|X. Gregory Pope .||Ninth Crusade reached the Holy Land.|
|Marco Polo leaves for China with his father and uncle.|
|1271 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||719/720 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1814/15 (southern Buddhism); 1813/14 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||633/634 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||669/670 (turn of the year August 8/9)|
|Jewish calendar||5031/32 (September 6-7)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1581/82 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1582/83 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1327/28 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Prince Edward's crusade
- February 21 : The siege of the crusader castle Krak des Chevaliers by Baibars , the Sultan of the Mamluks , begins.
- Baibars, Sultan of the Mamluks in Egypt, conquered Jaffa , Ramla and finally Antioch on the Orontes on May 18 on his campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant .
- Baibars ends the assassin rule on Masyaf and takes up the siege of Tripoli .
- April 8th : Baibars conquers the strategically important fortress Krak des Chevaliers from the hospitallers .
- May 9 : The army of the Seventh Crusade , under the command of the English Crown Prince Edward , reaches Acre after a short detour to Cyprus and shortly afterwards forces the Mamluks under Baibars to give up the siege of Tripoli .
- June 12th : Baibars moves threateningly to Acre, but then moves on towards Egypt.
- July: A Mamluk attempted invasion of Cyprus is repulsed near Limassol after the Muslim fleet hits a reef.
- October: Abaqa , the second Mongolian Ilkhan from Persia, sends an army to support the Christians, which invades the area around Aleppo under the command of the general Samagar . However, the army is too weak to withstand a counter-offensive by Baibar and will retreat behind the Euphrates by December.
Second trip of the polos
After two and a half years of waiting in vain for the election of a new Pope, Niccolò and Matteo Polo decide to go on a second trip east to Great Khan Kublai without a papal blessing . Since Niccolò's wife has died in the meantime, he takes his 17-year-old son Marco with him on the trip. The Polos first stop in Acre and, with the consent of the papal legate Tebaldo Visconti, get some oil from the lamp of Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem . The three Venetians set out for Ayas with a letter from the Cardinal Legate to the Great Khan, confirming the honest efforts of the Polos to fulfill their mandates and justifying their partial failure with the continuing vacancy . On the way they learn that the Legate has meanwhile been elected Pope as Gregory X. on September 1st and travel back to Acre at his request. The Holy Father hands them letters to the Great Khan and gives them at least two Dominican brothers named Niccolò da Vicenza and Guglielmo da Tripoli who happen to be in Acre, but they are already turning back in Armenia. The three Venetians continue their journey on horses and camels and make their way to Hormuz via Tabriz , Saveh , the oasis city of Yasd and Kerman .
- Kublai Khan proclaims the Mongolian Yuan dynasty in Dadu , later Beijing . In the south of the Chinese Empire , however, the Song Dynasty continues to rule under Emperor Song Duzong and his Chancellor Jia Sidao .
- Partition of the Mongol Empire : With the death of Boraq, the Chagatai Khanate is weakened , which is used by Qaidu Khan , the ruler of the Ogedei Khanate , to expand his influence.
Holy Roman Empire
- January 10 : Rainald I becomes Count of Geldern after the death of his father Otto II .
- The Fulda abbot Berthon II. Of Leibolz leaves the castle Rockstuhl storm and grind after the Burgmannen have conspired against the monastery.
- April 18 : Bertho II. Von Leibolz , prince abbot of the Fulda monastery , in revenge for the execution of Hermann von Ebersberg in the previous year by several knights with the participation of the Buchonian knight Giso von Steinau in the Fulda Jakobskapelle built by Bertho in the old abbot castle during the celebration murdered at holy mass. The convention immediately elects Bertho III. from Mackenzell to the new abbot, who immediately begins to pursue the conspirators.
On the return journey from the Seventh Crusade , the heavily pregnant French Queen Isabella of Aragón falls from her horse near Cosenza in Calabria. On January 28, she died of the consequences of this accident and the premature birth that it provoked. The child does not survive. Philip the Bold has a tomb erected for his wife in Cosenza Cathedral .
After his return to Paris, Philip leaves the remains of his father Ludwig IX. buried on May 22nd in the Cathedral of Saint-Denis . During the funeral procession through Italy, several miracles are recorded that serve the canonization of Louis 17 years later.
On 15 August is Philip III. in the cathedral of Reims to the king of France crowned. The coronation procession is headed for the first time by the sword of Charlemagne's Joyeuse , which establishes a tradition .
Philip's uncle Alfons of Poitiers and his wife Johanna von Toulouse , who are still on their way back from the crusade, die every day on August 21 and 20 in Corneto near Siena . With her death, her possessions, the County of Poitou , the County of Toulouse and the Margraviate of Provence , become crown domains .
England / Italy
Henry of Almain , nephew of King Henry III of England . , is murdered on March 13th by Guy and Simon de Montfort the Younger in revenge for changing sides in the Second War of the Barons while going to church in Viterbo . The killers can escape and are decommunicated. Simon dies that same year.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- June 6th : Duke Ludwig der Strenge of Upper Bavaria gives Kitzbühel ( Chizzingenspuehel ) town charter , after which the town is surrounded by a defensive wall.
science and technology
In a comment on Johannes de Sacrobosco's De Sphaera , Robertus Anglicus , astronomy teacher at the University of Paris , notes that the artefices horologiorum has not yet succeeded in producing a clock that meets the requirements of astronomy with a shaft that turns exactly once on a full day.
- Caerphilly Castle is completed.
- Master Arnold is verifiably the second master builder at Cologne Cathedral .
On September 12th, the Japanese monk and scholar Nichiren is supposed to be executed in Tatsunokuchi, but since legend has it that a comet appears in the sky, he is not executed. According to the teachings of Nichiren Buddhism , Nichiren's work reached a turning point that day. In schools like the Nichiren Shōshū , as well as the Sōka Gakkai that emerged from it , it is taught that Nichiren even reveals his identity as Buddha on this day. The Nichiren-Shū, however, worshiped Nichiren as an embodiment of the Bodhisattva Jōgyō .
Tebaldo Visconti , previously Archdeacon of Liège , was elected Pope by the College of Cardinals on September 1, after a vacancy of two years and nine months, the longest since 307 , to succeed Clement IV, who died on November 29, 1268 . At the time of his election, Teobaldo, who had never been ordained a priest, was still on the Seventh Crusade in Palestine with the army of Edward I of England . He takes the name of Gregory X on.
Date of birth saved
- January 4th : Isabella of Aragón , Princess of Aragon, Queen of Portugal and Franciscan, saint of the Catholic Church († 1336 )
- March 13 : Guta von Habsburg , Queen of Bohemia († 1297 )
- March 14 : Stephan I , Duke of Lower Bavaria († 1310 )
- April: Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley , English nobleman and rebel († 1326 )
- June 20 : John de Ferrers , English nobleman († 1312 )
- September 27 : Wenceslaus II , King of Bohemia, Duke of Cracow and King of Poland († 1305 )
- November 5 : Ghazan Ilchan , Mongolian Ilkhan of Persia († 1304 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Dino Frescobaldi , Italian poet († 1316 )
- Henry II , King of Cyprus and last King of Jerusalem († 1324 )
- Mikhail Yaroslavich , Grand Duke of Tver and Vladimir († 1318 )
- Otto II , Count of Hoya († 1324 )
- Thoros III. , King of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia († 1298 )
- Werner von Oberwesel , day laborer, whose unexplained death led to bloody persecution of Jews († 1287 )
First half of the year
- January 4 : Walter de la Wyle , Bishop of Salisbury
- January 10 : Otto II , Count of Geldern (* 1215 )
- January 28 : Isabella of Aragón , Queen of France and participant in the Seventh Crusade (* 1243 )
- February 9 : Beatrix von Andechs-Meranien , Countess of Orlamünde (* 1210 )
- March 13 : Henry of Almain , English prince and murder victim (* 1235 )
- March 18th : Bertho II. Von Leibolz , prince abbot of the Fulda monastery
- April 27 : Isabella of France , Queen of Navarre and Countess of Champagne (* 1242 )
- before May 3rd: Poppo III. von Trimberg , Bishop of Würzburg
- May 11th : Heinrich I von Raron , Bishop of Sitten
- before June: Fulk of Sandford , Archbishop of Dublin
Second half of the year
- July 27th : Maredudd ap Rhys , Prince of Deheubarth (* around 1220 )
- July: Helena Angelina Dukaina , Queen of Sicily (* around 1242 )
- July: Margaret of France , Duchess of Brabant (* 1254 / 1255 )
- August 17th : Rhys Fychan , Welsh Lord of Deheubarth
- August 20 : Johanna , Countess of Toulouse and Margravine of Provence (* 1220 )
- August 21 : Alfonso of Poitiers , Count of Poitiers and Toulouse (* 1220 )
- October 25 or November 6 : Henricus de Segusio , Canonist, Archbishop of Embrun, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia
- October 29th : Philip Basset , English nobleman
- before November 7th: Roger of Leybourne , English military man and knight (* around 1215 )
- December 24th : Konrad von Rosdorf , Marshal of the County of Henneberg (* around 1220 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Burchard V , Count of Vendôme
- Gamelin , Bishop of St Andrews and Lord Chancellor of Scotland
- Konrad I , Count of Freiburg (* around 1226 )
- Konstantin Angelos Komnenos Dukas Palaiologos , Byzantine general (* around 1230 )
- Nicholas I , Abbot of Ebrach
- Reinmar von Brennenberg , Knight von Brennberg, minstrel and ministerial of the Bishop of Regensburg (* around 1210 )
- Simon VI. de Montfort , Earl of Leicester (* 1240 )
- Wilhelm Peraldus , Dominican and moral theologian (* around 1200 )