. Since 1798 the Royal Academy had allowed poems or quotations to be added to the paintings on display . Turner made extensive use of this, but his verses do not always help to clarify the intention of the picture. Some seem to be assigned retrospectively, it even seems that "Turner traced in words what he experienced in his picture".

In his mythological and history paintings (in his day this genre was still considered to be of higher priority than landscape painting) figural action only played a minor role. The same applies here: light, water, nature and landscape are the actual subjects of the picture. The elements of the landscape sometimes appear idyllic and graceful, but often threatening: a sea storm, a volcanic eruption, an accident in the mountains, the flood , crashing ships or burning buildings are typical motifs. Behind the painterly means of depicting this drama, there are repeatedly hidden statements that reveal Turner's perception of his time, environment and society: the sailing ship Temeraire (1838), towed to be scrapped by a steamboat in the light of the setting sun , the slave ship (1840) , the Great West Railway (1844) defying the thunderstorm on a narrow bridge , are still rare evidence of the artistic perception of technical innovations or social grievances in this epoch. Also in the fire of the parliament building (1834) you can see today, in addition to the topicality of the report in the “punitive interference of light”, the transience of social conditions expressed as a symbolic secondary meaning. Turner was three times in Venice, the city where he painted his most important cityscapes, always seen from the water. The early Rialto Bridge (1820) is still traditionally worked out in the style of vedute painting , the numerous later pictures, on the other hand, let the lagoon city blur in the shimmering light.

Turner's legacy and fame

Turner's will

When William Turner died at the age of 76, he left the English state more than 20,000 works and a material fortune of around 140,000 ₤, which was to go to a foundation for artists in need.

Turner's house in Chelsea

Turner's only relatives were five cousins , including Mr. Thomas Price Turner, a music teacher from Exeter. A son of Turner's cousin, Jabez Tepper, filed a lawsuit against the will on behalf of the relatives . This on the grounds that Turner could not have been sensible because his mother had already died in the insane asylum. The heirs were particularly angry at the donation of an institution for impoverished artists for which Turner had earmarked his land in Twickenham . With its many amendments and amendments, the will offered numerous opportunities for litigation, so that the legal dispute dragged on for five years.

Turner gold medal

The Turner Gold Medal - Designed by Daniel Maclise

In 1856 the Royal Academy of Arts received from Turner's estate the sum of £ 20,000  to be awarded "in accordance with the will of the late JMW Turner" for a gold Turner Medal for Best Landscape Painting every two years. Edward Hodges Baily's drafts for the design of the medal were rejected. Now three other artists, William Mulready (1786–1863), William Dyce and Daniel Maclise (1806–1870) were asked for a design. Dyce's design, which shows Turner in profile, was chosen for the front and Maclise's design for the back. In November 1859 the medal was finally implemented. The former bronze gold medal has been minted since 1938 and awarded £ 50 in prize money.

Turner's estate in the London collections

On March 19, 1856 was before the Supreme Court ( The Court of Chancery ) an agreement to the effect that all the paintings, drawings and designs completed or unfinished Turners hand fall to the nation - while his stitches and the property to relatives went.

Turner had named his friends, the architect Philip Hardwick R. A., the painter and keeper of the Royal Academy George Jones R. A., his travel companion Hugh A. J. Munro, John Ruskin , Charles Turner, engraver and the art dealer Thomas Griffiths as executors . Ruskin, who was traveling when Turner died, declined to act as executor. At the request of the government, however, in 1856 he agreed to sort the drawings, sketches and sketchbooks.

A small committee consisting of Sir Eastlake, William Russell and Ralph Wornum of the National Gallery together with three of Turner's executors Munro, the artists Clarkson Stanfield and David Roberts , put 103 pictures and 97 framed drawings for an exhibition at Marlborough in 1856/1857 House and then transferred to the Museum of South Kensington until a Turner Museum was created - according to Turner's will within 10 years - within the National Gallery.

The opening of an extension in Trafalgar Square in 1876, known as the Barry Rooms , made it possible to bring the two unfinished pictures, Dido building Carthage and Sun Rising through Vapor together with the sketches and drawings from the South Kensington Museum and bring them together in the building of the National Gallery .

According to Ruskin's classification, the art historian, critic and draftsman Alexander J. Finberg (1866–1939) was commissioned to catalog the donation in 1905. It lists 19,743 sketches and drawings in two volumes as well as a total of 20,098 items with his sketchbooks.

As the National Gallery's collection grew, there were again space problems with the Turner gift. In 1910 the decision was made to transfer the collection to the Tate Gallery , which opened on the Thames bank in 1897 . When the Thames flood reached the Tate Gallery in 1928, his prints were moved to the British Museum , where they remained until 1987. Then they were brought together with the oil paintings in the newly built Clore Gallery . There remained 80 watercolors in the British Museum that had not been faded and a collection of almost 900 prints.

In 1955, the Tate Gallery was also formally separated from the National Gallery . In 1968 it was decided that the collections of British painters should be more clearly defined in each gallery. The National Gallery owned seven paintings in 2013 to show Turner in Trafalgar Square (2020: 10 paintings). According to Turner's request, they are exhibited together with two paintings by Claude Lorrain .

At the beginning of the 21st century, almost 30,000 works with accession numbers are registered in the Tate Gallery .

Turner's artistic reception

Turner had no immediate students, unusual for an artist of his time and importance. Its importance and originality were recognized in the second half of the 19th century, but initially viewed rather distantly. A German encyclopedia around 1890, for example, lamented his "excessive imagination and exaggeration in color". Turner's influence on a young generation of painters only grew after Impressionists such as Camille Pissarro and Claude Monet or the art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel fled to London before the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71 . Later they passed on their impressions of Turner's later painting style to Parisian art life. The Fauvists , Expressionists and Wassily Kandinsky followed them. Turner is considered a "key figure in the transition of painting to historical modernism ". As the appreciation of these trends increased, Turner's work was also seen anew and included more extensively in the museum hangings.

Turner's standing today

His current fame is evident not only in enormous prizes on the art market and in important exhibitions since the 1970s, but also in the naming of the most prestigious art prize in the British Isles, the Turner Prize , which has been awarded since 1984, and the Turner since 2004 Watercolor Award also the dedication of Turner Contemporary , a museum for contemporary art in Margate (Kent), which opened in 2011, or the recognition with his portrait on the Bank of England's 20 ₤ note presented in 2016, which will be in circulation from 2020 .

Turner in the art market

Since a large part of Turner's paintings are in public ownership, Turner paintings are rarely offered on the art market today. They have regularly achieved top prices since the 1980s. His paintings were traded for around £ 500 while he was still alive. After Turner's death, prices rose sharply.

The Grand Canal Venice , around 1835, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

In April 1875, a good 20 years after Turner's death, the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art bought The Grand Canal Venice from the Manley Hall collection for £ 7,350.

In 1828, Turner received £ 700 from art collector James Wadmore for three paintings. Among them was Cologne, the Arrival of a Packet Boat , which sold for £ 2,100 (2000 guineas ) in 1854, the first of his paintings to surpass £ 2000. The buyer may have been the collector John Naylor († 1889), whose heirs sold it to the Frick Collection in 1914 along with two other paintings for £ 42,000 .

When the painting Rome from Mount Aventine was acquired by Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery in 1878 , 12,000 to 15,000 people viewed the publicly exhibited painting. It was bought for over £ 6,000. The picture remained in the Rosebery Collection until 2014 . On December 3, 2014, it was auctioned to an unknown telephone bidder for £ 30.3 million, with an estimate of 15-20 million. Juliet and Her Nurse sold for £ 6.4 million at Sotheby’s on May 29, 1980 . Up until then, it was the highest price that could be redeemed for a Turner painting in an auction.

Turner's watercolors and watercolor sketches also fetch high prices at auctions. The blue Rigi: Lake of Lucerne, Sunrise watercolor , which was auctioned off at Christie's in June 2006 for £ 5.2 million to an anonymous bidder, achieved an absolute top price for a work on paper . The previous record for a work on paper was held by the watercolor Heidelberg with a Rainbow , which sold for £ 2 million in 2001.

Turner has had a leading position on the art market since the end of the 20th century: his most expensive painting to date, Modern Rome - Campo Vaccino , was commissioned by the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles in 2010 for around 44.9 million US dollars auctioned.

Every year since 1984 the Tate Gallery has awarded the Turner Prize to an artist under the age of 50 who has distinguished himself through an exhibition or other presentation of his work “in contemporary art” in the past year. The £ 40,000 prize went to the first place winner with £ 25,000 and £ 5,000 each to the next. This award with the Turner Medal was controversial for years, so that the Turner Watercolor Award has been given since 2004 , donated by the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colors .

Works (selection)

image title year Material / size Exhibition / collection / owner
Joseph Mallord William Turner - Fishermen at Sea - Google Art Project.jpg Fisherman at sea 1796 Oil on canvas, 122.2 cm × 91.4 cm London, Tate Gallery
Turner-Llanberis-1800.jpg Llanberris 1800 Watercolor, 55.3 cm × 77.2 cm,
Joseph Mallord William Turner 017.jpg Lake Lucerne 1802 Watercolor, 30.5 cm × 46.4 cm London, Tate Gallery
The Gotthard Pass 1804 Watercolor with scratches, 98.5 cm × 68.5 cm, Kendal, Abbot Hall Art Gallery (UK)
The Loreley rock 1817 Leeds Museum and Galleries, England
Joseph Mallord William Turner 026.jpg Peterskirche from the south 1819 Watercolor, 22.8 cm × 36.8 cm, London, British Museum
William Turner.  Arundel Castle, with Rainbow.  c.  1824. Watercolor on paper.  British Museum.jpg Arundel Castle with rainbow 1824 approx. Watercolor, 70 cm × 52.6 cm London, British Museum
Stonehenge Turner.JPG Stonehenge 1825-1828 Watercolor, 76.5 cm × 53.2 cm, Private collection
Turner-Burning Ship-1830.jpg Burning ship 1830 approx. Watercolor, 49 cm × 34 cm, London, Tate Gallery
Turner, JMW - The Grand Canal - Venice.jpg The Grand Canal 1835 approx. Oil on canvas, 91 cm × 122 cm, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Joseph Mallord William Turner 012.jpg The fire in the Houses of Parliament in London 1835 Oil on canvas, 92.7 cm × 123 cm, Cleveland (Ohio)
Joseph Mallord William Turner, English - The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, October 16, 1834 - Google Art Project.jpg The fire of the upper and lower houses 1835 Oil on canvas, 92.5 cm × 123 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art , USA
Turner, JMW - The Fighting Téméraire tugged to her last Berth to be broken.jpg The fighting Temeraire 1838 Oil on canvas, 90.7 cm × 121.8 cm, London, National Gallery
Slave-ship.jpg The slave ship 1840 Oil on canvas, 90 cm × 120 cm, Boston, (USA), Museum of Fine Arts
Falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen 1841 approx. Watercolor, body paint, charcoal pencil and ink Edinburgh, Scottish National Gallery
W Turner Bodensee 1842.jpg Konstanz at the Bodensee 1842 Water color, London, British Museum
William Turner, Light and Color (Goethe's Theory) .JPG Light and colors 1843 Oil on canvas, 78.7 cm × 78.7 cm, London, Tate Gallery
Heidelberg Castle by William Turner.jpg Heidelberg with a rainbow 1841 approx. Oil on canvas Edinburgh , Scottish National Gallery ,
William Turner - Rough Sea with Wreckage.jpg Rough Sea with Wreckage 1840-1845 Oil on canvas, 92.1 cm × 122.6 cm, London, Tate Gallery
JMWTurner Sunrise with Sea Monsters.jpg Sunrise with Sea Monsters 1845 Oil on canvas, 91.4 cm × 121.9 cm, London, Tate Britain
Joseph Mallord William Turner 088.jpg Turner in his studio 2nd quarter of the 19th century Watercolor, 14 cm × 19 cm, London, British Museum

Exhibitions (selection)


- chronological -

Older digital copies

Newer literature

  • Christoph Werner: To live forever. Caspar David Friedrich and Joseph Mallord William Turner. Novel. Bertuch, Weimar 2006, ISBN 3-937601-34-1 .


  1. The Thames - praise the homeland. Documentary, Germany, France, 2002, 26 min., Script and director: Günter Pütz, production: arte, series: Reisen mit Turner / Voyages avec Turner , first broadcast: March 23, 2002 by arte, summary of the series by 3sat , summary of the Films, ( Memento from 23 August 2017 in the Internet Archive ).
  2. The Seine - shine of the moment. Documentary, Germany, France, 2002, 26 min., Script and director: Henning Burk , production: arte, series: Reisen mit Turner , first broadcast: March 30, 2002 by arte, table of contents by 3sat.
  3. The Rhine - the mirror of the imagination. Documentary, Germany, France, 2002, 26 min., Script and director: Elisabeth Weyer, production: arte, series: Reisen mit Turner , first broadcast: April 6, 2002 by arte, summary by 3sat.
  4. The Moselle - grace and originality. (Alternative title: La Moselle - Charme et authenticité. ) Documentary film, Germany, France, 2002, 26 min., Script and director: Manfred Schuchmann, production: arte, series: Reisen mit Turner , first broadcast: April 13, 2002 by arte, summary by arte, ( Memento from April 18, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ).
  5. Loire - The lazy beauty. (Alternative title: La Loire. Belle indolente. ) Documentary film, Germany, France, 2002, 26 min., Script and director: Harald Zander, production: arte, series: Reisen mit Turner , first broadcast: April 20, 2002 by arte, summary by arte, ( Memento from April 18, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ).
  6. Venice - magic light and flurry of color. (Alternative title: Venise. Symphonies de lumières et de couleurs. ) Documentary, Germany, France, 2002, 26 min., Written and directed: Eva Maek-Gérard, production: arte, series: Reisen mit Turner , first broadcast: April 27, 2002 at arte, table of contents by arte, ( memento from April 18, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ).

Web links

Commons : William Turner  - Album with Pictures, Videos and Audio Files
Commons : Paintings by Joseph Mallord William Turner  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

About Turner

British pages on Turner

Single receipts

  1. Alexander Joseph Finberg: The Life of JMA Turner, RA Clarendon Press, Oxford 1961, ISBN 0-19-817136-6 , p. 17.
    - Syamken's role in the Royal Academy of Arts is clearly presented in: Georg Syamken, Biographische Documentation. In: Werner Hofmann (ed.), William Turner and the landscape of his time. ISBN 3-7913-0375-9 , pp. 10-23, therein: pp. 22/23.
  2. Thomas Girtin. In: Encyclopedia Britannica .
  3. On Turner's teaching activities see Syamken, in: Hoffmann, p. 24/25.
  4. On the other hand, see Syamken in: Hoffmann, p. 17: “The effect of Turner's first stay in Italy has long been overestimated. Approaches to lightening the color can be seen as early as 1817. "
  5. Lawrence Gowing : Turner. In: Kindler's Painting Lexicon. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 1976, Vol. 12., Tiepolo - Zurbaran, p. 91.
  6. Andrew Wilton: Tamed Spontaneity - The Book Illustrations. In: Hofmann, pp. 121–127.
  7. Andrew Wilton: The Liber Studiorum (1807-19). In: Hofmann, pp. 110-113.
    Drawings and mezzotint prints from the Liber Studiorum in the Art Gallery of New South Wales .
  8. ^ Syamken, in: Hoffmann, p. 29.
  9. According to the article Liber Studiorum of the English Wikipedia, a large part of these etchings are kept in Tate Britain .
  10. Bockemühl , ISBN 978-3-8228-6375-6 , p. 67.
  11. ^ A b Nicola Carola Heuwinkel: Unbounded Painting. Art Informel in Germany. Kehrer Verlag, Heidelberg / Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-86828-164-4 , p. 12.
  12. CS Zerefos u. a .: Atmospheric Effects of Volcanic Eruptions as sees by Famous Artists and depicted in Their Paintings. In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , 7, 2007, No. 15, pp. 4027-4042; quoted from: Jelle Zeilinga de Boer : The year without a summer. Essen 2004.
  13. Clive Oppenheimer: Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815 . In: Progress in Physical Geography . 27, No. 2, 2003, pp. 230-259. doi : 10.1191 / 0309133303pp379ra .
  14. ^ Franz Grehn : Ophthalmology. 30th revised edition, Springer, Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-75264-6 , p. 150; see. 32nd, extended edition, 2019, ISBN 978-3-662-59154-3 , p. 206: limited preview in the Google book search.
  15. on the other hand Syamken, in: Hofmann, p. 23 (excursus IV).
  16. Bockemühl, ISBN 978-3-8228-6375-6 , pp. 54-58.
  17. ^ Syamken, in: Hoffmann, p. 19.
  18. Költzsch , ISBN 978-3832171964 , p. 83.
  19. Költzsch, ISBN 978-3832171964 , pp. 101–112.
  20. ^ Syamken: Biographical Documentation. In: Hofmann, p. 26.
  21. ^ Copy of Turner's will in: Walter Thornbury: The life of JMW Turner. Founded on letters and papers. Vol. II. Hurst and Blackett, London 1862.
  22. ^ Turner at Twickenham. In: The Twickenham Museum .
  23. ^ The medal designs by William Dyce and Daniel Maclise are in the possession of the Royal Academy of Arts, see: Turner's Gold Medal .
  24. ^ John Ruskin : Notes on the Turner gallery at Marlborough house: 1856-57. Smith, Elder & Co., London 1857.
  25. Alexander Joseph Finberg in the Find a Grave database . Retrieved September 18, 2017 (English).
  26. ^ The National Gallery: A complete inventory of the drawings of the Turner bequest; with which are included the twenty-three drawings conveniently deathed by Mr. Henry Vaughan . Arranged chronologically by AJ Findberg. By order of the trustees. Vol. II. Printed for his Majesty's Stationary Office by Darlington & Son, London 1909 and A complete inventory of the drawings of the Turner bequest - Volume I - 1909
  27. ^ Thames bursts its banks with tragic consequences. In: The Guardian , January 10, 1928, from the archive.
  28. ^ William Wilson: London's New Clore Gallery: Turner's Art Finally At Home. In: Los Angeles Times , July 14, 1987.
  29. ^ Online collection: Turner works in the British Museum .
  30. ^ Painting by JMW Turner. In: National Gallery (London) , accessed April 29, 2020.
  31. Claude 1604/5? - 1682. In: National Gallery (London) , accessed August 22, 2017.
  32. The Turner Bequest. In: National Gallery (London) , accessed on April 29, 2020: "... two of his paintings should hang with two works by Claude ..."
  33. Meyers Konversationslexikon . 4th edition, 1885-1892, vol. 15, p. 941.
  34. Crepaldi, ISBN 978-3-7913-4561-1 , pp. 148-149.
  35. ^ Herder's Konversations-Lexikon . 3rd edition, Vol. 8, 1907, Col. 898.
  36. ^ A b Prizes Awarded at the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colors 2015 Exhibition. ( Memento from April 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colors , 2015, (English).
  37. APA : Painter Turner adorns new 20-pound note. In: Der Standard , April 23, 2016.
  38. The value of the pound sterling at that time is difficult to estimate. Prices rose 170 times between 1750 and 2005, a penny in 1750 was worth £ 1 in 2005, see Dominic Webb: Inflation: the value of the pound 1750-2005. ( Memento of March 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive ). In: House of Commons Library , Research Paper 06/09, February 13, 2006, (PDF).
  39. Painting photo & data: Cologne, the Arrival of a Packet Boat, Evening. In: Tate Gallery , accessed August 21, 2017.
  40. ^ Provenance: Cologne: The Arrival of a Packet-Boat: Evening. In: New York Art Resources Consortium (NYARC) , → Paintings , accessed August 21, 2017.
  41. ^ According to the Times of April 4, 1878.
  42. ^ Turner masterpiece sells for £ 30.3m, setting world auction record for artist. In: The Guardian , December 3, 2013.
  43. Juliet and Her Nurse sold for $ 6.4 million on May 29th, 1980. ( Memento of November 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: New York Natives , May 29, 2013.
  44. Swantje Karich: Blauer Rigi: Record for Turner watercolor. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , June 10, 2006.
  45. Eileen Kinsella: Turner Watercolor Fetches Record $ 10.98M at Christie's. In: Art news , June 20, 2006, accessed on August 21, 2017.
  46. ^ Mark Tran: Turner painting sold to Getty Museum in Los Angeles for record £ 29.7m. In: The Guardian , July 7, 2010.
  47. ^ Tate Gallery: Fishermen at Sea • exhibited 1796. Accessed April 29, 2020 (English).
  48. ^ Exhibition review by Christiane Hoffmans: Essen shines in the splendor of the master. In: Welt am Sonntag , August 26, 2001.
  49. Exhibition review by Brigitta Javurek: William Turner - Old Masters of Modernism. In: swissinfo.ch , February 1, 2002.
  50. ^ Exhibition: Turner and Venice. In: Tate Britain , 2003.
  51. ^ Exhibition: JMW Turner. In: National Gallery , London, 2007/08, with audio and video files.
  52. ^ Exhibition: William Turner. Painter of the elements. In: Bucerius Kunst Forum , 2011.
  53. ^ Exhibition review by Rowena Fuß: Journeys with William Turner, Kunsthaus Apolda Avantgarde, until April 9, 2012. In: Portal Art History , February 2, 2012.
  54. ^ Exhibition: Turner Inspired: In the Light of Claude. In: In: National Gallery , 2012.
  55. ^ Hartmut Schönherr: Turner - Monet - Twombly: Later Paintings. In: kunstundfilm.de , May 10, 2012, accessed on April 28, 2020, with exhibition video , 4:41 min.
  56. ^ Exhibition: Turner and the Sea (Past event). In: National Maritime Museum , 2013, with short video; Press release , July 5, 2013.
  57. ^ Exhibition: Late Turner - Painting Set Free. In: Tate Britain , 2014.
  58. Exhibition: JMW Turner: Painting Set Free. In: Getty Museum , 2015, with slide show.
  59. Exhibition: JMW Turner: Painting Set Free. In: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco , 2015.
  60. ^ Exhibition: JMW Turner - Adventures in Color. ( Memento from November 26, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: Turner Contemporary , 2016, with slide show.
  61. ^ Exhibition: Turner. The sea and the alps. In: Kunstmuseum Luzern , 2019, with illustrations.
  62. Exhibition portal : Turner. Horror and Delight. In: LWL Museum for Art and Culture , 2019, with many illustrations.