|UNESCO world heritage|
|Naumburg Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul
|Criteria :||(i) (ii)|
|Buffer zone:||56.98 ha|
|Reference No .:||1470|
|UNESCO region :||Europe and North America|
|History of enrollment|
|Enrollment:||2018 ( session 42 )|
Today's Protestant Naumburg Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul in Naumburg (Saale) is the former cathedral of the Naumburg diocese and largely dates from the first half of the 13th century. He is one of the most important buildings of the late Romanesque in Saxony-Anhalt, is a station on the Romanesque Road and since 2018 UNESCO - World Heritage Site .
The Naumburg Cathedral is a so-called double choir - d. H. with a choir on both narrow sides. The famous west choir was built after the middle of the 13th century and, together with the west rood screen and the donor figures from the workshop of the Naumburg master, is one of the most important early Gothic buildings .
After the Reformation in 1542, Nikolaus von Amsdorf was the first Protestant bishop to be installed in the empire . After the death of the last bishop Julius von Pflug in 1564, the diocese was dissolved and fell to Electoral Saxony , the church lost its function as a bishopric. However, it remained the church of the Protestant cathedral community. Today the cathedral is administered by a foundation - the United Cathedral Donors of Merseburg, Naumburg and the Zeitz Collegiate Foundation .
Around 1000, Ekkehard I († 1002), Margrave of Meißen and probably the most powerful man on the eastern border of the German Empire , built his new ancestral seat on a 25 m high elevation on the right bank of the Saale near the mouth of the Unstrut , the corresponding neweburg or Nuwenburg and later Naumburg was called. The favorable location at the crossroads of several trade routes was probably a decisive factor in choosing this place.
Shortly afterwards, his sons Hermann and Ekkehard II founded a small collegiate church consecrated to St. Mary in the western part of the outer bailey , which is mentioned in the Merseburg bishops' chronicle as praepositura noviter fundata in 1021 . In 1028, at the urging of the two brothers , King Konrad II moved the Zeitz bishopric to Naumburg. The laying was done by Pope John XIX. approved in December 1028. The reason given is the uncertainty of Zeitz. A collegiate foundation remained in Zeitz .
Building history of the Church of St. Peter and Paul
Early Romanesque church building
Soon after the approval of the relocation of the bishopric from Zeitz to Naumburg, probably in the spring of 1029, the construction of the first early Romanesque Naumburg cathedral began immediately east of the collegiate church . It was consecrated before 1044 during the tenure of Merseburg Bishop Hunold, who ruled between 1036 and 1050. The patronage of Peter and Paul was taken over by the Zeitz Church.
During excavations , the foundations of the first cathedral were found under today's cathedral. The first Naumburg cathedral was a three-aisled, cruciform basilica that was smaller than today's cathedral. Their choir did not quite reach the east end of the late Romanesque choir square. The side walls ended to the west in little protruding square towers, the foundations of which are located about 7 m east of the early Gothic western loft. Between the towers was a small apsidial closed choir with a crypt below . The towers were connected by a straight west wall so that the choir apse was not visible from the outside. The main portal was very likely already then in the southern end wall of the transept. The early Romanesque cathedral received a hall crypt around 1160/70. This crypt was incorporated into the new cathedral building from around 1210.
Originally the collegiate church of the Ekkehardin castle, the church of the collegiate monastery of St. Mary , rose on the site of today's west choir . Remnants of its walls have been preserved in the west towers.
Late Romanesque new building
Under Bishop Engelhard (1207–1242), a late Romanesque new building was started around 1210. The new construction began in the nave , probably because the eastern parts of the cathedral had recently been extensively rebuilt in connection with the installation of the crypt. However, the new building of the nave was soon abandoned. Instead, the construction of the new eastern parts of the cathedral began and the new building was then gradually continued to the west. The new cathedral, which still exists today, is a vaulted pillar basilica with an east choir, east transept and separated crossing as well as a three-part crypt. According to a source from the 18th century, the final consecration of the cathedral took place on June 29, 1242.
Construction of the early Gothic west choir with works by the Naumburg master
Presumably at the instigation of the Wettin margrave Heinrich von Meißen , the construction of the early Gothic west choir began around 1250, although some authors believe that construction could begin as early as around 1245. Ernst Schubert's thesis that the west choir replaced an early Romanesque castle collegiate church immediately to the west of the cathedral was recently made improbable by Holger Kunde with new documents.
The choir square with a six-part vault is closed in the west by a 5/8 polygon. The construction was probably finished around 1260. The west choir workshop built the first free-standing storey of the north-west tower of the cathedral and then moved on to Meissen.
The west choir is separated from the nave of the cathedral by the elaborately designed rood screen. With its Passion reliefs and the crucifixion group in the portal, it is one of the main works of the Naumburg master, who worked on the new buildings for the cathedrals at Noyon , Reims and Amiens and then worked perhaps in Metz , but certainly in Strasbourg and Mainz . At the time it was erected, the rood screen served to separate the lords of the church from the other users. The crucifixion group at the portal is of great importance in the history of art and piety. The finely crafted, near-natural capitals of the Westlettner in the blind arcades and on the back wall of the choir stalls (dorsal) even allow a botanical identification of the various plants shown.
The rulers and donors who were in office at the time of its construction are integrated into the arcade frieze inside the west choir. They are the brothers Ekkehard II (inscription: "ECHARTVS MARCHIO") and Hermann , Margraves of Meissen, and their wives, the world-famous Uta and Reglindis in art history . The donor figures mediate between the pillars and the interior through their posture and gestures.
The Naumburg master was not only the architect of the west choir, but probably also the leading sculptor: he probably designed the donor figures from Grillenburg sandstone and worked on some of them himself. The first donors of Naumburg Cathedral, who died around 200 years before the western choir was built, are shown in a prominent position. They were buried in the previous building of today's cathedral and in the early Romanesque collegiate church immediately adjacent.
The Naumburg Bishop Dietrich II of Meißen lists eleven names of the founders of the cathedral from three generations in a letter in 1249: “Hermannus marchio, Regelyndis marchionissa, Eckehardus marchio, Uta marchionissa, Syzzo comes, Conradus comes, Wilhelmus comes, Gepa comitissa, Berchta comitissa, Theodoricus comes, Gerburch comitissa ”. In the Naumburg mortuology three other donors are named: "Timo von Kistritz / Köstritz, Count Dietmar and Countess Adelheid". According to the prevailing opinion so far, of the twelve donor figures Hermann and Ekkehard II were assigned to the Ekkehardin family and all the others to the Wettin family. On the north side: Dietrich Graf von Brehna, Gepa (or Adelheid, Abbess von Gernrode), Margrave Ekkehard II and Uta; on the south side: Gerburg (or Berchta), Konrad Graf von Landsberg (head and right arm added in the 19th century), Margrave Hermann and Reglindis; In the choir head: Count Dietmar (inscription: "DITMARVS COMES OCCISVS" for Count Dietrich, who was slain), Sizzo Graf von Kevernburg (the inscription "SYZZO COMES DO" can be translated as Syzzo, Count of Thuringia or with Count Syzzo, the founder ), Wilhelm Graf von Camburg (inscription: "WILHELMVS COMES VNVS FVNDATORVM") and Timo Graf von Kistritz (inscription: "TIMO DE KISTERICZ QVI DEDIT ECCLESIE SEPTEM VILLA"). There are eight men and four women of the German aristocracy, donors of the first cathedral and related to the builder Bishop Dietrich II. The specialty of the donor figures lies in their realistic depiction of the clothes made of loden and leather and the weapons.
The unique representation of lay people in a place that was otherwise reserved for saints could be explained with their great merits for the cathedral. The statues in the Naumburg west choir replaced donor tombs that had to be abandoned in the course of the late Romanesque cathedral construction. So the continuation of the memorial services for the donors of the cathedral and the Ekkehardingischen collegiate church would have been ensured. Heinz Wießner attributes the creation of the founder figures to Margrave Heinrich, which he had created as an artistic demonstration of his patronage over the cathedral monastery. This would also explain the presence of the lay statues inside the choir of an episcopal church. The version of the founding figures took place in the 16th century.
Wolfgang Hartmann assigns several of the depicted persons to the Middle Rhine-Franconian noble family of the Reginbodonen and their closer relatives: Dietrich von Brehna (after Hartmann : Ludwig der Springer ), Gepa / Adelheid (after Hartmann : Adelheid von Camburg , wife of Count Dietmars von Selbold-Gelnhausen ); Gerburg (after Hartmann : Adelheid, wife of Ludwig the Springer); Dietmar (according to Hartmann, identical to the reginbodonian Count Dietmar von Selbold-Gelnhausen), Wilhelm von Camburg (according to Hartmann, is the brother-in-law of Count Dietmar von Selbold-Gelnhausen) and Timo von Kistritz (according to Hartmann : son of Count Dietmar von Selbold-Gelnhausen). From the alignment of several portraits with the figure of Count Dietmar, Wolfgang Hartmann concludes that the west choir not only commemorates deserved donor personalities, but primarily a historical event linked to the fate of Count Dietmar . So far it has been assumed that Dietmar is the Saxon count from the House of Billung who died in 1048 . Considering also the 1034 murdered Saxon Pfalzgraf comes Dietrich from the house of Wettin , who with the daughter of Ekkehard I was married. Hartmann, on the other hand, believes that this central figure in the donor cycle is Count Dietmar von Selbold-Gelnhausen. This count was said to have died in the politically important battle of the Welfesholz (February 11, 1115). Against this political background and the life story of Count Dietmar, the design of the donor figures could be explained. Hartmann considers the Naumburg canon and Magister Petrus to be the initiator and ultimately the person primarily responsible for the conception of the donor cycle. As a member of the von Camburg-Hain family, he was a descendant of Count Dietmar.
Two other works of art from the workshop of the Naumburg master are in the high choir: the tomb of Bishop Dietrich II (formerly usually referred to as the tomb of Bishop Hildeward) and the life-size statue of a deacon with lectern.
High Gothic extension of the east choir
Around 1330 the late Romanesque apse was replaced by a high-Gothic, transverse rectangular choir bay with a 6/10 end. On the buttresses at the apex of the choir and to the south of it, the larger-than-life figures of the cathedral's patrons, which have since been restored or renewed several times, have been erected. The stained glass in the windows, some of which date from the time the choir was built, are of great artistic value . They show the wise and foolish virgins, the virtues and prophets , while the passion, scenes from the Virgin Mary, apostles and prophets are also depicted on very high quality discs from the first third of the 15th century.
A curiosity is the depiction of two monkeys playing chess in a capital on the north wall of the east choir.
The east rood screen is the oldest surviving example of an indoor rood screen. It was built around 1230 as part of the late Romanesque cathedral construction. In the middle yoke of the rood screen hall there is an altar from the 19th century, at the side steep stairs lead through two small doors to the choir.
Late Gothic conversions
The upper floors of the northwest tower were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Probably after a fire in 1532, the upper parts of the east towers were renewed and decorated with late Gothic tracery forms.
Later conversions and restorations
A deliberately started fire severely damaged the cathedral in 1532. The fire destroyed the roofs, large parts of the furnishings and large areas of the masonry. Some of the fire damage was not finally removed until the 19th century.
In 1711 and 1713 the east towers were given baroque domes with lanterns. Originally they probably had eight-sided tent roofs like that of the neighboring Freyburg town church . The rich baroque furnishings from the 1730s were removed by a purist restoration from 1874 to 1878. After 1884, the south-west tower was completed in the neo-Gothic style. The spire helmets also date from the late 19th century. The glass painter Otto Linnemann created five windows in 1903 and another in the side aisle with coats of arms in 1926. Documents on this can be found in the Linnemann archive.
From 1936 to 1940 the Kreuzhof was lowered without any accompanying archaeological investigations and a gate building was erected between the Dreikönigskapelle and Marienkirche. Between 1960 and 1968 the cathedral was completely repaired. Extensive excavations were carried out. After 1989 all the roofs of the church and the Epiphany Chapel were re-covered. Today's cathedral has a total length of 95 meters and a width of 22.5 meters.
Cloister with the closed building
Remnants of the older cloister on the north side
The older cloister buildings and the cloister were north of the church. Parts of the east wing of the enclosure of the early Romanesque cathedral could be excavated from 1961 to 1965. The preserved arches and ribs on the north wall of the church and the remains of a chapel, which is built in the former canon curia at Domplatz 3, come from a late Romanesque new building of the cloister, which was demolished at an unknown time, probably in the 18th century.
Late Romanesque cloister on the south side
On the south side of the cathedral there is another, largely late Romanesque, enclosure. Since there is evidence that it did not exist in 1244, it must have been built in the second half of the 1940s. A ribbed vault was drawn in around 1270. While the east and north tracts were largely preserved in the late Romanesque form, only remnants of them are preserved in the west and south tracts. These wings are largely from the High and Late Gothic and were considerably changed in the 19th century. The original existence of two exams is remarkable and is related to the two monasteries that existed at the church . The northern enclosure was probably first used for the cathedral's capitulars , then for the Marienstiftskirche, after the southern one was built for the cathedral's clergy.
Late Romanesque vestibule
A two-bay, late Romanesque vestibule is attached to the south arm of the transept. This was not originally planned. The breaking of the vault ribs and the east wall are at least partially due to the subsequent insertion into a given building context.
The late Gothic Epiphany Chapel on the east side of the enclosure was completed in 1416. The builder of the chapel was Bishop Gerhard II von Goch (1409–1422). It suffered severe damage in the fire in 1532 and was then used, at least in the basement, for various profane purposes (storage room, remand prison, syringe house, etc.). According to the excavations, an early Romanesque chapel from the 11th century was previously located at this point, some of the remains of the wall in the northwest corner have been preserved. It was only a little smaller and had two floors. The lower room had a strongly drawn-in, small apse in the east and served as the private chapel of the Naumburg bishop. The late Gothic new building is also two-story, each with two bays. The lower chapel, later changed several times, had the patronage of St. Nicholas , the upper one with a star vault was consecrated to the three wise men, as probably in the previous building . On the outside of the east wall there is a group of figures showing the adoration of the Magi. In the Dreikönigskapelle the Christ cycle from the art collection of Canon Immanuel Christian Leberecht von Ampach is shown, which was created by various artists from the circle of the Nazarenes according to his specifications.
The Marienpfarrkirche is located southwest of the cathedral on the south wing of the cloister. Its predecessor building has been partially excavated, but its age is still unknown. The choir and remains of the outer walls of a high Gothic new building, which was documented in 1343, have been preserved. The church was probably founded together with the episcopal church as the parish church of the cathedral parish. In 1329 it was given to the cathedral chapter for free use. After the fire of 1532 it remained in ruins. The room, which is now used as a winter church, was built as a gymnasium in place of the nave at the turn of the century before last. In the course of the state exhibition in 2011 , the Marienkirche also received an organ.
The Elisabeth Chapel is a square room on the ground floor of the north-west tower, which is dedicated to St. Elisabeth of Thuringia . In 2007, on the occasion of Elisabeth's 800th birthday, it was made accessible again from the interior of the cathedral and serves as a “room of silence”. In addition to an altar, it contains an Elisabeth statue from around 1235 and three glass windows that were designed in 2007 by the well-known painter Neo Rauch , a representative of the “ New Leipzig School ”. The three windows show idealized scenes from Elisabeth's life and are titled Elisabeth's farewell to her husband before starting the crusade , donating clothes to the needy and caring for the sick .
Not much has been preserved from the interior of the cathedral, not least due to the fire in 1532, the Swedish occupation and the radical redesign of the cathedral. The few pieces of furniture that have survived are kept partly in the cathedral and partly in the newly established cathedral treasury vault.
The Naumburg Cathedral still has several altars. The main altar is in the high choir. A stone reredos has been placed on the cafeteria today , which comes from the former altar of Saints Felix and Adauctus . The cross altar was formerly as usual in the nave. It was replaced in the 19th century by the small altar in the middle yoke of the rood screen. Two more altars stand on the east walls of the transept arms. On the altar in the north transept is a retable from Georg Lemberger's workshop , on the south transept there is a Marian retable from around 1500. Another altar is at the west end of the south aisle.
The main altar was also preserved in the west choir. Another altar stands on the stage of the western lettuce. In addition, several altars have been preserved in the chapels of the cathedral.
Most of the reredos have been lost over time. Remnants of the furnishings are shown today in the cathedral treasure vault.
In addition to the sculptures from the workshop of the Naumburg master, there are other important sculptures in the cathedral. Particularly noteworthy is the statue of Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia in the ground floor chapel of the north-west tower from around 1235. It is one of the oldest pictorial representations of the saints.
In the square in front of the church entrance there is a fountain dedicated to “Echartus II” (Ekkehard).
Chairs and lecterns
In the crossing there are still chairs, some of which date from the construction time of the late Romanesque cathedral. Also to be mentioned are chairs from the early 15th century. In addition, stalls from around 1260 are kept in the cathedral, which may have belonged to the original furnishings of the west choir.
In the middle of the old chairs are three reading desks from the 15th century. Two reading desks are designed for readers and editors by opposing worktops. A lectern is a solo workstation. Some lockable facilities for storing utensils are incorporated under the worktops of all lecterns.
Many gravestones have been preserved in the cathedral and in the enclosure. The oldest date from the 13th and 14th centuries. Many have pictures of the deceased, most of them have inscriptions. Its design allows a very good overview of the development of tomb sculpture since the 13th century in Central Germany. In the east choir is the colorfully designed and well-preserved grave slab of Bishop Dietrich II of Meissen. From his entombment, the upper end piece of the bishop's staff made of ivory can be viewed in a separate room (exhibition of altars, sculptures, etc.).
The cathedral has an old peal, which has been ringing again since 2005 after the bells were hung.
|1||1765||Johann Georg Ulrich (Laucha)||ais 0|
|2||1502||Geert van Wou||e 1|
|3||1503||Harmen Koster (Hildesheim)||f sharp 1|
|4th||1600||Melchior Moerinck (Erfurt)||g sharp 1|
- 1685–1690: Peter Losse
- 1690–1695: Friedrich Weise
- 1696-1711: Polykarp Leyser
- 1801–1810: Johann Friedrich Krause
- 1882–1884: Paul Rothmaler
- 1889–1907: Wilhelm Zschimmer
- 1923–1939: Ernst Adolf Merensky
- since 2016: Michael Bartsch
sorted by year of publication
- Carl Peter Lepsius : The Naumburg Cathedral, described and archaeologically explained according to the guidance of documented sources with some additions about other medieval buildings in this city , In: Monuments of the architecture of the Middle Ages in Saxony , first volume, second section, Ed. Ludwig Puttrich , 1836– 1843.
- Walter Hege : The Naumburg Cathedral and the master of his sculptures. Described by Wilhelm Pinder, recorded by Walter Hege. German Art Publishing House, Berlin / Munich 1937.
- Walter Hege, Leo Bruhns: The Naumburg Cathedral. Photo Rec. by Walter Hege, introductory text by Leo Bruhns. Langewiesche library 1954.
- Wolfgang Hütt, Fritz Hege: The Naumburg Cathedral: Architecture and Sculpture , Sachsenverlag, 1956.
- Ernst Schubert : Guide through the Naumburg Cathedral , Berlin, Akademie-Verlag 1964.
- Ernst Schubert: The west choir of the Naumburg Cathedral. A contribution to the dating and understanding of the statues (= treatises of the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Class for Languages, Literature and Art. 1964, 1, ). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1964, (2nd, unchanged edition. Ibid. 1965; also: Berlin, Humboldt University, habilitation paper, 1965).
- Ernst Schubert: The Naumburg Cathedral. With photos by Fritz Hege . Union, Berlin 1968.
- Ernst Schubert, Gerhard Leopold: The early Romanesque predecessor buildings of the Naumburg Cathedral (= corpus of Romanesque art in the Saxon-Thuringian area. Series A: Architecture. Vol. 4, ). With contributions by Hans Grimm u. a. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1972.
- Hans-Joachim Mrusek , G. Beyer: Three Saxon cathedrals. Merseburg , Naumburg, Meissen . 2nd edition, Verlag der Kunst, Dresden 1981, 407 pages - published simultaneously in the Federal Republic of Germany under the title Three German Cathedrals - Merseburg - Naumburg - Meissen . Wiesbaden 1981, ISBN 3-921452-16-3 .
- Ernst Schubert: Naumburg, cathedral and old town . Leipzig 1983. ISBN 3-8035-1217-4 .
- Ernst Schubert: The Naumburg Cathedral. Halle 1997, ISBN 3-929330-92-X .
- Ernst Schubert: Considerations on studies of early Gothic architecture and sculpture of the Naumburg Cathedral. In: Saxony and Anhalt. Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 22.1999–2000, pp. 345–360.
- Michael Glaeseker: The high and late Romanesque architectural decorations of the Naumburg Cathedral in the context of the building history. Studies of the column system and building ornamentation in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Diss. Phil., Göttingen 2001 (online PDF and CD-ROM; 18.8 MB).
- Wolfgang Hartmann: From the Main to Trifels Castle from Hirsau Monastery to Naumburg Cathedral. On the traces of the Franconian noble family of the Reginbodonen in the Middle Ages. Geschichts- und Kunstverein Aschaffenburg, Aschaffenburg 2004, ISBN 3-87965-098-5 ( publications of the Geschichts- und Kunstverein Aschaffenburg eV 52).
- Ernst Schubert: The Naumburg Cathedral. 14th edition. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-422-02074-0 . (Large architectural monuments / DKV art guide, vol. 410)
- Holger Kunde: The Naumburg Cathedral and its Cathedral Treasure , 2009.
- Matthias Ludwig, Holger Kunde: The Naumburg Cathedral , Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2011.
- Gerhard Straehle: The Naumburg Stifter Cycle. Eleven donors and the slain in the west choir (synodal choir) of Naumburg Cathedral. Koenigstein i. Ts. (Langewiesche) 2nd edition 2013 (= The Blue Books ), ISBN 978-3-7845-2962-2
- Gerhard Straehle: The Naumburg Master in German Art History. One Hundred Years of German Art History 1886–1989 ( online )
- Viviane Huppertz: The Naumburg Cathedral: Cathedral construction of the "strong wall" . In: INSITU. Zeitschrift für Architekturgeschichte 5 (2/2013), pp. 149–164.
- Heiko Brandl, Matthias Ludwig, Oliver Ritter: The Naumburg Cathedral . Volume 1: Architecture; Volume 2: Equipment. Schnell and Steiner, Regensburg 2018.
- Peter Bömer: The Westlettner of the Naumburg Cathedral and its sculptures. Studies in the history of form and function. Regensburg 2014. ISBN 978-3-7917-2563-5
- Bernadett Freysoldt: Art-technological investigation of the polychromy of the sculptures of the Naumburger Westlettner. Collecting, securing and interpreting the findings. Regensburg 2015. ISBN 978-3-7917-2598-7
- Daniela Karl: The polychromy of the Naumburg donor figures. Art-technological investigation of the color versions of the 13th and 16th centuries. Regensburg 2015. ISBN 978-3-7917-2599-4
- Dominik Jelschewski: Sculpture, architecture and construction technology of the Naumburg West Choir. Regensburg 2015. ISBN 978-3-7917-2600-7
- Ilona Katharina Dudziński: The western latin of Naumburg Cathedral. Historical building research on architecture and sculpture. Regensburg 2018. ISBN 978-3-7917-2754-7
about the Naumburg master :
- Rosemarie Schuder : The heretic of Naumburg. 1955. (New edition: BS-Verlag, Rostock 2005, ISBN 3-89954-133-2 )
- Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (MDR): "The beauty and the master", the wonders of Naumburg Cathedral, documentary, Dtl. 2010, 28 min.
- Deutsche Welle : The World of Uta - The Naumburg Cathedral , documentary, 2018, 26 min.
- United Cathedral Donors (Official Website of Naumburg Cathedral)
- World heritage
- Naumburg-Online.de (detailed information on history and building history at naumburg-online.de).
- Tourist information on Naumburg Cathedral
- The high and late Romanesque architectural decorations of the Naumburg Cathedral in the context of the building history Electronic version of Michael Glaeseker's dissertation
- Kerstin Merkel, New Observations on the Clothing of the Founder Figures
- Peter Brunner : Nikolaus von Amsdorf as Bishop of Naumburg. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 1961, pp. 60–61.
- On the name of the choir as Marienchor (Schubert) see Straehle 2010, p. 813.
- Friedrich Möbius and Helga Möbius: Ecclesia ornata . 1st edition. Union Verlag, Berlin 1974.
- Gerd Henschel: Why do monkeys play chess in Naumburg Cathedral? , myheimat.de/naumburg-saale from March 4, 2011, accessed on February 5, 2018.
- naumburg-online.de: The structural features of the Naumburg Cathedral
- Elisabeth by Neo Rauch for the Naumburg Cathedral: Rubinrotes Déjà-vu on artnet.