Calendar overview 1254
the last Hohenstaufen,
Konrad IV ...
Wilhelm of Holland
generally recognized as the Roman-German king .
|1254 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||702/703 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1797/98 (southern Buddhism); 1796/97 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||616/617 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||651/652 (turn of the year 20/21 February)|
|Jewish calendar||5014/15 (September 13-14)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1564/65 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1565/66 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1310/11 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Succession planning after the death of King Conrad IV.
- April 9th : Pope Innocent IV excommunicated the German King Konrad IV again, who is on his way to Italy and is in the process of consolidating his rule in the Kingdom of Sicily .
- May 21 : With the death of Conrad IV , Wilhelm of Holland , who was elected as the opposing king in 1247, is generally recognized as the Roman-German king . This gives rise to hope in the empire that the interregnum will end .
- Konrad's son Konradin formally becomes King of Jerusalem . Since he is only two years old, he will be the guardianship of his two unions, the dukes Ludwig II and Heinrich XIII. of Bavaria, subordinated
- Konrad's half-brother Manfred , Prince of Taranto , continues the reign of Konradin in the Kingdom of Sicily and tries to find a reconciliation with Pope Innocent IV , whom he himself led to Naples in October . However, the Pope does not recognize the Hohenstaufen succession and enfeoffs Edmund , the son of Heinrich III , in the same year . of England with Sicily. Heinrich then begins the “ Sicilian Adventure ”. Manfred flees to the Saracens in Lucera . With their help he defeated a papal army near Foggia and quickly conquered all of Apulia .
Other events in Central Europe
- February: On the initiative of the citizen Arnold Walpod and the city treasurer Arnold von Thurn , the city of Mainz concludes a bilateral contract with Worms , which is followed by a union with the cities of Oppenheim ( April 3 ) and Bingen am Rhein ( May 29 ) in spring . On July 13th, the Bund with Cologne , Speyer , Strasbourg , Basel and other unnamed cities will be expanded to form the Rhenish City Association . The motive for the foundation is the insecurity in the Holy Roman Empire because of the interregnum . The federal government opposes feuds and sets rules for conflict cases. It has a federal assembly that is supposed to meet quarterly and its own Rhine fleet to protect shipping. After the founding assembly in Mainz, the second federal assembly will take place on October 6th in Worms.
- April 3 : In the Treaty of Ofen , the Bohemian King Ottokar II. Přemysl and the Hungarian King Béla IV. Agree on the division of the former Babenberg duchies of Austria and Styria . Gertrud von Babenberg and her five-year-old son Friedrich are dealt with with some gentlemen and towns in Styria, including Voitsberg and Judenburg .
- October 9 : Between the Bishopric of Paderborn under Prince Bishop Simon I of lip and the Cologne Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden it comes to the battle on the Wülferichskamp . Count Engelbert I von der Mark and other Westphalian aristocrats fight on the Kurkölner side . At their head is Gottfried III. from Arnsberg . Simon is supported with troops by his brother, the Münster Bishop Otto II , but he is defeated in the battle and is captured.
- In a fight with Heinrich von Neuenburg , the Bishop of Basel , Rudolf von Habsburg secured the umbrella bailiwick over the Black Forest monastery of Sankt Blasien .
Sixth crusade and the return of King Louis IX. to France
- January 18 : After the death of King Henry I , his one-year-old son Hugo II becomes King of Cyprus under the reign of his mother Plaisance of Antioch .
- April 24th / 25th : The French King Louis IX. sets sail from Acre and sets off with the army of the failed Sixth Crusade back to France. The following night, however, he ran on a sandbank in front of Cyprus, which forced him to stay longer.
- July 17th : After a long journey, Louis IX meets. in Paris. He soon traveled on to Ghent and ended the flare-up Flemish War of Succession by preventing any further acts of war by his ambitious brother Charles of Anjou .
- November 3 : With the death of John III. his son Theodor II becomes Emperor of Nikaia . Like his father, he thus claims the throne of the Byzantine Empire .
- January: Emir Faris ad-Din Aktay is murdered in the Mamluks' power struggle in Egypt . The Turkish-born Izz ad-Din Aibak emerges from the power struggle provisionally victorious. Aktay's supporters from the Bahri regiment such as Rukn ad-Din Baibars are forced to flee to Jordan.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Birrhard , Christburg , Glems , Hasle near Burgdorf , Hausen AG , Mettau , Mörbisch am See , Murgenthal , Ponitz , Rattenberg , Sand and Völkersbach are mentioned for the first time in a document.
- Copenhagen receives its first city charter from Bishop Jakob Erlandsen .
- Braunsberg and Helmarshausen (Hessen / Bad Karlshafen) were granted city rights.
- Kaiserstuhl is founded as a city.
- Groppenstein Castle near Obervellach is first mentioned in a document.
science and technology
- May 8 : King Alfonso X of Léon grants the state school in Salamanca , which has existed since 1218 , the rank of university in its founding charter .
- November 1 : In the monastery of Las Huelgas near Burgos, the 15-year-old English heir to the throne Edward marries the 13-year-old Princess Eleanor of Castile . Her half-brother Alfons X. transfers the old Castilian claims to Gascogne , which belongs to the English kings, to his new brother-in-law , where the couple will travel after the wedding.
Papal election and church hierarchy
- December 7th : Pope Innocent IV dies in Naples. The election of the Pope in 1254 only lasted two days: the cardinals in Naples already determined Count Rainald von Segni as his successor by compromissum on December 12th . He is enthroned under the name of Alexander IV on December 20th .
- Around two years after Uffe Thrugotsen's death , Jakob Erlandsen , previously Bishop of Roskilde , was promoted to succeed him as Archbishop of Lund . Peder Bang becomes Bishop of Roskilde.
- After the death of Berthold von Pietengau , Otto von Lonsdorf becomes Prince-Bishop of Passau .
- Pentecost: At the General Chapter of the Dominicans in Buda , Humbert von Romans is elected fifth master of the order and, among other things, it is decided that every religious province should have a general study program .
- September: Albertus Magnus becomes provincial of the Dominican order province of Teutonia. In this capacity he travels on foot in Belgium and Germany (with a detour to Riga), northern Italy and Paris (a map of the places he has visited under web links). During this time he wrote his commentary on Aristotle ' De anima '.
- Pietro del Murrone , who later became Pope Celestine V , founds the Order of Celestine .
- Roger Bacon is suspected of Joachimitism .
- Margaret of Hungary professes her profession in a monastery near Buda .
Date of birth saved
Exact date of birth unknown
- Bengt Birgersson , Swedish clergyman, Bishop of Linköping and Duke of Finland († 1291 )
- Florens V , Count of Holland († 1296 )
- Friedrich Sunder , chaplain in the Dominican convent Engelthal († 1328 )
- Gerhard II , Count of Holstein-Plön († 1312 )
- Charles II , King of Naples, Count of Provence, Prince of Taranto, King of Albania, Count of Anjou and Maine, Prince of Achaia and anti-king of Jerusalem († 1309 )
- John Lestrange, 1st Baron Strange of Knockin , English nobleman and general († 1309 )
- Kyōgoku Tamekane , Japanese poet and politician († 1332 )
- Zhao Mengfu , Chinese painter († 1322 )
Born around 1254
- Marco Polo , Venetian merchant, traveler, writer and explorer († 1324 )
- Margaret Longespée, 4th Countess of Salisbury , English noblewoman († 1309 )
- Ulrich II. , Count of Württemberg († 1279 )
First half of the year
- January 18 : Henry I , King of Cyprus and Regent of Jerusalem (* around 1194 )
- January: Faris ad-Din Aktay , Mamluk emir in Egypt
- March 24th : William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby , English magnate (* around 1200 )
- March: New Year's Eve of Everdon , Bishop of Carlisle
- May 1st : Sørle , Archbishop of Nidaros
- May 21 : Conrad IV , Duke of Swabia, Roman-German King, King of Sicily and King of Jerusalem (* 1228 )
- June 5th : Marguerite de Reynel , Countess of Sidon and Beaufort
- June 8 : Robert of Nantes , Bishop of Nantes and Patriarch of Jerusalem
Second half of the year
- August 6 : Hugh of Northwold , Bishop of Ely
- September 4th : Judenta von Hagenbuch , third Thurgau abbess of the Fraumünster in Zurich
- September 25th : William de Cantilupe , English nobleman
- before October 8: Gilbert of Seagrave , English nobleman and lord judge
- November 3 : John III. , Byzantine emperor in exile in Nicaea (* 1193 )
- December 7th : Sinibaldo de Fieschi, under the name of Innocent IV Pope (* around 1195 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Åskjell Jonsson , Bishop of Stavanger and royal adviser in Norway
- Berthold von Pietengau , Prince-Bishop of Passau
- Guido von Montfort , French nobleman and crusader
- Ingeborg Eriksdotter , Swedish princess and royal mother
- Jolanthe , Countess of Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre (* around 1222 )
- Manuel II , Patriarch of Constantinople in exile in Nikaia
- Mahmud Yalawatsch , governor and minister of Genghis Khan and his three successors in the Mongol Empire (* before 1218)