|Cathar fortress of Montségur surrenders to the troops of the French king after a year-long siege .|
|1244 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||692/693 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1787/88 (southern Buddhism); 1786/87 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||606/607 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||641/642 (turn of the year June 8/9)|
|Jewish calendar||5004/05 (September 4th / 5th)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1554/55 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1555/56 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1300/01 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- Beginning of January: The catapult designer Bertrand de la Bacalaria succeeds in gaining access to the besieged Cathar fortress of Montségur . From now on he supports the defenders with his constructions.
- Beginning of February: After a fierce battle, the besiegers conquer the outer defenses of Montségur. A direct attack on the fortress in mid-February was repulsed by the besieged.
- March 2 : Fortress commander Pierre Roger II. De Mirepoix contacts Hugues d'Arcis to negotiate terms of surrender.
- March 16 : The Cathar fortress of Montségur is handed over to the troops of the French king and the Roman Catholic Church after a year-long siege . 225 survivors are burned at the stake for refusing to renounce their belief. The lay people, including the Avignonet assassins, receive free deduction.
- 16th March bis 10. May : Ferrer , the first Inquisitor of after the end of the Albigensian Crusade in Languedoc furnished Inquisition courts , subjecting another eighteen survivors of the siege an interrogation which, however, for all parties involved with a Bußbrief, so the acquittal of every heresy ends .
Crusades in the Holy Land
- Khoresm mercenaries in the service of Sultan al-Salih Ayyub , who is in the middle of the internal power struggle of the Ayyubids against his uncle al-Salih Ismail , plunder through Syria to Galilee, where they conquer Tiberias .
- August 24th : Choresm mercenaries conquer Jerusalem for the Ayyubid sultan As-Salih Ayyub. With this the Christian rule over the city is finally lost. Patriarch Athanasios II , like many other Christians in the city, is killed.
- October 17 : The allied army of the Crusader states and as-Salih Ismails, the Sultan of Damascus , suffer a crushing defeat at La Forbie near Gaza against the Ayyubid army, which was reinforced by the Khoresmians.
- While suffering from malaria, the French King Louis IX. take a crusade vow. The Sixth Crusade begins in 1248 .
- After the death of Johannes Komnenos Dukas , his brother Demetrios Komnenos Dukas becomes ruler of the Thessaloniki Empire .
Holy Roman Empire / Italy / Empire Nikaia
- Summer: Pope Innocent IV flees Rome from Emperor Friedrich II , who is on his way to Italy . He travels via Genoa to Lyon , where at the end of the year he convenes a council for 1245 with the aim of depositioning the emperor.
- The 52 year old John III. , Emperor of Nikaia , marries the fourteen-year-old Konstanze von Staufen , daughter of Emperor Frederick II, who takes the name Anna on this occasion.
The Welsh princes allied themselves to the rule of the English King Henry III , which had existed since the campaign of 1241 . to shake off. Only Gruffydd Maelor ap Madog of Powys Fadog , Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys Wenwynwyn and Morgan ap Hywel of Caerleon do not join the alliance. When Gruffydd ap Llywelyn , the older brother of Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd , who was held in the Tower of London as pledge of the king , had a fatal accident on March 1 while attempting to escape, Dafydd took over the leadership of the Welsh again. In a general uprising , large areas can be liberated from English rule in the spring. The Welsh siege Dyserth Castle and other royal castles. The King, initially bound by a conflict with Scotland, initially left the defense of the Welsh Marches to the Marcher Lords Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Gloucester and Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford . Finally he has Owain Goch , the eldest son of the unfortunate Gruffydd ap Llylweyn, brought to Wales in the vain hope that the latter could attract supporters of Prince Dafydd to the side of the English king.
With the Treaty of Newcastle , sealed on August 14, a crisis in the relations between the English King Henry III. and the Scottish King Alexander II and an impending war between the two kingdoms averted. In the treaty, the English king's claim to sovereignty is no longer mentioned and thus dropped. In return, the Scottish king promises the English king his loyalty and devotion and that he would not conclude any contracts with his enemies. Presumably, the engagement of the Scottish heir to the throne Alexander to a daughter of the English king is also agreed in Newcastle .
- Abu Yahya Abu Bakr renounces the empire of the Almohads under Ali Abu l-Hasan as-Said and makes himself the first sultan of the Merinids in Morocco.
City foundations and first documentary mentions
- November 13th : By an Archbishop Siegfried III. City privilege granted by Eppstein makes Mainz a Free City .
- Foundation of the city of Friedland under the name Vredeland.
- The town of Regensberg is founded by Baron Lütold V. von Regensberg
- First documented mention of Alvaneu , Berlin , Därligen , Deitingen , Epsach , Oltingen , Stammheim (Florstadt) and Waldulm .
- A city council is attested in Magdeburg .
- The Freiberg mint can be documented for the first time.
- Innocent IV unites the hermit communities who have been scattered in northern and central Italy since the 5th century to form the order of the Augustinian hermits .
- Jacobus de Voragine joins the Dominican order .
Date of birth saved
- 21 / February 24 : Louis of France , Prince, heir to the throne and temporarily nominal regent of France († 1260 )
- June 24 : Heinrich I , first Landgrave of Hesse († 1308 )
- July 18 : John de Vescy , English nobleman, military man and diplomat († 1289 )
- December 1 : Boniface , Count of Savoy († 1263 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Araniko , Nepalese architect working in China († 1306 )
- Gilbert de Umfraville, 7th Earl of Angus , English nobleman with Scottish title († 1307 )
- Guy de Montfort , English military and rebel († 1291 or 1292 )
- Jaczo , Count of Gützkow († 1303 )
- Margaret of Antioch , mistress of Tire and nun in the Notre-Dame de Jérusalem monastery in Nicosia († 1308 )
- Otto III. , Count of Weimar-Orlamünde († 1285 )
- Isaac ben Solomon Sahula , Jewish fable poet and ethical writer in Castile
Born around 1244
First half of the year
- February 1st to 4th: Ralph de Neville , Bishop of Chichester and Lord Chancellor of England
- March 1 : Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr , Welsh Prince of Gwynedd (* around 1200 )
- March 1st : Lothar , ruling Count of Wied and Electorate of Cologne Vogt of Andernach
- March 16 : Guillaume de Lahille , Occitan Knight, Faydit and Cathar
- April 1 : Otto II , Count von Ravensberg
- April 2 : Henrik Harpestræng , Danish author of botanical and medical writings (* around 1164 )
- May 7 : Richard von San Germano , Italian public notary, financial administrator and chronicler (* around 1165 )
- after May: Balduin III. , Count of Guînes
Second half of the year
- July 16 : Sophia von Sachsen , abbess of the free secular monastery of Gernrode and Frose
- before August: Robert, 4th Earl of Strathearn , Scottish nobleman (* around 1180 )
- August 24th : Athanasios II , Melkite patriarch of Jerusalem
- 20 / 21 September : William , Bishop of Havelberg
- October 9 : Berthold I von Teck , Prince-Bishop of Strasbourg (* around 1200 )
- around October 18 : Pierre de Sergines , Archbishop of Tire
- October 27 : Adelheid von Wassel , Countess of Ratzeburg (* around 1175 )
- after October: Bohemond , lord of Batrun in the county of Tripoli (* around 1199 )
- November 17th : Marjorie of Scotland , Scottish King's daughter and Countess of Pembroke
- November 24th : William Briwere , Bishop of Exeter
- December 5 : Johanna , Countess of Flanders and Hainaut (* 1200 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Burkhard von Avesnes , French nobleman (* around 1182 )
- Richard de Percy , English nobleman and rebel (* before 1181)
- Eleanor , Queen of Aragon (* 1202 )
- Donnchadh Mór Ó Dálaigh , Irish poet (* around 1175 )
- Johannes Komnenos Dukas , ruler of Thessaloniki
- Manfred III. , Margrave of Saluzzo
- Meir ha-Levi Abulafia , Talmudic scholar, recognized authority on halachic questions and Kabbalist in Castile (* around 1165 )
- Rhys Mechyll , Welsh Lord of Deheubarth (* around 1170 )
- Rog Sherab Ö , representative of the Nyingma school and follower of the Shiche school of Tibetan Buddhism (* 1166 )