Calendar overview 1234
|Battle of Altenesch , the Stedinger farmers are defeated by a crusade army .|
|1234 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||682/683 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1777/78 (southern Buddhism); 1776/77 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||596/597 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||631/632 (turn of the year 25/26 September)|
|Jewish calendar||4994/95 (August 25-26)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1544/45 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1545/46 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1290/91 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- April 7th : After the death of Sancho VII without a legitimate successor, the Kingdom of Navarre falls to the French Counts of Champagne from the House of Blois . Theobald I. ascends the throne. With the support of the Basque nobility, he asserts himself against James I of Aragón , although he has an adoption and succession treaty from 1231 on his side, sworn by the Navarres nobility .
- July: Abu Uthman Said ibn Hakam al-Quraschi leads a coup against Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hisham , the Almohad Qādī in Menorca , and makes himself the first Raʾīs on the island.
Kingdom of England / Wales
- February 2 : Edmund of Abingdon , newly elected Archbishop of Canterbury , requests King Henry III of England . the removal of Peter des Roches from government. He is supported in this demand by numerous English bishops.
- April 1st : Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke , who launched a rebellion against King Henry III the previous year. began and allied with the Welsh prince Llywelyn from Iorwerth , is defeated at Kildare in the battle against English troops. On April 16, he died of his injuries. His son Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke , is reconciled with the English king through the mediation of the Bishops Alexander Stavensby of Coventry and Lichfield and Henry of Sandford of Rochester.
- May 9th : After the threat of excommunication by Archbishop Edmund, Heinrich III. Peter des Roches to retire to his diocese of Winchester. Peter de Rivallis , Stephen of Seagrave and other minions of des Roches are removed from office. Henry III. now takes over the rule in the Kingdom of England .
- June 22nd : Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of Gwynedd , and Henry III. make the Peace of Myddle , ending the Anglo-Welsh War of 1231-1234 . This peace treaty, initially limited to two years, essentially confirms the respective acquis in Wales.
Holy Roman Empire
- May 27th : In the Battle of Altenesch , the Stedinger farmers are defeated by a crusade army of the diocese of Bremen in the so-called Stedinger War .
- August 3 : In the Rieti Bull , Pope Gregory IX confirms . the Teutonic Order the rightful rule over the Kulmer Land and all future territorial conquests in Prussia . The Grand Master of the order, Hermann von Salza , stubbornly insisted on the written record of an oral promise made as early as 1230 . The order then leads its first successful campaign against the Prussians .
- At the Reichstag in Frankfurt am Main , King Heinrich (VII) calls for moderation against heretics. He is thereupon by Pope Gregory IX. banned.
- September: King Heinrich (VII.) Begins an uprising against his father, Emperor Friedrich II. , But receives little support from the sovereigns.
- With the first division of Mecklenburg , the four dominions (principalities) Mecklenburg , Parchim-Richenberg , Werle and Rostock arise .
- After the death of the Swedish King Knut II , his predecessor Erik XI, whom he overthrew, comes . again on the throne, but he cannot prevail against Knut's mighty Jarl Ulv Fase .
- Pope Gregory IX calls on the people of England to embark on a new crusade in support of the threatened Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1239 . A crusade call to the people of France follows in November.
- In the course of the Lombard War , Archbishop Theodericus of Ravenna arrives as papal legate in the Kingdom of Jerusalem . His mission is to bring the rebel barons back under the authority of the emperor. When he did not succeed in this, he spoke about the noble family Ibelin , in particular their head Johann I of Beirut , and their followers excommunicated and gave Akkon an interdict .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- History of the city of Stralsund : After being settled in the course of the German settlement in the east, Stralsund was granted city rights based on the Rostock or Lübeck model on October 31 from Prince Wizlaw I of Ruegen .
- Prenzlau receives city rights from Duke Barnim I of Pomerania .
- First documented mention of Allaman , Bernstadt ad Eigen , Frutigen , Heftrich , Heubach , Hildburghausen , Kirrlach , Oeschgen , Ohlsbach , Meiringen , Mengeringhausen , Rehau and Steinenberg .
- The first book in the world to be printed with metal letters is the 50-volume work Sangdchòn jemun ( Guide to Morality ), published in Korea .
- September 5th : Pope Gregory IX. proclaims in the Bull Rex pacificus the decretal collection Liber Extra revised by Raimund von Penyafort , his five-volume collection of the Corpus Iuris Canonici .
- November: The Duissern Monastery is founded.
- Konrad von Thuringia , Ludowinger , (who later became the fifth Grand Master ) joins the Teutonic Order .
- Dominic is from Pope Gregory IX. canonized .
- Duke Abel founds the Gray Monastery in Schleswig .
- The Szczyrzyc Monastery , the Belin Studenac Monastery and the Kostanjevica Monastery are founded.
Exact date of birth unknown
- Hesso von Reinach , aristocrat from Aargau and minstrel († between 1276 and 1282)
- Kaliman I. Assen , Tsar of Bulgaria († 1246 )
- Kristin Håkonsdatter , Norwegian princess († 1262 )
- Margarete , Countess of Henneberg-Coburg († 1276 )
Born around 1234
- Mathilde II , mistress of Bourbon and Countess of Auxerre, Nevers and Tonnerre († 1262 )
- Rosa von Viterbo , Catholic mystic († 1252 )
First half of the year
- January 29th : Ottaviano di Paoli de 'Conti di Segni , Italian Cardinal and Camerlengo
- January: Philipp Hurepel , French prince from the Capetian dynasty, Count of Clermont, Mortain, Aumale, Boulogne and Dammartine (* around 1200 )
- March 3 : Robert III. , Count of Dreux and Braine (* 1185 )
- March 23 : Guillaume II. Des Barres , French knight, lord of Oissery and regent of La Ferté-Alais and Bréthencourt (* around 1160 )
- April 7th : Sancho VII , King of Navarre
- April 16 : Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke , English nobleman and insurgent
- April: Reinhard II , French crusader and lord of Dampierre-le-Château (* around 1175 )
- May 7th : Otto VII , Duke of Merania, as Otto II. Palatine of Burgundy and Margrave of Istria
- May 7th : Cyril of Constantinople , Byzantine Carmelite, possibly Prior of the Carmel on the Carmel Mountains (* around 1138 )
- May 27th : Heinrich III. , Count of (Wildeshausen-) Bruchhausen
- June 18 : Chūkyō , Emperor of Japan (* 1218 )
Second half of the year
- July 13 : Florens IV. , Count of Holland and Zeeland (* 1210 )
- before July 21: Hugh de Neville , English forest clerk and chief royal forest judge
- August 7 : Hugh Foliot , Bishop of Hereford (* between 1150 and 1160)
- between August 15th and 18th: Brian de Lisle , English knight
- August 31 : Go-Horikawa , Emperor of Japan (* 1212 )
- September 6th : Milon de Nanteuil , Bishop of Beauvais
- September 12th : Heinrich II of Saarbrücken , Bishop of Worms
- September 26 : Abu Hafs Umar as-Suhrawardi , Persian Sunni Sufi from Khorezmia (* 1145 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Gottfried von Vaihingen , Count of Calw (* before 1170)
- Rhys Gryg , Welsh Lord of Deheubarth
- Robert I , Dauphin of Auvergne (* around 1170 )
- Otto de la Roche , Burgundian participant in the fourth crusade and Lord of Thebes and Athens
Died around 1234
- Canute II , King of Sweden