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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Memorial stone at Montségur
The Cathar fortress of Montségur surrenders to the troops of the French king after a year-long siege .
1244 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 692/693 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1236/37
Buddhist calendar 1787/88 (southern Buddhism); 1786/87 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 65th (66th) cycle

Year of the wood dragon甲辰 ( at the beginning of the year water rabbit 癸卯)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 606/607 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 622/623
Islamic calendar 641/642 (turn of the year June 8/9)
Jewish calendar 5004/05 (September 4th / 5th)
Coptic calendar 960/961
Malayalam calendar 419/420
Seleucid era Babylon: 1554/55 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1555/56 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1282
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1300/01 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Cathar Crusade

The Montségur mountain with the ruins of the Cathar castle of the same name
  • Beginning of January: The catapult designer Bertrand de la Bacalaria succeeds in gaining access to the besieged Cathar fortress of Montségur . From now on he supports the defenders with his constructions.
  • Beginning of February: After a fierce battle, the besiegers conquer the outer defenses of Montségur. A direct attack on the fortress in mid-February was repulsed by the besieged.
  • March 2 : Fortress commander Pierre Roger II. De Mirepoix contacts Hugues d'Arcis to negotiate terms of surrender.
  • March 16 : The Cathar fortress of Montségur is handed over to the troops of the French king and the Roman Catholic Church after a year-long siege . 225 survivors are burned at the stake for refusing to renounce their belief. The lay people, including the Avignonet assassins, receive free deduction.
  • 16th March bis 10. May : Ferrer , the first Inquisitor of after the end of the Albigensian Crusade in Languedoc furnished Inquisition courts , subjecting another eighteen survivors of the siege an interrogation which, however, for all parties involved with a Bußbrief, so the acquittal of every heresy ends .

Crusades in the Holy Land

  • Khoresm mercenaries in the service of Sultan al-Salih Ayyub , who is in the middle of the internal power struggle of the Ayyubids against his uncle al-Salih Ismail , plunder through Syria to Galilee, where they conquer Tiberias .
  • August 24th : Choresm mercenaries conquer Jerusalem for the Ayyubid sultan As-Salih Ayyub. With this the Christian rule over the city is finally lost. Patriarch Athanasios II , like many other Christians in the city, is killed.
  • October 17 : The allied army of the Crusader states and as-Salih Ismails, the Sultan of Damascus , suffer a crushing defeat at La Forbie near Gaza against the Ayyubid army, which was reinforced by the Khoresmians.
Saint Louis takes a vow of crusade on his sick bed. (Depiction from the Chronica Majora of Matthew Paris, 13th century, Cambridge, Corpus Christi College)

Holy Roman Empire / Italy / Empire Nikaia

  • Summer: Pope Innocent IV flees Rome from Emperor Friedrich II , who is on his way to Italy . He travels via Genoa to Lyon , where at the end of the year he convenes a council for 1245 with the aim of depositioning the emperor.

British Islands

The death of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn in a 13th century depiction

The Welsh princes allied themselves to the rule of the English King Henry III , which had existed since the campaign of 1241 . to shake off. Only Gruffydd Maelor ap Madog of Powys Fadog , Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys Wenwynwyn and Morgan ap Hywel of Caerleon do not join the alliance. When Gruffydd ap Llywelyn , the older brother of Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd , who was held in the Tower of London as pledge of the king , had a fatal accident on March 1 while attempting to escape, Dafydd took over the leadership of the Welsh again. In a general uprising , large areas can be liberated from English rule in the spring. The Welsh siege Dyserth Castle and other royal castles. The King, initially bound by a conflict with Scotland, initially left the defense of the Welsh Marches to the Marcher Lords Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Gloucester and Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford . Finally he has Owain Goch , the eldest son of the unfortunate Gruffydd ap Llylweyn, brought to Wales in the vain hope that the latter could attract supporters of Prince Dafydd to the side of the English king.

With the Treaty of Newcastle , sealed on August 14, a crisis in the relations between the English King Henry III. and the Scottish King Alexander II and an impending war between the two kingdoms averted. In the treaty, the English king's claim to sovereignty is no longer mentioned and thus dropped. In return, the Scottish king promises the English king his loyalty and devotion and that he would not conclude any contracts with his enemies. Presumably, the engagement of the Scottish heir to the throne Alexander to a daughter of the English king is also agreed in Newcastle .

North africa

City foundations and first documentary mentions

The city privilege of Siegfried III. von Eppstein for the Free City of Mainz from 1244




Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1244


First half of the year

Second half of the year

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1244  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files