Timeline Portugal

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Before Christ

Viriato monument in Viseu
  • 139 BC Chr . : Viriatus is murdered by Lusitans allied with Rome on behalf of the Romans near Viseu . With this, the Romans regained the upper hand in the dispute with the Lusitans.
Numantia ruins
  • 133 BC Chr. End of the Spanish war with the fall of Numantia .
  • from 60 BC BC : Caesar breaks the last resistance of the Celtiberian tribes against Rome.
  • 27 BC BC : Administrative reform of the Emperor Augustus (* 63 BC ; † 14 AD ; ruled 30 BC to 14 AD): The Iberian Peninsula is divided into three provinces: Betica , Hispania Citerior and Lusitania . The latter essentially comprised what is now Portugal.
    Roman temple in Évora
    Lusitania was divided into three districts (" conventus "): Pacensis (capital: Pax Iulia , today's Beja ), Scallabitanus (capital: Scallabis , today's Santarém ) and Emeritensis (capital: Emerita , today's Mérida in Spain, which is also the provincial capital from all of Lusitania).


Map of the Roman province of Lusitania
  • 280 : Administrative reform of Diocletian : Hispania Citerior is divided into the provinces of Hispania Cartaginense and Callaecia or Gallaecia . The province of Callaecia comprises the area north of the Douro in present-day Portugal and Galicia in northern Spain .
  • from 409 : Barbarian invasion during the Migration Period destroys the Roman province. Alans , Vandals and Suebi invade Portugal.
  • 410 : The majority of the Suebi profess Arian Christianity.
  • 416 : Visigoths began to immigrate
  • around 430 : The Suebi found their empire in the area of ​​Gallaecia, the capital became Bracara Augusta , today's Braga . The other Germanic peoples also found their own states. However, since the Vandals and Alans are quickly defeated by the Visigoths, only their empire and the empire of the Suebi existed.
  • around 550 : the Suebi are converted to Catholicism under King Karriaric.
  • 585 : the Visigoth king Leovigild wins over the last Suebian king Andeca. The kingdom of the Suebi is destroyed and incorporated into the Visigoth Empire, making it the only Germanic empire on Iberian soil.
  • 587 : The Visigoth king Rekkared I converts from Arian to Catholic Christianity in Braga .
The Almoravid Empire
  • 711 : Beginning of the Arab ( Moorish ) invasion . The last King of the Visigoths, Roderich, is defeated by Tariq ibn Ziyad and falls in the battle in southern Andalusia. Portugal, too, fell under Islamic rule after only a few years up to the level of Braga. Battle of the Barbate River. Portugal becomes part of the Caliphate of Cordoba .
  • 9th century : Beginning of the Reconquista , the reconquest of Portugal by Christian armies, starting from Asturias and León .

King Alfonso III, the Great of Asturias, moves the capital to León and conquers in

  • 868 the old Roman harbor Portus Cale (today's Porto ), from which the country takes its name; and then
  • 878 Coimbra


  • around 1000 : Within León, the counties of Castile and Portugal are formed in the areas recaptured by the Moors, and they lead a life of their own. Alfonso VI von León tried to demonstrate his sovereignty over the two counties by accepting the imperial title.
  • 1064 : The city of Coimbra is finally retaken from the Moors by order of King Ferdinand I, the Great of Castile and León . In Coimbra, under the direction of the Benedictines, the first school in what would later become the Kingdom of Portugal was established.
  • 1068 : Count Raymond von Armous, a younger son of Duke Wilhelm I of Burgundy , goes to Portugal. This is the first appearance of the Burgundians, a sideline of the Capetians in the country. Raymond marries Urraca , heir to the Leonese king, and in 1093 becomes Count of Galicia , the region bordering Portugal to the north.
Henry of Burgundy
Theresa of Castile
  • 1071 : Near Braga , Count Nuno Mendes falls in the battle of Pedroso against the King of Galicia, Garcia, which prevents the Portuguese nobility from attempting independence for the time being.
  • 1080 : At a council in Burgos, the ecclesiastical forces prevail, who want to replace the old Spanish, Mozarabic rite with the papal Roman rite in all Christian empires on the Iberian peninsula . However, its implementation lasted until the first decades of the 12th century.
  • 1093 : Heinrich of Burgundy , a nephew of Raimond and the younger son of Duke Heinrich of Burgundy, marries Theresia of León , an illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VI. from León . In 1095 he received the counties of Portucale and Coimbra. He established the rule of the House of Burgundy on a part of the later Kingdom of Portugal, which lasted until 1383 .
  • 1104 : Henry of Burgundy founded the Archdiocese of Braga . The dioceses of Porto, Lamego, Viseu and Coimbra follow and the city of Guimarães , proudly calling itself the "cradle of Portugal", becomes his preferred residence.
  • 1109 After the death of Alfonso VI. of León and Castile , Portugal breaks free from fiefdom.
  • 1114 : Death of Henry of Burgundy. For his underage son Alfonso I (* 1110, † 1185; reigned as king 1139 - 1185), his widow Theresa of Castile initially took over the reign. In 1117 she assumed the title of Queen of Portugal, which was not recognized by the Leonese side, and finally had to bow back to the suzerainty of her half-sister Urraca of León, who was there after the death of Alfonso VI. had taken power.
  • 1127 : Alfonso VII of Castile, a son of Urraca, defeats Theresa of Castile; this is decisively weakened.
Alfons I.
  • 1128 : Alfonso I defeats his mother in the battle of São Mamede . Theresa of Castile is ousted, Alfonso I begins to rule independently.
  • 1128 : The Knights Templar established its first settlement in Portugal on the donation of Soure Castle on Mondego by D. Theresa, who also gave the Templars "all areas between Coimbra and Leiria that are still in the hands of the unbelievers". In the following year, Alfonso I confirmed the donation of the Castelo de Soure to the Templars.
  • 1135 : Alfonso I refuses to take the feudal oath to Alfonso VII of León .
  • 1139 : Alfonso I triumphs over the Moors in the Battle of Ourique . He then assumed the title of king and thus established the independence of Portugal from Castile-León. The first capital of the Kingdom of Portugal is Guimarães .
  • 1143 : Treaty of Zamora : Castile-León must recognize the independence of Portugal. Alfonso I moves the capital to Coimbra .
  • 1179 : Pope Alexander III. recognizes Portuguese independence with the bull " Manifestis probatum ", the "birth certificate of Portugal". Portugal is now the oldest nation-state in Europe.
  • 1147 : Alfonso I conquered Lisbon and Santarém from the Moors.
  • 1162 : Alfonso I founds the order of knights of Avis .
Cross of the Order of Avis
Sancho I.
Sancho II.
Alfons III
  • 1245 : climax in the battle between royalty and church. Pope Innocent IV removes Sancho II de facto and appoints his brother Alfons III. the administrator of the kingdom. A civil war begins between the two brothers, which only ends with the death of Sancho II.
  • 1248 - 1279 : Alfons III.
  • 1250 / 1251 : Completion of the Portuguese Reconquista with the conquest of the Algarve by Alfonso III.
  • 1254 : Alfons III. was also the first Portuguese king to add representatives of the people (homens-bons dos conselhos) to the Cortes in Leiria . These boni homines ("righteous men") were non-noble but respected landowners from various administrative districts of the empire. Her invitation to the cortes was a clever move by the king to increase tax income.
  • 1256 : The king moves the country's capital to Lisbon.
Pope John XXI.
  • 1276 : With John XXI. the only Portuguese to date ascends the Holy See .
  • 1279 - 1325 : King Dionysius . Civil war in Portugal between Dionysius and his younger brother Alfons, at the same time war with Castile, mutual invasion of the Castilians in Portugal and the Portuguese in Castile.
  • 1289 : A compromise between Dionysius and Pope Nicholas IV defused the centuries-old conflict between the royal house and the church.
  • 1294 : The first trade treaty with England marks the beginning of a long series of alliances between the two countries.
  • 1297 : Treaty of Alcañices . Peace between Dionysius and Ferdinand IV. Of Castile. The border between the two countries is finally fixed, it essentially corresponds to the border between Portugal and Spain, which is still valid today.


Knights Castle in Tomar
  • 1312 : At the instigation of the French King Philip IV, the Beautiful and Pope Clement V , the Knights Templar is dissolved. Unlike elsewhere in Europe, there is no persecution of the Templars in Portugal. Here will
  • The Order of Christ founded by King Dionysius in 1319 , through which the Templars are practically continued as the national Portuguese order.
Alfons IV
The execution of the Inês de Castro
The Battle of Aljubarrota
Johann I.
  • Can be rejected by the Portuguese victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota in 1385 .
  • Johann I (ruled until 1433 ). During his reign the construction of the later Portuguese colonial empire began.
  • 1386 Treaty of Windsor , first in a long series of economic and alliance treaties with England .
Henry the Navigator
King Edward of Portugal
Slave market in Lagos
Alfons V.
  • 1445 : A Portuguese trading post is opened in Arguim in Africa, Portugal starts trading in African slaves .
  • 1447 : discovery of Cape Verdes , which was given to the Order of Christ for settlement.
  • 1449 : Battle of Alfarrobeira. The now adult King Alfonso V beats his uncle Peter of Coimbra and begins to rule independently.
  • 1455 : With the papal bull Romanus Pontifex , King Alfonso V and Henry the Navigator receive the trade monopoly for the new lands in Africa and Asia.
  • 1471 : The Portuguese conquer Tangier.
  • 1476 - 1477 : Portugal becomes involved in the Castilian throne disputes, loses against Castile in the Battle of Toro and must
  • In 1479 in the Peace of Alcáçovas he renounced all claims to the Castilian throne.
  • 1481 - 1495 : King John II enforces the power of the crown against the nobility and the church with great severity.
Fort São Jorge da Mina (Elmina, Ghana)
Emanuel the lucky one
Vasco da Gama
  • 1495 - 1521 : Reign of King Emanuel the Happy . Portugal is at the height of its power. Cultural flowering (literature, architecture ( Manueline )).
  • 1496 : Portugal also expels its Jews, but those who are baptized (so-called New Christians) are allowed to stay.
  • 1497 : Vasco da Gama finds the sea route to India .
The Jeronimos Monastery in Lisbon, a major Manueline work


Pedro Álvares Cabral
Afonso de Albuquerque
Church in Velha Goa, India
Ferdinand Magellan
Salvador da Bahia in Brazil
Luís de Camoes
Sebastian I.
Philip II of Spain and Portugal
  • 1580 - 1640 Personal union of Portugal with Spain
  • 1580: After the Avis dynasty died out , António von Crato tries to take over the crown, but cannot prevent Portugal from being ruled by King Philip II of Spain and his successors in personal union. The Portuguese legal and administrative system remains largely in place, but the country's autonomy is increasingly restricted.
  • 1622 : Portugal loses Hormuz to the British.
  • 1630 : The Dutch drive the Portuguese out of northeast Brazil ( Pernambuco ).
  • 1637 : Portugal loses the West African trading fort Elmina to the Dutch.
  • 1640 : The Spanish governor is overthrown in an uprising in Lisbon. End of the personal union with Spain. The Duke of Braganza is elected King as John IV . Thus the end of Spanish rule and the beginning of the rule of the House of Braganza , which was to rule Portugal until 1853 .
  • 1640 and 1652 : Defense treaties with the British against the Spanish.
  • 1659 - 1668 : The Spaniards try to regain their rule over Portugal in the Restoration War, but have to recognize Portuguese independence in the Treaty of Lisbon .
  • 1667 : Peter II sets his handicapped brother Alfons VI. from.
  • 1669 : the Cortes meet for the last time, from now on Portugal is ruled absolutistically .
  • 1702 - 1713 : War of the Spanish Succession , Portugal fights on the side of England and the Netherlands.
  • 1703 : The Methuen Treaty ties Portugal economically to England .
  • 1706 : the Portuguese King Peter II dies ; Johann V follows him to the throne.
  • 1717 : the Academia Portuguesa is founded. British and Dutch invade the Portuguese colonial empire in Asia and Africa. At the same time, Brazil is gaining in importance for Portugal, as the country can offset its negative trade balance with Great Britain through the gold and diamond deliveries from the colony.
  • from 1750 : With the death of John V and the succession to the throne of Joseph I , Sebastião José Carvalho e Melo, who later became the Margrave of Pombal , came to power as a kind of "Prime Minister". Pombal is judged differently in historiography, as on the one hand he initiated a series of ambitious reform projects, especially in education and business, but on the other hand united a great deal of power in his hand and stifled every opposition with dictatorial measures.
  • 1755 : An earthquake destroys the city of Lisbon. Pombal is organizing the reconstruction.
  • 1777 : King Joseph I dies, his successor Maria I dismisses Pombal.
  • 1792 : Queen Maria is incapacitated because of madness, her son Johann VI. has ruled the country since then as Prince Regent.
  • 1793 : Portugal joins the European coalition against Napoleon .


  • 1801 : Encouraged by Napoleon, Spain invades Portugal ( Orange War ). In the Treaty of Badajoz , Portugal had to cede the city of Olivenza ( Portuguese : Olivença) to Spain.
  • 1807 : French troops occupy Portugal. The royal family flees to Brazil. Rio de Janeiro becomes the new seat of government.
  • 1808 : Landing of a British expeditionary army led by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington . The British and the remnants of the Portuguese army win the battles of Roliça and Vimeiro , the French must withdraw from Portugal.
  • 1809 : The second French invasion ends with the Anglo-Portuguese victory in the Battle of Talavera de la Reina ( 27 / July 28 ).
  • 1810 : Third French invasion, after the French defeat
  • 1811 : In the battle of Sabugal ( April 3rd ) the French had to withdraw for good. Portugal is liberated, but the royal family remains in Brazil, and British commander William Carr Beresford rules as a military dictator.
  • 1815 : Brazil achieved the status of a kingdom and with it the legal equality with the Portuguese motherland.
  • 1816 : Death of King Maria I, Prince Regent Johann is crowned the new King in Rio de Janeiro (Johann VI.)
  • 1817 : Rebellion of liberal and Masonic forces in Portugal against the military dictatorship of Beresford, this proceeds with great severity against the rebels.
  • 1820 Beginning of the Liberal Revolution with an uprising in Porto . Revolt against the military dictatorship of Beresford, for the introduction of a constitutional monarchy with a liberal constitution based on the Spanish model and for the return of the king, who is to rule as a constitutional monarch.
  • 1821 : Election of a constituent assembly (Cortes), this calls on the king to return from Brazil, John VI. finally follows this request and leaves Crown Prince Peter (later Peter IV. ) as regent in Brazil. The Cortes in Lisbon adopts the first Portuguese constitution.
  • 1822 ( September 7th ): Brazil declares its independence from Portugal. Crown Prince Peter ascends the Brazilian throne as Peter I as the first emperor.
  • 1824 : Revolt of Queen Charlotte Johanna and Prince Michael against King John VI. and the liberal constitution. The king can prevail, forcing the queen and his son into exile, but revoking the liberal constitution.
  • 1826 : Death of King John VI. His son, the rightful heir to the throne, cannot succeed him because he rules as Emperor Peter I in Brazil. He therefore abdicated in favor of his daughter Maria da Glória, but linked the waiver to two conditions: 1. His brother Miguel was later to marry Maria da Glória ( Maria II ). 2. Portugal receives an imposed constitution (the Carta Constitucional ), which it dictates from Rio de Janeiro. The Carta Constitucional of 1826 turned out to be the most stable Portuguese constitution of the 19th century - despite changes and temporary suspensions, it ultimately remained in place until 1910.
  • 1828 : Michael dethrones his niece Maria and proclaims himself King as Michael I. As the last king, he rules absolutistically.
  • 1831 : Peter I abdicates as Emperor of Brazil, accepts the title of Duke of Braganza and goes to Europe to fight his brother Michael.
  • 1831- 1834 : liberal wars between Peter and the liberals on the one hand, Michael and the absolutists on the other. With the help of the liberal generals Saldanha and Terceira , Peter succeeds in defeating his brother, who has to go into exile again. After Peter's death, Maria II was declared of legal age and began to govern independently.
  • 1834- 1836 : Government of Cartista . The administration and justice are reorganized according to the Napoleonic model, the trade monopolies of the large corporations are abolished. The religious orders are dissolved, church property is nationalized.
  • 1836: September Revolution: Terceira, the last cartistic prime minister is overthrown, the Setembrists come to power.
  • 1836– 1842 : Setembrist governments ( Manuel da Silva Passos , Margrave of Sá da Bandeira ). Various cartist uprisings against the Setembrist government fail ( Belenzada , uprising of the marshals ).
  • 1838 : A new Setembrist, extremely democratic constitution comes into force.
  • 1842- 1846 : Conservative (Cartistische) dictatorship under António Bernardo da Costa Cabral , Margrave of Tomar. The Carta Constitucional is reintroduced as a constitution.
  • 1846: Uprising of Maria da Fonte , overthrow of Costa Cabral.
  • 1846- 1849 : Cartistische government under the Duke of Saldanha.
  • 1846- 1847 : civil war between Cartista and Setembristen that form a provisional government in Porto. Only thanks to British and Spanish intervention can Saldanha win the war.
  • 1849- 1851 : Second Government of Costa Cabral


  • 1851- 1856 : Saldanha ruled with dictatorial powers
  • 1853 : Queen Maria II dies, her husband Ferdinand II reigns as Prince Regent until her son Peter comes of age. The rule of the House of Braganza ends with Maria II, and the Portuguese branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , the last Portuguese dynasty, comes to power through her husband (until 1910 ).
  • 1855 Peter V comes of age and takes over the government. He dismisses
  • 1856 Saldanha. With the Duke of Loulé , the left-wing liberals come back to power for the first time since Costa Cabral drove the Setembrists out of power. Beginning of rotativism : Portugal receives a stable two-party system, with the conservative regeneration party on the one hand, the historical party , later the progressive party on the other, who replace themselves in government at regular intervals.
  • 1861 : King Peter V, extremely popular among the people, dies young and unexpectedly together with two of his brothers of a fever epidemic. Rumors are circulating among the people that the king has been murdered, which is why there are riots. Ludwig I ascends the throne.
  • 1865 - 1868 : Grand coalition of the Regeneration Party and the Historical Party under Joaquim António de Aguiar (so-called Governo da fusão ).
  • 1868: January uprising in Lisbon, due to government plans to increase taxes due to the precarious budget situation. Fall of the de Aguiar government, end of the grand coalition.
  • 1870 : Saldanha returns from abroad and seizes power, but is overthrown after a few months.
  • 1871 - 1877 : " Fontism ", conservative government of the Regeneration Party under António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo . The government is particularly promoting the industrialization of the country.
  • 1876 : Foundation of the first Republican Party .
  • 1878 : Despite strong protests, Ludwig I. Fontes appoints Pereira de Melo again as head of government. The Republicans can never win a parliamentary seat.
  • 1889 : King Ludwig dies, his son Karl I ascends the throne.
  • 1890 : The climax of the British-Portuguese colonial crisis over contradicting claims of the two states in southern Africa. As a result, Portugal can consolidate its colonial possessions, but has to refrain from expanding. This apparent weakness discredits the monarchy. There were violent attacks with ten dead and over 40 injured in the elections, and the Republicans won three seats. The king appoints non-partisan governments until 1893 .
  • 1891 Republican uprising in Porto, proclamation of the Republic. The uprising is put down. National bankruptcy .
  • 1893: With the appointment of Ernesto Rodolfo Hintze Ribeiro from the Regeneration Party, the era of bipartisan governments ends. The old system of rotation was used again until 1906 , between Hintze Ribeiro and José Luciano de Castro from the Progressive Party.
  • 1899 : Treaty of Windsor , final settlement of the Anglo-Portuguese colonial dispute. The respective possessions are recognized, Portugal renounces the expansion of its colonial empire and grants the British marching rights for their troops.


  • 1901 : Split of the Regeneration Party. João Franco leaves the party with his supporters and founds the Liberal Regeneration Party .
  • 1907 - 1908 : João Fernando Pinto Franco government: After initially giving in to the Republicans, Franco rules with great severity. Parliament is overthrown, Franco rules with decrees countersigned by the king, censorship of the republican press, threats to ban prominent republicans to the African colonies.
  • 1908: King Karl I and the heir to the throne Ludwig Philipp are assassinated. Emanuel II (1889–1932) ascended the throne as the last monarch at the age of 18.
  • 1908: Emanuel II dismisses João Fernando Pinto Franco. The " policy of calming " ( Politica de Acalmação ) with extensive concessions to the republicans can no longer save the monarchy.
  • 1910
    • October 3 : Psychiatrist and prominent Republican Miguel Bombarda is killed by one of his former patients. Even if the act probably has no political background, it acts as an initial spark for the republican revolt (supported by the military) through the am
    • October 4th King Emanuel II is forced to abdicate (shortly afterwards he goes into exile in England). At the
    • October 5th the republic is proclaimed. Teófilo Braga (1843–1924) becomes interim president. A phase of political instability follows with frequently changing presidents and heads of government.
  • 1911 : Election of a constituent assembly. Adoption of a new republican constitution. Manuel José de Arriaga becomes the country's first constitutional president (until 1915 ). The Republican government pursues anti-clerical policies and proclaims the separation of church and state. Monarchist uprisings are put down. Foundation of the Universities of Lisbon and Porto. The Republican Party comes under the influence of Afonso Costa , radicalises itself and changes its name to the Democratic Party .
  • 1912 : Evolutionists and Unionists leave the Democratic Parties. The Republicans have thus divided into three currents. New monarchist uprisings.
  • 1915 : Putsch by conservative officers against the government of Vítor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho and the Democratic Party of Afonso Costa, which supports it, dissolution of parliament ( 25 January ). On January 28, President de Arriaga named the leader of the coup plotters, General Joaquim Pimenta de Castro , Prime Minister. It forms a cabinet consisting primarily of conservative military officers and governs without a parliament through ordinances countersigned by the president (dictatorship of swords). On May 14th, he was overthrown by officers close to Afonso Costa in a coup, and President de Arriaga also had to resign on May 26th . Teófilo Braga is again the interim president. On October 5 will Bernardino Machado elected president.
  • 1916 : ( March 9th ) Portugal joins the Entente in the First World War against the Central Powers . Grand coalition (government of sacred unity - governo da sagrada união ) under António José de Almeida .
  • 1917 :
    • June 12 : A state of emergency was declared after violent demonstrations against the government with dead people .
    • December 5th : Sidónio Pais coup . Dissolution of parliament, suspension of the constitution, President Machado flees abroad. Beginning of the " New Republic ".
  • 1918 :
  • 1919 :
    • 11 January : In Santarém soldiers and officers, including the later Prime Minister Álvaro de Castro , accuse President do Canto e Castro of wanting to continue the policy of Sidónio Pais.
    • June: President do Canto e Castro declares his resignation, but Parliament can initially persuade him to stay.
    • June 28 : The signing of the Treaty of Versailles officially ends the First World War.
    • September: Founding of the General Confederation of Trade Unions (CGT). Founding of the Communist Party (PCP)
    • October: Do Canto e Castro resigns again. António José de Almeida will be his successor.
  • 1921 ( October 19 ): Lisbon Blood Night : The Prime Minister and a number of other politicians are killed in an uprising by the Republican Guards.
  • 1923 : Manuel Teixeira Gomes is elected as the new president.
  • 1925 :
    • April: a coup attempt by Sinel de Cordes fails,
    • December 11 : President Teixeira Gomes gives up, exasperated, resigns and leaves the country. He will be succeeded by Bernardino Machado (second term).
  • 1926 :
    • May 28 : General Gomes da Costa's military coup begins .
    • May 31 : President Machado resigns and flees abroad. Machado appoints Captain Mendes Cabeçadas to succeed him and defender the republic.
    • June 1 : Mendes Cabeçadas meets with the coup general Gomes da Costa and forms a government junta with him. Mendes Cabeçadas becomes head of the junta, but Gomes da Costa retains supreme command of the army as Minister of War. António de Oliveira Salazar is appointed finance minister in the junta and thus enters the government for the first time.
    • June 6th : Gomes da Costa marches into Lisbon with his troops.
    • June 17 : Gomes da Costa removes Mendes Cabeçadas as head of the junta and declares himself head of state and government.
    • July 9th : Gomes da Costa is overthrown by General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona .
  • 1932 ( July 5 ) : António de Oliveira Salazar (1889–1970) becomes Prime Minister. He established an authoritarian-corporate one-party state based on the fascist model, suppressed all opposition, but managed to reorganize state finances and restore internal order.
  • 1939 - 1945 : Portugal remains neutral during World War II, but grants the USA and Great Britain bases in the Azores.
  • 1949 (April): Portugal joins NATO .


  • 1951 ( June 11th ): The colonies are officially declared overseas provinces of Portugal.
  • from 1960 : Portugal sees itself increasingly embroiled in a loss-making war of independence in its African colonies, which also arouses resentment and resistance to the ruling dictatorship in the Portuguese mother country.
  • 1961 ( December 18 ): Portugal loses its possessions in India (Goa, Damão and Diu).
  • 1968 ( September 26 ): After Salazar suffered a stroke, Marcelo Caetano (1906–1980) took over the post of head of government and continued the authoritarian politics of his predecessor.


  • 1973 ( September 24 ): The West African colony of Guinea-Bissau unilaterally declares its independence, which, however, is not officially recognized by Portugal until September 10, 1974.
  • 1974
    • March 15 : The government dismisses the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, General Francisco da Costa Gomes (1914-2001), and his deputy General António Ribeiro de Spínola (1910-1996), who would later play a prominent role in the Carnation Revolution , as both of them had refused to attend an event in support of the government the day before.
    • April 21 : The “Movement of the Captains” ( movimento dos capitães ), originally just a representation of the interests of younger officers, which then quickly became politicized, is renamed the “Movement of the Armed Forces” ( Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA) ) and makes a decision the coup against the government.
    • April 25th : Carnation Revolution : In a largely bloodless action, the armed forces take power. President Américo Tomás (1894–1987; Reg. 1958–1974) and Prime Minister Marcello Caetano are forced to resign and go into exile. A “National Salvation Front” ( Junta de Salvação Nacional ) with Spínola at its head takes power. Álvaro Cunhal , General Secretary of the Communist Party of Portugal (PCP) is returning to Portugal from his exile in Prague .
    • April 28th : Mário Soares , co-founder and chairman of the Socialist Party of Portugal (PS) returns to Portugal from exile.
    • May 15 : Spínola becomes President and appoints on
    • May 16 : Adelino da Palma Carlos (1905–1992) as Prime Minister. Da Palma Carlos leads a moderate socialist policy and is supported by President Spínola, but is increasingly in opposition to more radical forces within the MFA, which finally came on
    • July 17th achieve his resignation. The new Prime Minister is Colonel Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves (1921–2005), who is taking an increasingly radical socialist course ( agricultural reform , nationalization of the banks , etc.). After Spínola tried in vain to resist this course, he steps on
    • September 30th back. He is succeeded by General Francisco da Costa Gomes. The new government starts negotiations with the various liberation movements with the aim of granting independence to the Portuguese colonies. Macau becomes "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration". The independence of Guinea-Bissau, which was unilaterally proclaimed in 1973, is officially recognized.
  • 1975
    • March 11th : The supporters of Spínola put a coup against the government's policy, which they perceived as a danger of a communist takeover. The coup failed and Spínola had to flee into exile in Spain. Its supporters are ousted from the government and the MFA. The National Salvation Front is dissolved and replaced by the Revolutionary Council ( Conselho da Revolução ), which, endowed with far-reaching powers, is developing into a “secondary and over-government”.
    • April 25 : Elections to the Constituent Assembly.
    • June 25th : Mozambique is granted independence.
    • July 5th : The Cape Verde Islands are given independence.
    • July 12th : São Tomé and Príncipe granted independence.
    • September 19 : After persistent violent power struggles (mainly between socialists and communists) Prime Minister Gonçalves is deposed by an officers' meeting and replaced by the more moderate José Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo (1917–1983).
    • November 11th : Angola is granted independence and the Portuguese colonial empire ceased to exist. "Hot Summer 1975": The clashes between moderate and radical socialist forces intensify, street riots and illegal land occupations occur. Finally staged a revolutionary soldiers' movement under Colonel Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho (* 1936) on
    • November 20, a rebellion by left-wing units, which is crushed by Colonel António Ramalho Eanes (* 1935). As a result, the army is restructured and kept out of politics.
    • November 28th : East Timor declares independence. The following day, an Indonesian invasion begins .
  • 1976
    • April 2 : The Constituent Assembly adopts a new constitution ( Third Republic ).
    • April 25th : First free parliamentary elections under the new constitution. The socialists become the strongest party, but do not achieve a majority.
    • July 17th : Indonesia officially annexes East Timor (Timor-Leste).
    • July 27th : First free presidential election. General Eanes is elected with a large majority, his main rival candidate, Captain Otelo, only receives 16.5% of the vote.
    • 23 September : Mário Soares becomes Prime Minister of a minority government led by the PS.
    • September 22nd : Portugal is admitted to the Council of Europe .
  • 1978 : After the minority government of Soares initially failed (December 5, 1977), a coalition with the CDS then forged by Soares breaks up. President Eanes then dismisses Soares as prime minister and appoints non-partisan governments, first under Alfredo Nobre da Costa (1923–1996) (from August 28), then under Carlos Mota Pinto (1936–1985) (from November 22), finally
  • 1979 (August 1) Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo (1930-2004 ) becomes the first and so far only female head of government in Portugal. In the absence of a majority in parliament, none of these governments lasted long, the parties finally agreed on early elections, which were held towards the end of 1979 and lead to a victory for the conservatives .


  • 1980 : The 1979 election winner, Francisco Sá Carneiro , becomes the new Prime Minister. In another parliamentary election ( October 5 ), Sá Carneiro can increase its majority. In the presidential elections of the same year, General Eanes was re-elected with a large majority. On December 4th, Prime Minister Sá Carneiro died in a plane crash under circumstances that have not yet been clarified. Diogo Freitas do Amaral is temporarily acting Prime Minister.
  • 1981 ( January 9th ): Francisco Pinto Balsemão (* 1937) becomes the new Prime Minister as the successor to the unfortunate Sá Carneiro.
  • 1982 ( August 12 ): A constitutional reform leads to the abolition of a number of relics from the time of the Carnation Revolution in the constitution, including the Revolutionary Council founded in 1974.
  • 1983 : After the conservative coalition collapsed and Pinto Balsemão lost his parliamentary majority, he resigned as prime minister. There will be new elections ( April 25th ). These are won by the socialists, who become the strongest party but again lack the majority. After difficult negotiations, Mário Soares succeeds in agreeing a coalition with the conservatives, so he will become Prime Minister for the second time on June 9th .
  • 1985 : The coalition with the socialists leads to an acid test within the conservative social democrats. Aníbal Cavaco Silva (* 1939) succeeds in overthrowing Pinto Balsemão as party leader, he then ends the coalition with the socialists, which leads to the resignation of Prime Minister Soares and early elections ( October 6th ). These are won by the Conservatives, which became the strongest party but also failed to gain a majority; Cavaco Silva then becomes (on November 6th ) the new Prime Minister as leader of a minority government. Colonel Otelo, one of the leading figures of the Carnation Revolution and against Eane's failed presidential candidate of the left, is convicted of membership in a terrorist group in a controversial trial ; he is serving five years in prison until he is finally given an amnesty in 1996 .
  • 1986 (January 1st): Portugal becomes a member of the European Community (EC). According to the constitution, General Eanes can no longer run for the presidential election (restriction to two terms of office), in the second round the elections are won by Mário Soares, who will succeed Ramalho Eanes in the office of president on March 9 , as the first civilian in this office for 60 years.
  • 1987 : After the failure of the Cavaco Silva minority government, there are early elections ( July 19 ), in which Silva succeeds, for the first time since the beginning of the Third Republic, with an absolute majority of parliamentary seats for his Social Democrats.


  • 1991 : Regular presidential ( January 13th ) and parliamentary elections ( October 6th ), won by the two incumbents, President Soares and Prime Minister Cavaco Silva. The latter can still expand its absolute majority.
  • 1995 : An economic recession leads to increasing dissatisfaction among the population with the conservative government. In the regular parliamentary elections held in 1995, the conservative Social Democrats lose their majority (Prime Minister Cavaco Silva was no longer running) with António Guterres (* 1949) becoming a Socialist head of government again on October 28th .
  • 1996 ( March 9th ): The socialist Jorge Sampaio (* 1939) becomes the new president, his opponent was the former prime minister Cavaco Silva.
  • 1999 ( December 20 ): Portugal cedes its Macau colony to China.


  • 2001 : The socialists suffer heavy losses in local elections, Prime Minister Guterres then allows early elections to be held
  • 2002 ( March 17th ) won by the Social Democrats, José Manuel Barroso (* 1956) becomes the new Prime Minister. On January 1st, the common European currency, the euro, had replaced the escudo as the Portuguese means of payment .
  • 2003 : During the Iraq war , the Barroso government is one of the European supporters of the controversial American attack on Iraq . Portugal takes part in the “ coalition of the willing ” with 128 soldiers .
  • 2004 : After the heads of state and government of the European Union agreed at the European Council on Barroso as the new President of the European Commission ( June 29 ), Barroso resigns as Prime Minister of Portugal on July 17 . Barroso has been President of the EU Commission since November 22, as the successor to the Italian Romano Prodi , the first Portuguese in this position. Pedro Santana Lopes (* 1956) will succeed him as Prime Minister of Portugal . The short term of office of Santana Lopes ("King of Lisbon nightlife", "Portuguese Berlusconi ") is overshadowed by crises, President Sampaio publicly accuses him of "incompetence", Santana Lopez finally resigns as Prime Minister on November 30th, but remains until in office for the early elections.
  • 2005 : The early elections ( February 20 ) turn into a disaster for the conservatives (“political earthquake”), who remain below the 30% mark. The socialists win an absolute majority. José Sócrates (* 1957) from the Socialists becomes the new Prime Minister and ends the Portuguese involvement in Iraq.
  • 2006 : In the presidential elections on January 22nd, however, the conservatives win again, Aníbal Cavaco Silva succeeds in the first ballot against several opposing candidates, including ex-president Mário Soares, so he becomes Portuguese president on the second attempt.
  • 2009 : The PS loses in the parliamentary elections , but continues to rule in a minority government.


See also

Web links