Maria II (Portugal)

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Queen Maria II of Portugal

Maria II. (Also Maria II. Da Glória ; born April 4, 1819 in Rio de Janeiro ; † November 15, 1853 in Lisbon ) was Queen of Portugal from 1826 to 1828 and from 1834 to 1853 . She was the last ruler of this land from the House of Braganza .

Maria's father Peter , who was emperor of Brazil from 1822 to 1831 , became in 1826, through the death of his father Johann VI. , also a Portuguese king, but renounced the Portuguese throne in her favor that same year. However, this was usurped in 1828 by her uncle Michael . The victory of her father in the Miguelistenkrieg gave her again in 1834 rule in Portugal, which now had the form of a constitutional monarchy . She ruled in a very eventful epoch, which was characterized by violent disputes between the parties of the Cartists and Setembrists . She died at the age of only 34 giving birth to her eleventh child.

Ancestry and early childhood

Born in 1819 as Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Isidora Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga , Maria was the eldest daughter of the future Emperor Peter I of Brazil and his first wife Maria Leopoldine of Austria , who came from the House of Habsburg-Lothringen . Her father was a son of King John VI. from Portugal and Brazil. Maria was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, because the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil in 1807 after Napoleon's attempted invasion of Portugal. In 1821 Johann VI returned. reluctantly returned to Portugal and left his eldest living son Peter, Mary's father, as regent in Brazil. However, in 1822 he declared Brazilian independence and was proclaimed Emperor Peter I of Brazil.

Meanwhile, Maria spent her early childhood on the São Cristóvão estate outside Rio. She had several siblings, but her brother Johann Karl died at the age of one in February 1822, so that her younger brother Peter (II) later (1831) inherited the Brazilian throne. From the time of his birth (December 2, 1825) until her appointment as Queen of Portugal (May 2, 1826), Maria carried the title of Princess of Grão-Pará , which expelled her as second in line to the Brazilian throne. Her sisters included Januária and Franziska , among others . A Brazilian mistress of Peter I, Domitila de Castro , also lived in the royal palace , who moved up to be the lady-in-waiting of Maria's mother. The Brazilian emperor's relationship with Domitila had four children. When Peter I, in addition to his wife Leopoldine and his young daughter Maria, also took his lover on a cruise to northern Bahia in early 1826 and displayed them openly at his side, at the end of this trip, at Leopoldine's urging, Domitila had to leave the palace remove, which by no means ended his liaison with Domitila. On December 11, 1826, Leopoldine died of the consequences of a miscarriage to the great sorrow of Mary, who had had a very close bond with her mother.

First nominal government of Portugal, removal and return to Brazil

After the death of his father Johann VI. on March 10, 1826, the Brazilian emperor had ascended the Portuguese throne as Peter IV . On April 29th, he passed a new constitution for Portugal, the so-called Charter , which provides for a bicameral parliament (House of Representatives and Chamber of Peers) . Since it was not possible for him to rule Portugal and Brazil at the same time, he resigned as Portuguese king on May 2, 1826 in favor of his seven-year-old daughter Maria, who was then nominally ascending to the Portuguese throne for the first time. Peter’s sister, Isabella Maria , was first in power . However, the Brazilian emperor planned to appoint his younger brother Michael , who at the time was in exile in Vienna because of his opposition to a constitutional monarchy in Portugal (since he wanted to govern absolutistically) , as regent for Maria. Prior to this, Michael had to accept the charter given by Peter to the country and, after obtaining the papal dispensation, become engaged to Mary because of being too close. When she reached marriageable age, Maria would marry her uncle Michael and rule the country with him. Michael agreed to his brother's suggestion. A substitute wedding was even celebrated in Vienna .

However, after Michael was appointed regent of Portugal by his brother Peter on July 3, 1827 and then returned there, he suspended the charter and sought the crown himself. When the Brazilian emperor learned of his brother's intention, he decided to send his daughter Maria to Europe before Michael could get too much support. Accompanied by the Marquis von Barbacena , who was also tasked with finding a new bride for Emperor Peter I, several officers and servants and under the protection of a 30-strong guard consisting of Portuguese and Germans, Maria followed suit by sea Europe on. Her frigate Imperatriz arrived off Gibraltar on September 4, 1828 . There they received the news that Michael had been proclaimed king by the Cortes on June 25, 1828 .

The escorts of the dethroned young queen debated whether she should seek assistance in Vienna or England, and they opted for the latter option. They sailed to the British Isles and moored at Falmouth on September 14, 1828 , where Maria was welcomed as Queen of Portugal and received honors from some Portuguese exiled there who picked up Michael's absolutist tendencies. The Brazilian visitors then waited in a country house in Laleham for a reception at the London court. Finally, after months of waiting, Maria made the acquaintance of King George IV , who held a magnificent festival in her honor on December 28, 1828 in Windsor Castle . But the Wellington Ministry sided with Michael, with whom it hoped to conclude an advantageous trade agreement, and therefore refused to recognize Maria. The absolutist Habsburg circles also supported Michael. This had got all of Portugal under his control; only the Azores island of Terceira , which was attacked in vain by a fleet of the Miguelists on August 11, 1829, the count of Vila Flor considered Maria.

At least after a long search, Barbacena found the future bride for Peter I of Brazil in 17-year-old Amélie von Leuchtenberg . He embarked on board the Imperatriz with Amélie and Maria on August 30, 1829 in Plymouth and landed on October 16, 1829 in the port of Rio de Janeiro. The wedding of the Brazilian emperor and his bride took place the following day. Maria and her siblings were treated lovingly by their young stepmother. However, Amélie did not want her husband's children to be brought up at court by Domitila de Castro. In addition, Peter's relationship with his mistress was now over.

Successful fight for Maria's reinstatement

Emperor Peter I was still unwilling to accept the breach of trust caused by his brother's seizure of power in Portugal. He set up a court in exile for Maria and demanded that the envoys of European powers accredited to him treat his daughter like a queen. On April 7, 1831, because of domestic political problems as ruler of Brazil, he abdicated in favor of his only living son, his late wife Leopoldine, Peter II. A regency had been installed for him, and he wanted to sail to Europe with Amélie and Maria to open the fight against his brother and for his daughter's throne. His departure from Rio de Janeiro with his wife and daughter on board a British warship was delayed. The royal trio then went on board the HMS Volage , but learned from the English ambassador, when it was already understood when casting off, that Maria could not go on board because the English court recognized her uncle Michael as the Portuguese king and therefore her presence on a British one Warship would lead to diplomatic entanglements. Finally, Maria set off on board a French merchant ship under an alias and met her father in Paris . The Brazilian imperial family was warmly welcomed by the “citizen king” Louis-Philippe I, who had ruled France since 1830 , and stayed with him and his wife. Maria became a close friend of Louis Philippe's daughter Clementine and received her further education in Paris.

Meanwhile, the Miguelistenkrieg between Peter and his brother Michael began , with liberal-minded Portuguese on Peter's side and the absolutists on the other side. Peter traveled to the Azores in the spring of 1832, all of which had now fallen under the control of Michael's opponents. From this group of islands Peter launched an invasion of Portugal. With his expedition fleet he landed near Porto on July 8, 1832 , occupied this city without a fight and held out against the Miguelists for a whole year. The Scottish naval officer Charles John Napier conquered the Algarve for Maria on his behalf and also destroyed Michael's fleet on July 5, 1833 near Cabo de São Vicente . On July 24, 1833, the Count of Vila Flor, who was fighting on Peter's side and who had meanwhile received the title of Duke of Terceira, moved into Lisbon . Maria was proclaimed constitutional queen of Portugal and the Algarve. Peter arrived in Lisbon five days later and took over the reign of his daughter. Maria, Duchess of Porto since April 4, 1833 , has now been recognized by England and France as ruler of Portugal. She and her stepmother set out for Portugal on September 7, 1833, on board a Portuguese warship from Le Havre . They landed in Plymouth on the way, but were received rather coolly by King William IV in Windsor and after another sea voyage they arrived in the port of Lisbon on September 21. In this city, Maria and Amélie were greeted enthusiastically by the crowds and drove in a golden carriage to the Palácio Nacional de Queluz , located near Lisbon . Mary's coronation took place on September 23, 1833. But her father was seriously ill, and a stay at a spa in Switzerland did little to help.

The Miguelista War continued. In the treaty of the Quadruple Alliance , which was signed in London on April 22, 1834, the Portuguese regent Peter, the kings William IV of Great Britain and Louis-Philippe I of France as well as the Spanish regent Maria Christina committed themselves to the expulsion of Peter's brother Michael and the Spanish Infante Karl . On May 16, 1834, the Duke of Terceira won the decisive victory against the Miguelists in the Battle of Asseiceira . On May 26, 1834 Michael finally gave up his claims to the Portuguese throne in the Treaty of Evoramonte and had to go into permanent exile. As a result, Mary once again became the undisputed queen. Her father had already reinstated the constitution he had enacted in 1826.

On August 28, 1834, Peter called the Cortes, at which meeting the question of Mary's marriage was discussed. A committee set up to clarify this point found that Article 19 of the Charter, according to which the Queen was not allowed to marry a foreign prince, should not be applied, as there were no suitable Portuguese marriage candidates; the choice of Maria's husband was left to her father Peter. A large majority was in favor of this view, which was also passed in the chamber of peers, whereby the appointment of 24 new members ensured this voting behavior. Louis-Philippe I had proposed his son, the Duke of Nemours , as Mary's future husband, but had failed because of the resistance of England, who feared French influence. Peter wanted his daughter to marry a brother of his second wife, August Beauharnais von Leuchtenberg . As he was getting sicker and sicker, he resigned and had Maria declared by the Cortes to be of legal age on September 18. The Queen, now in full possession of authority, took the oath according to the charter two days later. Peter died of tuberculosis in the palace of Queluz on September 24, 1834 . Shortly before his death, he had appointed the Duke of Palmela as head of government (official title: President of the Council of Ministers ; in Portuguese, Presidente do Conselho de Ministros ) at the head of Maria's cabinet.

Maria II of Portugal 1846

Independent government of Portugal

After the absolutists no longer played an important political role, their former opponents, the liberals, who adhered to the constitutional monarchy, quickly split into a more moderate right-wing conservative wing, the so-called Cartists , and a more radical left-liberal wing, the so-called Setembrists . The former wanted to maintain the constitutional charter of 1826, the latter to reintroduce the more liberal constitution of 1822. The epoch of Mary's reign was shaped by the clashes between these two groups, which even led to putsches and in 1846/47 to a civil war. The Queen was on the side of the Cartists; in times when the Setembrists had the upper hand, they partly openly supported the cartistic forces.

Mary's marriages and children

According to her father's wishes, 15-year-old Maria II married Duke Auguste de Beauharnais von Leuchtenberg, whom she married on December 1, 1834 in Lisbon by procura and on January 26, 1835 in a personal ceremony there. The young queen's consort received the title of Prince Consort of Portugal, the dignity of peers and the supreme command of the armed forces , but died two months later on March 28, 1835 of angina .

Just two weeks after the death of her first husband, both chambers of parliament asked the queen to quickly remarry in order to ensure a stable government. Marriage negotiations with the French royal family, initiated at Maria's instigation, failed due to British resistance; and her stepmother Amélie also spoke out against such a marriage. On April 9, 1836, through the mediation of King Leopold I of Belgium , Maria finally married his 19-year-old nephew Ferdinand from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , who only became Ferdinand II after the birth of his first son on September 16, 1837 iure uxoris became king of Portugal and did not soon gain popularity with his subjects. Meanwhile, Mary shared a deep love for her second husband.

As her political opponents admitted, Maria led an exemplary family life and took great care in the upbringing of her offspring. In total, she had eleven children with Ferdinand, of whom the two eldest sons were to ascend the Portuguese throne:

  • Peter V (September 16, 1837 - November 11, 1861), King of Portugal 1853–1861
  • Ludwig I (October 31, 1838 - October 19, 1889), King of Portugal 1861–1889
  • Maria (* / † October 4, 1840), stillborn
  • Johann Maria (March 16, 1842 - December 27, 1861), eighth Duke of Beja
  • Maria Anna (* July 21, 1843 - † February 5, 1884), ⚭ 1859 Prince Georg, who later became King George I of Saxony
  • Antonia Maria (February 17, 1845 - December 27, 1913), ⚭ 1861 Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
  • Ferdinand Maria Ludwig (* July 23, 1846 - † November 6, 1861), died of cholera at the age of 15
  • August Maria (November 4, 1847 - September 26, 1889), Duke of Coimbra
  • Leopold (* / † May 7, 1849), stillborn
  • Maria da Glória (* / † February 3, 1851) died a few hours after giving birth
  • Eugen (* / † November 15, 1853) died a few hours after his mother

Government of the cartists; September Revolution

In the first two years of Maria II's independent government, cartist governments, i.e. those politically relatively agreeable to the queen, dominated. The prime ministers at that time were mainly people who had distinguished themselves in the Miguelistenkrieg on the side of Maria's father Peter. Administration and justice were reorganized according to the Napoleonic model. In the area of ​​religious politics, orders were dissolved, the properties of the churches were nationalized and sold to alleviate the devastating financial situation of Portugal, and miguelist bishops were deposed, so that Portugal came into sharp opposition to the Catholic Church. However, none of the governments of that time were granted a long lifespan.

The cabinet of the Duke of Palmela, who among other things tried to alleviate the strained financial situation of Portugal, but was exposed to sharp opposition from the Margrave (and later Duke) of Saldanha , only held office until the beginning of May 1835. After the Count of Linhares had served as head of government in May 1835, Saldanha took over this position until November 1835. Then José Jorge Loureiro was Prime Minister until April 1836, after which the Duke of Terceira headed a new government, which included, among others, José da Silva Carvalho, who was responsible for finances, as well as Agostinho José Freire and the Count of Vila Real .

Meanwhile, the opposition to the ruler and her cartistic ministries increased. Radical left-wing liberals and others called for the establishment of a unicameral parliament consisting of all elected members, the restriction of the Queen's previous absolute right of veto against the legislature to one with merely suspensive effect, and the reintroduction of the more liberal constitution of 1822. Maria's attempt at her husband Ferdinand The transfer of command of the Portuguese armed forces was met with fierce opposition in the Chamber of Deputies and was rejected. When Terceiras Ferdinand was promoted to field marshal general during the term of office of the cabinet and thus de facto received military supreme command, this, as well as the cabinet's adherence to the alliance with England, triggered great dissatisfaction on the part of the opposition.

The September Revolution of 1836 then resulted in the Cartists' temporary loss of power. When the Duke of Terceira dissolved the Cortes and won the Cartists in the subsequent, arguably manipulated, new election, the Setembrist MPs from Porto , led by Manuel da Silva Passos , were enthusiastically welcomed by residents of the capital when they arrived in Lisbon on September 9, 1836 , whereupon a putsch carried out by the National Guard sympathizing with the left-wing liberals forced the Queen to appoint a Setembrist government. The Count of Lumiares now became Prime Minister. Maria also had to take the oath on the constitution of 1822 proclaimed by the insurgents, and her husband had to resign from the army command. So the queen lost some of her powers. In addition , the guerrilla leader Remexido used the disruptive events to achieve significant progress as a supporter of the Miguelists for their cause in the Algarve; later imprisoned, he was executed on August 2, 1838 by firing squad in Faro .

Period Setembrist Cabinets

Queen Maria II of Portugal

The Portuguese ruling couple saw the September Revolution as a threat to their throne. It withdrew to the Palace of Belém , from where Maria II attempted a counter-revolution ( Belenzada ) in early November 1836 by replacing the Setembrist with a Cartist cabinet and reintroducing the Charter of 1826. However, their project failed; and the former minister, Agostinho José Freire, was cruelly murdered when he went to see the queen. Maria finally had to accept the installation of a new Setembrist government on November 5, 1836 under the leadership of the Viscount of Sá da Bandeira . The latter made room for António Dias de Oliveira for a short time as the new Prime Minister on June 2, 1837 , but became head of government again on August 10, 1837 for almost two years.

When the Setembrists were in power, they implemented a number of important reforms such as that of the school system. The foundations of a modern tax system were laid; in addition, slavery was also abolished in the colonies. The so-called Marshal uprising that broke out during the tenure of António Dias de Oliveira in July 1837 and was led by leading Cartists such as the Dukes of Terceira and Palmela and the Marquis of Saldanha was suppressed by the Setembrists in September 1837. In the meantime, the latter also revised the constitution of 1822 by having the constituent cortes draw up a charter that refrained from establishing a unicameral parliament and using the term popular sovereignty, but electing members of the upper house instead of appointing pairs for life by the crown provided. The document, according to which the ruler also retained the absolute right of veto, represented a compromise between the demands of the Cartists and those of the Setembrists. The queen, who worked with the Setembrist cabinets to stabilize the situation in the country, swore the new constitution on her 19th birthday (April 4, 1838). A general amnesty was also proclaimed at their request. Previously, on March 13, 1838, government troops had bloodily suppressed the mutiny of a militant group of National Guards stationed in the Lisbon arsenal, who listened to Soares Caldeira.

On April 18, 1839, the Sá da Bandeiras cabinet fell. His successor as head of government was the Baron von Ribeira de Sabrosa until November 26, 1839 . The Count of Bonfim then served as Prime Minister for a year and a half until June 9, 1841. Due to the weakening influence of the Setembrists, the queen managed to get Bonfim to make her confidante, the leading cartist António Bernardo da Costa Cabral , Minister of Justice. Costa Cabral retained this position in the last Setembrist cabinet, headed by Joaquim António de Aguiar .

During Bonfim's tenure, several European powers resumed diplomatic relations with Portugal. Around 1841, after negotiations with the Holy See of Portugal, which had already been initiated by the Sá da Bandeiras cabinet, reconciliation with the Pope took place. In 1842, Gregory XVI. Maria II received the Golden Rose and became the godfather of her third son Johann Maria.

Cabralism; Civil war

On January 19, 1842, the Cartists, led by Costa Cabral, provoked a successful uprising in Porto against the last Setembrist government, which was approved by the Queen. The Duke of Terceira then took office on February 9, 1842, nominally as head of government at the head of a new cabinet that had been in office for more than four years. This therefore dominated the Portuguese policy of the years 1842-1846 almost completely, which is why this period is also called cabralism ( cabralismo ).

On February 11, 1842, Costa Cabral restored Peter's constitutional charter from 1826. As a result, he provoked resistance, especially in rural areas, due to his authoritarian style of government, but also carried out many forward-looking reforms. In this way he continued to improve relations with the Vatican, disbanded the National Guard, which was devoted to the Setembrists, and re-established it. At the beginning of 1844 there was a military insurrection ( uprising of Torres Novas ), at the head of which the Count of Bonfim came. The headquarters of the rebels was Almeida , which fell on April 29, 1844. After this victory, Costa Cabral ruled even more dictatorially. In 1845 he was made Count of Tomar by Maria II .

The so-called uprising of Maria da Fonte , in which women also played a key role, ended Costa Cabral's rule. One of the triggers was the government decree not to allow burials in churches for sanitary reasons. In the northern Portuguese province of Minho , farmers revolted because of the increasing tax pressure and attacked a barracks in Braga on April 14, 1846 . This rural unrest spread rapidly and reached such proportions that it even seemed to threaten the rule of Mary II. The Queen, dismayed about this, dismissed Costa Cabral on May 20, 1846 and commissioned the Duke of Palmela with the formation of a moderate cartistic cabinet.

While Costa Cabral was leaving the country, the new government sought amnesty for political offenses and other measures to calm the situation and to consolidate the broken financial system. Although the revolt subsided somewhat, anarchic conditions persisted in many parts of Portugal. Miguelist guerrilla bands also operated in the northern provinces. In a palace revolution ( Emboscada ), Maria deposed Palmela on the night of October 6, 1846, appointed the Margrave of Saldanha as prime minister of a clearly Cartist government and elevated him to duke on November 4, 1846. The National Guard was disbanded, the new cabinet endowed with dictatorial authority and the Duke of Terceira sent to the north of Portugal, where he was supposed to militarily suppress the opposition there.

This approach of Mary II conjured up a new civil war ( patuleia ). The Duke of Terceira was arrested on his arrival in Porto, and in this city the queen was declared forfeited of the throne and a junta was formed as a Setembrist counter-government. The main army of the rebels was initially commanded by Francisco Xavier da Silva Pereira , Count of Antas. Despite a few victories, the royal troops failed to quickly overthrow the insurgents. Saldanha achieved a more significant success on December 22, 1846 at Torres Vedras against the Count of Bonfim, but the situation for the queen became more threatening again, among other things through the union of the Setembrists and Miguelists.

On April 12, 1847, Mary II turned to England, France and Spain for help on the basis of the Quadruple Alliance of 1834, which powers also sent troops to protect the Queen and secure Lisbon. The British ambassador Sir H. Seymour was able to move Maria to the prospect of a general amnesty, to the formation of a new, moderately liberal cabinet, which will be in office after Saldanha's resignation from April 28th, and to start negotiations with the insurgents, which initially went slowly. A fleet commanded by the Count of Antas, which set sail near Porto on May 31st and was supposed to supply reinforcements to Sá da Bandeira in Setúbal , had to surrender to an English squadron. Because of new difficulties in the negotiations, the revolutionary junta wanted to continue to offer resistance, but finally capitulated after an Anglo-Spanish naval blockade of Porto and a Spanish land troop deployment. The Treaty of Gramido of June 29, 1847 ended the civil war and meant the defeat of the Setembrists.

Last years of the reign of Mary

Outwardly, calm slowly returned to Portugal, but the ongoing financial crisis, among other things, prevented a real consolidation of the situation. Maria II hesitated for a long time to comply with the demands of the powers allied with her, but on August 22, 1847, under pressure, undertook a restructuring of her ministry. The following elections to Cortes were won by the Cartists and on December 18, 1847, the Duke of Saldanha re-headed a new cabinet. The Queen personally opened the Cortes on January 1, 1848. However, the economic situation remained precarious, trade and industry stagnated and the government, which could neither pay the current expenses nor the interest on the debt, knew no remedy for these economic problems.

Nevertheless, the situation had calmed down so much in 1849 that the Queen dared to appoint Costa Cabral instead of Saldanhas as head of government on June 18 of this year, despite the fact that it was still unpopular. Costa Cabral now headed a new cabinet in which he also held the post of interior minister. Saldanha, deprived of his high office, now regarded Costa Cabral as his most dangerous competitor and subsequently opposed him with fierce political resistance. In order to silence the opposition to the Count of Tomar, the members of the Chamber of Deputies, loyal to the government, passed a law restricting the freedom of the press in March 1851, which caused much displeasure. In addition, officials and soldiers were paid irregularly. Saldanha took the lead in an uprising that broke out the following April and was supported by parts of the army. As a result, Costa Cabral submitted his resignation on April 26, 1851, which Maria II had to accept and reappoint the victorious Saldanha as Prime Minister on May 1, 1851.

The Duke served not only as head of government until June 6, 1856, but also as Minister of War and even exercised dictatorial powers until the end of 1852. He founded the Regeneration Party and, in 1852, substantially reformed the constitutional charter of 1826, including changing it in a way that favored the direct election of MPs. In 1853 he devoted himself above all to improving Portugal's difficult financial situation.

At that time, Maria II's health was not at its best. By the age of 25, she was obese, had circulatory and heart problems. The doctors advised her against further pregnancies, since complications had already occurred in her last birth. She is said to have replied: “If I die, I will die in my post!” On November 15, 1853, Maria II died after her previous pregnancies had been difficult, giving birth to her eleventh child Eugenio at the age of only 34 years in Lisbon. With their reign, the rule of the House of Braganza ended in Portugal. Maria's successor was her eldest son, Peter V. It was through him that the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in Portugal came to power, the last dynasty to rule the Kingdom of Portugal . Maria II was buried in the royal pantheon of the House of Braganza in the Sao Vicente de Fora monastery in Lisbon.


  • Kendall W. Brown: Maria II da Gloria . In: Anne Commire (Ed.): Women in World History , Vol. 10 (2001), ISBN 0-7876-4069-7 , pp. 304-307.
  • Marie II da Gloria . In: Louis-Gabriel Michaud (ed.): Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne , 2nd edition, Vol. 26 (1860), pp. 637–643. ( Digital version )

See also

Web links

Commons : Maria II.  - Collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. ^ John E. Morby, Das Handbuch der Dynastien , Albatros Verlag, Düsseldorf, 2002, p. 167 f.
  2. Kendall W. Brown, Women in World History , Vol. 10, pp. 304–.
  3. Kendall W. Brown, Women in World History , Vol. 10, p. 305; Marie II da Gloria , Biographie universelle ancienne et modern , 2nd edition, vol. 26, p. 637f.
  4. ^ Kendall W. Brown, Women in World History , Vol. 10, pp. 305f .; Marie II da Gloria , Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne , 2nd edition, vol. 26, p. 638f.
  5. Kendall W. Brown, Women in World History , Vol. 10, p. 306; Marie II da Gloria , Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne , 2nd edition, vol. 26, p. 640.
  6. Kendall W. Brown, Women in World History , Vol. 10, p. 306; Marie II da Gloria , Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne , 2nd edition, vol. 26, pp. 640f.
  7. Kendall W. Brown, Women in World History , Vol. 10, pp. 306f .; Marie II da Gloria , Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne , 2nd edition, vol. 26, p. 641f.
  8. ^ Portugal (history) . In: Universal Lexicon of the Present and Past . 4th Edition, Vol. 13 (1861), pp. 388-390; Kendall W. Brown, Women in World History , Vol. 10, p. 307.
  9. ^ Portugal (history) . In: Universal Lexicon of the Present and Past . 4th Edition, Vol. 13 (1861), pp. 390-392; Kendall W. Brown, Women in World History , Vol. 10, p. 307.
predecessor Office successor
Peter IV Queen of Portugal
Michael I.
Michael I. Queen of Portugal
Peter V.