Jia Sidao

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Jia Sidao ( Chinese  賈似道 , Pinyin Jiǎ Sìdào , W.-G. Chia Ssu-tao ; * 1213 ; † 1275 ) was a Chinese politician of the Southern Song Dynasty . From 1259 until his execution in 1275 he was chancellor under the emperors Lizong and Duzong .

Jia is portrayed by contemporary Chinese historiography as the arch-villain who is said to have contributed to the downfall of the empire. By the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, tax evasion by large landowners had reached great proportions; In addition, the defensive battle against the Mongols overwhelmed the state finances. Under these circumstances, Jia decreed a radical measure in 1263/64: by law, landowners were forced to sell a third of land that exceeded a certain area to the tax authorities, which resulted in partial expropriation. This means that a fifth of the built-up area came into state hands. The proceeds from this land went to the state, which ensured the supply of the troops - but at the expense of the government's popularity.

Jia also tried to secure the precedence of the civilian leadership over the armed forces and ordered repeated audits of the military leaders, which put their loyalty to the imperial house to a severe test. When the war flared up again in 1268, many Song commanders surrendered to the Mongols without a fight. After the fall of Xiangyang Fortress in 1273, Jia was deposed.

Jia was executed in 1275. Four years later the Song Empire came to an end with the complete conquest by the Mongols.


  • Herbert Franke : Chia Ssu-tao. In: Herbert Franke (Ed.): Sung biographies (= Munich East Asian Studies, Volume 16, 1). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1976, ISBN 3-515-02412-3 , pp. 203-207
  • Herbert Franke, Rolf Treuzettel: The Chinese Empire (Fischer Weltgeschichte, Volume 19), Fischer, Frankfurt 1968, ISBN 3-596-60019-7 , p. 225f