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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Gregor X.
Teobaldo Visconti is called X. Gregory Pope .
The fighting in the Orient in 1271: Crusaders (green), Mameluks (yellow) and Mongols (red)
The Ninth Crusade reached the Holy Land.
Marco Polo in China (Fig. In the book Il milione, 1298–1299)
Marco Polo leaves for China with his father and uncle.
1271 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 719/720 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1263/64
Buddhist calendar 1814/15 (southern Buddhism); 1813/14 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 66th (67th) cycle

Year of the metal sheep辛未 ( at the beginning of the year metal horse 庚午)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 633/634 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 649/650
Islamic calendar 669/670 (turn of the year August 8/9)
Jewish calendar 5031/32 (September 6-7)
Coptic calendar 987/988
Malayalam calendar 446/447
Seleucid era Babylon: 1581/82 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1582/83 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1309
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1327/28 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Prince Edward's crusade

Krak des Chevaliers

Second trip of the polos

Niccolò and Maffeo Polo with Gregory X.
Le livre des Merveilles du Monde , 14th century manuscript

After two and a half years of waiting in vain for the election of a new Pope, Niccolò and Matteo Polo decide to go on a second trip east to Great Khan Kublai without a papal blessing . Since Niccolò's wife has died in the meantime, he takes his 17-year-old son Marco with him on the trip. The Polos first stop in Acre and, with the consent of the papal legate Tebaldo Visconti, get some oil from the lamp of Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem . The three Venetians set out for Ayas with a letter from the Cardinal Legate to the Great Khan, confirming the honest efforts of the Polos to fulfill their mandates and justifying their partial failure with the continuing vacancy . On the way they learn that the Legate has meanwhile been elected Pope as Gregory X. on September 1st and travel back to Acre at his request. The Holy Father hands them letters to the Great Khan and gives them at least two Dominican brothers named Niccolò da Vicenza and Guglielmo da Tripoli who happen to be in Acre, but they are already turning back in Armenia. The three Venetians continue their journey on horses and camels and make their way to Hormuz via Tabriz , Saveh , the oasis city of Yasd and Kerman .

Mongol empires

Holy Roman Empire

Depiction of the assassination of Bertho II (by C. Sonnetzer)


Cosenza Cathedral

On the return journey from the Seventh Crusade , the heavily pregnant French Queen Isabella of Aragón falls from her horse near Cosenza in Calabria. On January 28, she died of the consequences of this accident and the premature birth that it provoked. The child does not survive. Philip the Bold has a tomb erected for his wife in Cosenza Cathedral .

After his return to Paris, Philip leaves the remains of his father Ludwig IX. buried on May 22nd in the Cathedral of Saint-Denis . During the funeral procession through Italy, several miracles are recorded that serve the canonization of Louis 17 years later.

Coronation of Philip III.

On 15 August is Philip III. in the cathedral of Reims to the king of France crowned. The coronation procession is headed for the first time by the sword of Charlemagne's Joyeuse , which establishes a tradition .

Philip's uncle Alfons of Poitiers and his wife Johanna von Toulouse , who are still on their way back from the crusade, die every day on August 21 and 20 in Corneto near Siena . With her death, her possessions, the County of Poitou , the County of Toulouse and the Margraviate of Provence , become crown domains .

England / Italy

The assassination of Henry of Almain in 1271

Henry of Almain , nephew of King Henry III of England . , is murdered on March 13th by Guy and Simon de Montfort the Younger in revenge for changing sides in the Second War of the Barons while going to church in Viterbo . The killers can escape and are decommunicated. Simon dies that same year.

City rights and first documentary mentions


science and technology

In a comment on Johannes de Sacrobosco's De Sphaera , Robertus Anglicus , astronomy teacher at the University of Paris , notes that the artefices horologiorum has not yet succeeded in producing a clock that meets the requirements of astronomy with a shaft that turns exactly once on a full day.


Caerphilly Castle



On September 12th, the Japanese monk and scholar Nichiren is supposed to be executed in Tatsunokuchi, but since legend has it that a comet appears in the sky, he is not executed. According to the teachings of Nichiren Buddhism , Nichiren's work reached a turning point that day. In schools like the Nichiren Shōshū , as well as the Sōka Gakkai that emerged from it , it is taught that Nichiren even reveals his identity as Buddha on this day. The Nichiren-Shū, however, worshiped Nichiren as an embodiment of the Bodhisattva Jōgyō .


Tebaldo Visconti , previously Archdeacon of Liège , was elected Pope by the College of Cardinals on September 1, after a vacancy of two years and nine months, the longest since 307 , to succeed Clement IV, who died on November 29, 1268 . At the time of his election, Teobaldo, who had never been ordained a priest, was still on the Seventh Crusade in Palestine with the army of Edward I of England . He takes the name of Gregory X on.

The Dominican Petrus von Dacien returned to Sweden, initially worked as a lecturer in Skänninge and Västerås and later became prior of the monastery in Visby, where he died in 1289 .

The Dominican Dietrich von Freiberg becomes a lecturer at the Freiberg Convention.


Date of birth saved

Codex Manesse: King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia

Exact date of birth unknown


First half of the year

Grave of Walter de la Wyle in Salisbury Cathedral
Philip III and his knights keep vigil on Queen Isabella's deathbed; Representation from the 14th century.

Second half of the year

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1271

Web links

Commons : 1271  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files