|Peter of Portugal conquered Ibiza and Formentera from the Moors .|
|1235 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||683/684 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1778/79 (southern Buddhism); 1777/78 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||597/598 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||632/633 (turn of the year 15th / 16th September)|
|Jewish calendar||4995/96 (September 14-15)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1545/46 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1546/47 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1291/92 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- July 2nd : King Heinrich (VII.) Submits to his father, Emperor Friedrich II. In Wimpfen after a futile rebellion , after he was defeated in the Swiggerstal in the battle. On July 4th Friedrich II held court over Heinrich with the imperial princes in Worms , dethroned him and imprisoned him for life. He is brought to Heidelberg in the castle dungeon, then to Alerheim Castle in the Ries and finally via Friuli to Apulia . He will be held there in various locations until the end of the year. Henry's allies are largely pardoned.
- July 15 : Emperor Friedrich II marries Isabella of England , the sister of King Henry III of England , in Worms in fourth marriage .
- August 15 : Emperor Friedrich II. Passes a state peace law at the Reichstag in Mainz , which is the first imperial law to be published not only in Latin , but also in Middle High German . The Landfriede of Mainz comprises 29 articles and contains - in addition to criminal law provisions - provisions on judicial, coin, customs and transport systems, on escort and fortification rights, the church bailiwick and the court judge's office. Above all, however, the right to feud is severely restricted, which is still a legitimate means of enforcing law. In addition, the office of permanent court judge is established at the Royal Court Court .
- Friedrich II now tries to build up his younger son Konrad as his successor. He appoints him as successor to the deposed Heinrich with the Duchy of Swabia . The princes present at the court day, however, refuse to elect the seven-year-old, who has just arrived from Apulia, as the Roman-German co-king.
- August 21 : On the Mainzer Hoftag, Otto receives the child in the course of the reconciliation between the Staufers and Welfs, the former Welf ownership in Saxony, the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg as an imperial fief.
Other events in Europe
- After the death of Andrew II , his son Bela IV becomes King of Hungary and as Bela III. in personal union also King of Croatia , Dalmatia and Rama.
- Richard de Burgh conquers Connacht .
- Spring: In the Battle of Kirina , Sundiata Keïta , King of the Mali Empire , wins over the formerly dominant Empire of Ghana , which then finally falls apart.
- The Byzantine Emperor John III. besieged Constantinople unsuccessfully with the support of the Bulgarians under Ivan Assen II . The Latin Emperor Johann von Brienne can use diplomatic means to persuade the attackers to abandon the siege.
- Andronikos I. Gidos , Emperor and Grand Comnene of Trebizond , dies. He is succeeded by his brother-in-law John I on the throne.
- The papal excommunication of Acre and the ban on the rebellious Ibelin family and their followers are lifted after a year.
First documentary mentions
science and technology
In his book De Anni Ratione (loosely translated as "The Year System") Johannes de Sacrobosco criticizes the Julian calendar and suggests an improved leap year rule, as it was 350 years later by Pope Gregory XIII. will be realized in the Gregorian calendar reform .
- August 14 : The foundation stone of the Elisabethkirche , one of the first purely Gothic church buildings in the German cultural area, is laid in Marburg .
- The predominantly Romanesque cathedral of Santo Domingo de la Calzada is completed.
Painting and drawing
- around 1235: Villard de Honnecourt finishes his sketchbook (Bauhüttenbuch) .
Date of birth saved
- November 2 : Henry of Almain , English prince († 1271 )
- November 19 : Henry XIII. , Duke of Bavaria and the Palatinate, as Heinrich I Duke of Lower Bavaria († 1290 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Solomon ben Abraham Adret , Aragonese rabbi and scholar († 1310 )
- Chögyel Phagpa , master of Tibetan Buddhism, viceroy of Tibet († 1280 )
- Dafydd ap Gruffydd , Welsh prince of Gwynedd († 1283 )
- Muhammad II. Al-Faqih , Emir of Granada († 1302 )
Born around 1235
- Albrecht II. , Count of Hohenberg and Haigerloch, Reichslandvogt of Lower Swabia and temporarily Reichssturmfähnrich († 1298 )
- Benedetto Caetani, under the name Boniface VIII Pope († 1303 )
- Peter of Dacien , Swedish Dominican and mystic († 1289 )
- Henry Hastings , English nobleman and rebel († 1269 )
- Konrad II , Duke of Teck († 1292 )
- William de Munchensi , English nobleman and rebel († 1287 )
- Henry de Percy , English nobleman († 1272 )
- Arnaldus de Villanova , Catalan doctor, chemist and pharmacist, also diplomat and church reformer († 1311 )
- Volkmar , Bavarian Benedictine monk and abbot of Niederaltaich Monastery († 1282 )
- Gregor von Waldek , Bishop of Prague († 1301 )
- 1235/ 1236 : Plaisance of Antioch , Queen and Regent of Cyprus and regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem († 1261 )
- 1235/ 1236 : Kaidu , Mongolian Khan in the house of ögedei († 1303 )
- to 1235/ 1240 : Siger of Brabant , Brabant philosopher († 1281 / 1284 )
- between 1235 and 1240: Heinrich I , Count of Sponheim († 1289 )
Date of death secured
- February 8 : Burchard I. von Woldenberg , Archbishop of Magdeburg
- February 9 : Nikolaos of Otranto , Greek abbot and writer (* around 1155 / 60 )
- 24 / February 25 : Henry of Sandford , Bishop of Rochester
- August 6th : Jutta von Thuringia , Margravine of Meißen (* 1184 )
- September 5 : Henry I of Brabant , Count of Brussels, Duke of Brabant and Count of Leuven, Margrave of Antwerp and Duke of Lower Lorraine (* around 1165 )
- November 5 : Beatrix of Swabia , Queen of Castile and León (* 1205 )
- November 30th / December 1st / 2nd : Bernard Chabert , Bishop of Geneva and Archbishop of Embrun
- 9 December : Robert FitzWalter , Anglo-Norman nobleman and rebel (* around 1180 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Andrew II , King of Hungary, Croatia, Dalmatia and Rama (* around 1177 )
- Andronikos I , Emperor and Grand Commander of Trebizond
- Ezzelino II da Romano , Italian nobleman and general
- Gottfried II , regent of the county of Arnsberg (* 1157 )
- Heinrich I , Count of Hoya
- Ibn al-Fārid , Arabic mystical poet (* 1181 )
- David Kimchi , Jewish grammarian and exegete in France (* 1160 )
- John Marshal , English nobleman and judge
Died around 1235
- Dietrich der Rich , influential Viennese citizen (* around 1170 )
- Eike von Repgow , author of the Sachsenspiegel (* around 1180 )
- Michael Scotus , Scottish scholastic philosopher, physician, alchemist and astrologer as well as translator (* around 1175 )