Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof
|Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof|
|UNESCO world heritage|
|View of the stone bridge, the bridge gate and the cathedral
|Criteria :||ii, iii, iv|
|Reference No .:||1155|
|UNESCO region :||Europe and North America|
|History of enrollment|
|Enrollment:||2006 (session 30)|
In 2006 the listed ensemble Old Town Regensburg with Stadtamhof was elevated to UNESCO World Heritage status because it was possible to prove that the medieval buildings of Regensburg and the associated urban architecture have largely been preserved. Even today it can be seen that the buildings, squares and alleys of the old town played the historical dual role of the city as a medieval trading center and an early modern center for European diplomats, who in the city from 1663 to 1803 at the Perpetual Reichstag a European policy with an impact on the entire area represented north of the Alps. Thus, the old town of Regensburg together with the former Bavarian, non-part of the town and late incorporated Catholic country town Stadtamhof, connected to the old town via the stone bridge, is an extraordinary testimony to the cultural traditions, but also to the breaks in the Holy Roman Empire, their stages of development and Sequence in the well-preserved secular and ecclesiastical buildings of the former Protestant imperial city are recognizable. The article should describe both the development and the efforts of the maintenance of the building stock, as well as the losses of buildings.
History and building history
The following overview gives an insight into the 2000 year history of the city of Regensburg and emphasizes the building history. It shows the development of the city, from the Roman beginnings in the 2nd century through the Bavarian period in the 5th-8th centuries. Century through the Carolingian period in the 9th century to the consolidation of Regensburg as a city at the beginning of the 10th century with the construction of the Arnulfinische city wall under Duke Arnulf I. After that, the economic heyday of Regensburg began as a Europe-wide trading and civil city. This resulted in the construction of the Stone Bridge and the continuation of the heyday with the city extensions and the construction of the medieval city walls in the 12th and 13th centuries. The economic decline of the city began in the 14th century, led to the temporary takeover by the Bavarian duke, the expulsion of the Jews and the release and support of the city by the emperor in the 15th and 16th centuries. The choice of Regensburg as the location for the Perpetual Reichstag supported the city's economic consolidation and strengthened its political position vis-à-vis the Bavarian Duke, who had not succeeded in bringing the city under his influence during the Thirty Years' War. After the collapse of the empire at the beginning of the 19th century, the city began to decline again, which initially got into an isolating special position during the Dalberg period and was even partially destroyed and Stadtamhof completely destroyed in the coalition wars. The overview shows how it became possible that after the laborious integration of the Protestant former imperial city into the Catholic Kingdom of Bavaria and the slow economic development at the beginning of the 21st century, the city was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site . The temporary poverty of the city, its isolated location in the province and the slow industrial and economic development contributed to the preservation of the listed ensemble, as did the large-scale destruction which fortunately did not take place during the Second World War. After the war, as in other cities in Regensburg, there were losses in the monument inventory and threatening developments in inner-city traffic. In the 1960s, however, initiated by civic associations such as the Altstadtfreunde Regensburg , a new awareness of monument protection and preservation grew in the population, with which the Regensburg and Stadtamhofer cultural heritage could be preserved from disastrous negative interventions. The founding of the University of Regensburg at the same time was able to provide technical support and personal support for this process, if only through the enormous influx of staff and students who got to know the historical buildings in the old town or even found accommodation there.
From the Roman legion camp to the Bavarian capital
The history of Regensburg began long before our era. Since the expansion of the Roman Empire , the Roman founding has been of formative importance for the Bavarian Danube region for almost two millennia. The Romans recognized the topographical peculiarity of the location on the northern Danube arch and built a particularly well-fortified legion camp here . The location of the legionary camp can still be seen today in the street plan of the old town and in many building remains.
- The Regensburg Danube arch was already settled in the Stone Age, because the Altmühl , Naab and Regen rivers flow in the vicinity of the northernmost part of the Danube and come from the north. The Celtic name Radasbona has been passed down as the oldest name of a prehistoric settlement .
- Around 90 AD .: To the expansion of the Roman Empire to the Danube establishment of a Roman. Cohort - fort in the area of today's district Kumpfmuehl .
- 179 AD: Actual foundation of the city as a Roman legionary camp Castra Regina (camp on the rain) of the III. Italian Legion in the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius , evidenced by a stone plate with a building inscription, exhibited in the city museum. Remains of buildings from Roman times, such as the Porta Praetoria in the alley Unter den Schwibbögen and a 60 m long section of the Roman wall in the old town on Dachauplatz and Ernst-Reuter-Platz have been preserved, preserved and are now accessible. In the centuries that followed, suburban settlements were formed, especially to the west of the legionary camp, and also estates in the wider vicinity of the legionary camp.
- 6th century AD: After the end of Roman rule, Castra Regina, as Reganespurc, became the ducal residence of the Agilolfingers and the first Bavarian capital. The strong walls of the legionary camp offered themselves as protection for the tribal dukes of the Agilolfinger, who built their residence in the north-eastern part of the legionary camp.
- 739 AD: St. Boniface founded the diocese of Regensburg . The St Emmeram monastery was built towards the end of the century . Regensburg became a bishopric and attracted other monasteries and monasteries that settled here, such as B. the monastery Niedermünster and the monastery to the old chapel .
- 10th century: Under the Bavarian Duke Arnulf I , the city was expanded to the west: the western wall of the Roman camp was demolished and the Arnulfini city wall was built , including the St. Emmeram monastery .
Economic heyday and rise to imperial city
This high medieval epoch of the Staufer period was the heyday of the city, which at that time developed into the only "big city" in the old Bavarian region.
- 11th and 12th centuries: Due to a flourishing long-distance trade as far as Paris , Venice and Kiev , Regensburg experienced an economic boom and became one of the wealthiest and most populous cities in the empire. Three times during these years an army of crusaders gathered in Regensburg to train to the Holy Land .
- 12th century: The construction of the Stone Bridge from 1135 to 1146, with which the old town of Regensburg was connected with Stadtamhof, which was first mentioned in a document in 1050 , crowned the period of economic prosperity. The bridge was an expression of the importance and wealth of the citizenry and, as a "medieval architectural wonder", was the model for other bridge structures, such as the Charles Bridge in Prague . During this time, the first Romanesque and Gothic buildings of the Middle Ages were built, which today shape the face of the old town. In 1180 Heinrich the Lion was deposed as Duke of Bavaria by Emperor Barbarossa at a Diet in Regensburg and the Wittelsbach family became the ruling family of Bavaria. But they could not stop Regensburg from developing into an independent city. In 1259 they gave up their residence on Kornmarkt and left Regensburg, but remained present north of the bridge in Stadtamhof in order to be able to control the important river crossing. The rivalry between the Wittelsbachers and the imperial city then determined the history of Regensburg for centuries.
- 13th century: After the bridge was built, the period of economic prosperity continued. In 1245 Regensburg received the status of a free imperial city , awarded by Emperor Friedrich II. The city with around 20,000 inhabitants and around 2,000 people who played a political role continued to be a hub in east-west and north-south trade . The heads of around 60 families formed the Regensburg patriciate . The city government was composed of them, they were the builders of today's monuments, the patrician dynasty towers and they were the incentive for the fact that the mendicant churches and monasteries arose during this time of the rich patricians , such as the Minorite Church and the Dominican Church of St. Blasius .
Economic decline, Reformation, Thirty Years War until 1653
With the dawn of modern times and the age of exploration of the world , changes in global political situations also severely affected the long-distance trade routes in Europe. This also had an impact on the economic conditions in the competing cities of the empire .
- 14th century: Regensburg was particularly hard hit by the relocation of trade routes and lagged behind Augsburg, Nuremberg and Vienna. A severe plague epidemic across Europe increased the trade losses. The falling income was offset by high costs, because the city fortifications were built during this time . In the city, guilds and craftsmen demanded that the patricians participate in the city government. There were uprisings that were used militarily by the Bavarian dukes of the Wittelsbachers in the war between cities to bring Regensburg under their influence, but this did not succeed.
- 15th century: The economic decline of Regensburg continued, led to the economic collapse and the takeover of the city by the Bavarian Duke Albrecht IV , who moved into Regensburg in 1486. Under pressure from the emperor, the duke had to surrender the city again in 1492 and received the settlement “Am Hof” in exchange , which was elevated to the status of the Bavarian country town of Stadtamhof . Regensburg became dependent on the emperor and was transformed from a free imperial city into an imperial city under the supervision of imperial commissioners.
- 16th century: When the economic situation of Regensburg did not improve, a period of several years of social unrest followed, triggered by supporters of the Bavarian Duke. In 1514, the Emperor placed Regensburg under a new city constitution, the so-called regimental order, which lasted until 1803. The continued tense situation led to the expulsion of the Regensburg Jews and the demolition of all houses in the Jewish quarter in 1519. The Neupfarrplatz was initially created with a provisional church building, which was later completed to become today's Neupfarrkirche . In 1542 the city council adopted the Evangelical Denomination and only citizens of this denomination received citizenship. The Bavarian Stadtamhof remained predominantly Catholic.
- 17th century: In the first 14 years of the Thirty Years War , Regensburg was not affected by military events. In April 1632 the town was occupied by Bavarian troops and turned into a fortress. On the occasion of a Reichstag, the astronomer Johannes Kepler was in town in 1630 to demand money from the emperor. He died and was buried in St. Peter's Cemetery outside the city walls. This cemetery with all the artistic monuments was destroyed by the Bavarian occupation forces in 1632. In November 1633 Regensburg was conquered by the Swedes under Bernhard von Weimar and recaptured in July 1634 after several months of siege and bombardment by imperial and Bavarian troops. During these battles Stadtamhof was completely destroyed, while in Regensburg only the city fortifications, the defense towers and the towers of the stone bridge were affected, which were soon restored. The reconstruction of Stadtamhof took decades.
Perpetual Reichstag and Dalberg period until 1810
- 1653: After the Peace of Westphalia , the first Reichstag met in Regensburg and postponed many problems until the next Reichstag.
- 1663: Beginning of the following Reichstag, which became the Perpetual Reichstag because the problems to be solved turned out to be permanent. The imperial estates were represented by permanent ambassadors, some of whom lived with families in the city and also rented entire houses (embassies). When Protestant envoys died, they were buried in the envoys cemetery. Catholic envoys were buried in various monastery churches, often in St. Emmeram. Many of the grave monuments have been preserved; there are 20 splendid epitaphs in the ambassadors cemetery alone.
- 1713: During the last great plague epidemic, which resulted in around 8,000 deaths, the ambassadors at the Perpetual Reichstag left the city with their servants and moved to Augsburg. On the Danube island Unterer Wöhrd , buildings for a plague hospital were erected on an area that is today just to the east outside the World Heritage area.
- 1748: The Imperial Postmaster General, Prince Alexander Ferdinand von Thurn und Taxis , was appointed Principal Commissioner , the Emperor's deputy at the Reichstag. In addition to accommodation in the buildings of the neighboring St. Emmeram Monastery, additional residential buildings were built for him and his successors on Emmeramplatz .
- 1779: The successor Karl Anselm von Thurn und Taxis took the initiative in 1779 to build an avenue of trees encompassing the old town of Regensburg after removing the ailing fortifications in front of the city walls. The tree avenue known today as Fürst-Anselm-Allee was expanded in the following years and today forms the border of the world heritage area in the west, south and east.
- 1806: The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in Regensburg. As the only one of the clerical electors, the Prince Chancellor Dalberg was given the principality of Regensburg , which had been created especially for him . During his short reign, his court architect Emanuel Herigoyen created many classicist buildings, including the former French embassy on Bismarckplatz (1804/05), the Presidential Palace from 1810 and the Theresens Ruh garden palace , which was partially destroyed at the end of the Second World War and which was demolished at the end of 1945.
- 1807 Joseph von Eichendorff describes the city during a visit as “A strange city that with its tall black houses and narrow crooked alleys looks like a single old knight's castle” and “A beautiful view of Regensburg, which from a distance with its old towers is like an enormous one Ruin lies there "
- 1809 In April Regensburg, the Stone Bridge and Stadtamhof were the sites of a battle in the Fifth Coalition War .
- In the course of this battle, 150 houses in the south-eastern part of the city, as well as the Peter Gate , the former Jesuit monastery and the St. Magdalena St. Magdalena Monastery were completely destroyed. Almost all the houses in Stadtamhof were also destroyed. In the course of years of reconstruction, today's Maximilianstrasse was built after 1810 with a classicist gate-like structure, called Maximiliantor (Maxtor) , which terminates the street to the south . in place of the city wall that was torn away there. The Maxstraße ran straight from the old Kornmarkt to the south without taking into account the front buildings and old streets, initially with the visual fixed point of the Kepler monument built there in 1808 , which was moved west in 1859 to enable direct access to the train station .
- 1810: Kurerzkanzler Dalberg has to cede the clerical principality of Regensburg to the newly formed Kingdom of Bavaria . Regensburg became the provincial capital of the newly formed Bavarian rain district .
Regensburg as a Bavarian provincial town, time of industrialization until 1933
The era of industrialization with the city expansions that began after 1860 and with the development of new streets to be planned after the city walls were torn down was decisive for the preservation of the monuments and the entire old town of Regensburg. Problems that arose regarding the preservation of architectural monuments were not always solved as satisfactorily by the then city architect Adolf Schmetzer , who remained in office for decades under the mayors Oscar von Stobäus , Hermann Geib , Alfons Auer and Otto Geßler , as in the case of the tram access to the Stone bridge. Many monuments - including the Stone Bridge, which was threatened with demolition after 1900 - were preserved, but shortly before the turn of the 20th century, valuable buildings were also lost, such as B. in the course of the so-called cathedral exposure in the widening of the southern cathedral square . Overall, however, the developments in the provincial town of Regensburg, which is strongly influenced by Catholic buildings and influences and the rural surrounding area, were not as stormy as in other major Bavarian cities and were not determined by the settlement of large industrial companies on the outskirts of the city or by the construction of housing developments in the outskirts of the city. The result was that in 1917 the political writer Viktor Klemperer, after visiting Regensburg, described the city as follows:
“Regensburg, the most distant of all German cities. A wonderful, absolutely timeless stone mass without any connection with the present. Nowhere are modern districts or even single houses, nowhere growth, traffic, influx of foreigners. A modern city stretches around old Braunschweig, nothing at all around old Regensburg "
List of events
- 1810/1827: The buildings of the Sankt Emmeram monastery are transferred to the Princely House of Thurn und Taxis .
- 1832–1848 Gottlieb von Thon-Dittmer was mayor. As a supporter of a liberal political orientation, he became spokesman for the Protestant opposition in the Chamber of Deputies and in 1848 he was Bavarian Minister of the Interior for a few months.
- 1838: Regensburg became the capital of the district of Upper Palatinate and Regensburg, which essentially corresponds to the boundaries of today's administrative district of Upper Palatinate .
- 1910: Opening of the winter port on the Untere Wöhrd in the old town and the Luitpold port in the west in front of the city under Mayor Hermann Geib , whose term of office (1903–1910) was also characterized by the creation of municipal facilities in the field of health and social services and household waste collection .
List of construction works and foundations
- Around 600, under the Agilolfingers, an Agilolfingian Palatinate was established within the still existing Roman legion camp Castra Regina . Her successor, Charlemagne , stayed in the palace buildings several times up to 803, which he expanded into a ducal court as the Carolingian royal palace .
- 739 St. Emmeram Monastery is built
- around 800/900
- Foundation of the Collegiate Foundation for the Old Chapel under King Ludwig the German
- Foundation of Stift Niedermünster
- Foundation of Obermünster Abbey
- around 950
- Start of construction of the Romanesque cathedral , extension by 1000 (loss due to fire in 1273)
- Origin of the Roman tower
- 1002 Re-establishment of the collegiate monastery for the Old Chapel under Heinrich II , King of the East Franks .
- 1021 Roter Herzfleck house on Rathausplatz No. 2, first mentioned in 1021 as the court of the Obermünster Sift. Refurbished in 2001
- 1111/1120 start of construction of the Schottenkirche St. Jakob (Regensburg) and Schottenkloster St. Jakob (Regensburg)
- 1138 Construction of the monastery of the Augustinian Canons St. Mang and St. Andreas Stadtamhof
- 1225 Construction of the St. Ulrich church as a palatine chapel for the Bavarian dukes
- from 1229 construction of the Dominican Church of St. Blasius
- 1250 old town hall , with town hall tower. Extension buildings to the Reichssaal and portal were built later
- 1250 Golden Tower in Wahlenstrasse, expanded after 1300 and 1400
- 1260 Goliathhaus , reconstruction in 1570
- 1275 Regensburg Cathedral Construction of the Gothic cathedral begins, liturgically usable from 1443, north tower around 1500
- 1300 Baumburger Tower , extended in the 15th century
- Around 1300 construction of the Oswald Church as a Catholic hospital church for the associated poor hospital, used as a Protestant hospital church from 1542
- 1320/1330 Reichssaal building near the old town hall .
- 1340 Market tower by the old town hall on the Kohlenmarkt, burned down in 1706.
- 1355 Heuporthaus , redesigned in Baroque style, facade changed after 1933.
- 1381 New construction of the Gothic collegiate church of St Johann after previous buildings from 845, which had to give way to the cathedral.
- 1408 Portal construction as a connection between the Reichssaal building and the Old Town Hall. Changed in 1564
- 1519 After demolition of the Jewish quarter, the new parish church began to be built as a Catholic pilgrimage church. Provisional completion of the construction in 1540 and use as the first Protestant church. 1860 Addition of storeys to the south tower, construction of a choir closing the west facade.
- 1597 New construction of the Andreasstadel in Stadtamhof
- 1627–1631 New construction of the Protestant Trinity Church
- 1650 St. Kassian monastery (Stadtamhof) and church, at the suggestion of Bishop Cardinal Wilhelm von Wartenberg.
- 1697 St. Mang church building on the foundations of the old Stadtamhof building, which was destroyed in 1634
- 1804–1806 Construction of the Dörnberg Palace (Kumpfmühler Straße No. 2)
- In 1804 the Thurn und Taxische Hofrat Georg Friedrich Müller built the Württemberg Palace and the gardens from which the Herzogspark developed
- Kepler monument erected in 1808 in Fürst-Anselm-Allee
- 1827 Construction of the Marstall near Emmeram Castle.
- 1854–1856 Construction of the Royal Villa on the Danube with parks on the site of the former Eastern Bastion.
- 1859–1860: Construction of the first Regensburg main train station and opening of the railway lines to Munich and Nuremberg (via Amberg ) under Mayor Friedrich Schubarth . Further urban development is stagnating.
- 1859 to 1869 Expansion of the cathedral towers and completion of the spiers , architect Franz Josef von Denzinger .
- After 1860 until the beginning of the 20th century, new construction of 10 villas in Wittelsbacherstrasse
- from 1860 to the beginning of the 20th century more than 10 villas on Albertstraße, Margaretenstraße, Kumpfmühlerstraße
- In 1873 the direct railway line to Nuremberg and the line to Ingolstadt were opened. 1888/92 New construction of the station 100 m north of the first station.
- 1868/9 New construction of the Gschwendtner Villa at the current location of the administration building of the Chamber of Industry and Commerce. Later sold and Schwarzhauptvilla, then expropriation and NSDAP party headquarters. Demolition after WWII,
- 1896 Preservation of the Goliathhaus by defending against the planned demolition
- 1883–1888 the new construction of the south wing and the reconstruction of other buildings of St. Emmeram Castle in the neo-renaissance style took place under the direction of the princely master builder Max Schultze to today's castle complex.
- 1889 Start of construction of the Parkhotel Maximilian with its magnificent neurococo facade, planned by Julius Poeverlein at the attractive location at the western southern end of the new Maximilianstrasse. The construction took place on the grounds of the former city wall, so that the remains of the Roman wall running there could serve as the northern foundation of the building and the former city moat that was built up as a hotel garden.
- 1891–1893 Construction of the Stadtamhof district court building on the site of the former Franciscan monastery of St. Kassian, whose building, which was partially destroyed in 1809, was used as a prison and demolished in 1891.
- From 1900: development on Tannstrasse. with almost without exception stately, multi-storey Art Nouveau apartment buildings with large apartments
- From 1900: Expansion of the infrastructure (gas, electricity and water supply, sewerage). City extensions in the east and west with traffic developments, new schools. The tram started operating in 1903. All construction work and the establishment of the tram lines - with the exception of Domplatz, where expansion had already taken place 10 years earlier - took place without widening existing streets and without losing architectural monuments.
- 1903 Construction of a candle arch between the Amberger Salzstadel and the bridge tower for the city-side driveway to the stone bridge for the new tram. The bridge gate passage was too narrow. Two houses (including the bridge toll house) had to be demolished for the construction.
- From 1904 west outside the Thurn and Taxis castle grounds, the royal court marshal's office was built, which was connected to the Emmeramer gate on the castle grounds with the new Helenentor . To the north of it was built as a coach house for carriages and automobiles (today the Princely Brewery).
List of demolition measures and losses
- 917/919 In the course of the new construction of the Arnulfini city wall , the western wall of the Roman camp Castra Regina , including the western gate, the Porta principalis sinistra, was torn down. The remaining walls of the Roman camp were preserved for further use.
- 1273 Loss of the Romanesque cathedral due to fire
- 1634 Destruction of the monastery of the Augustinian Canons St. Mang and St. Andreas Stadtamhof during the fighting for Regensburg
- 1809 Destruction of the towers and gates of the Peterstor final and complete demolition approx. 1880
- 1809 Destruction of the Poor Clare Monastery of St. Magdalena
- 1809 Destruction of the Jesuit monastery in Mittelmünster
- In 1810, the northern tower of the stone bridge of the Black Tower in Stadtamhof was completely demolished, including the upstream city fortifications of the northern bridgehead, which had been badly destroyed in the fighting in 1809 the previous year.
- 1812 Removal of the black castle gate, which was damaged in 1809, successor to the east gate of the Roman camp, the Porta Principalis Dextra.
- In 1830 all the buildings of the Augustinian monastery on Neupfarrplatz , which was built in the 13th century and dissolved in 1810, were sold and partially demolished. In 1836 the associated Augustinian Church on the western Neupfarrplatz was demolished due to its disrepair.
- From 1868: the demolition of the city walls and almost all city gates began under Mayor Oskar von Stobäus . Only the Ostentor , the Emmeramer Tor and the two small front towers of the Jacobstoranlage remained , which were remodeled in a neo-Gothic style.
- After 1869 to 1902 there were three demolitions and a gutting in the area of Goliathstrasse / Watmarkt. With these demolitions or guttings, an ensemble of a medieval merchant quarter, unique from the point of view of monument protection , suffered irreplaceable losses. In addition, at that time there was a risk of an incipient momentum of its own with regard to the planned straightening and widening of Brückstrasse and Goliathstrasse , one of the most attractive and characteristic city entrances in Germany. In the public disputes about these construction measures, the focus was not only on the four listed objects but also on the integration of the objects into the historical urban structure. This was seen as the task of monument preservation and monument protection, but the discussions took place under monument protection law that was only just emerging. Therefore the discussions degenerated into violent quarrels, carried out under the motto "On to the rescue work: Art maintenance of venerable monuments or vandalism and barbarism"
- In 1869, the Bäringerhaus (Watmarkt 2 / F6), a medieval building on the eastern side of the Coal Market from the period 1280/1300, was demolished. During the demolition, a treasure chest with 39 pieces of silver jewelry and documents from 1580–1627 was found, which had been hidden during the Thirty Years' War.
- In 1896 the demolition of the Goliath House (Watmarkt 5 / F20) could be averted. The south and north façades, with the Goliath painting, were preserved, but the building was completely gutted from 1897 as the first work of the young architect Joseph Koch .
- In 1902 the medieval Betzingerhaus (Watmarkt 3 / F21), which was adjacent to the Goliathhaus to the west, was demolished . A new building was built, whereby the south facade on the Watmarkt was partially preserved. A two-storey bay window in the neo-renaissance style was built in place of a baroque bay. On the parapet on the 1st floor there are two fully plastic half-figures in patrician clothing.
- In 1903 the factory building (Watmarkt 1 / F22) in the corner of Watmarkt and Goliathstrasse was demolished .
- In 1873, after demolition measures to expand the Carmelite brewery, the foundations of the east gate of the Roman camp Castra Regina were found during the excavation of the construction site , and the famous building inscription of the Roman legionary camp was found.
- 1875 Final demolition of the ruins of the gate of the Peterstor
- 1902/03 With the loss of some structural fabric, a candle arch was built between the Amberger Salzstadel and the bridge tower as a passage for the new tram.
- 1955 Demolition of the Geschwendtner Villa in favor of the IHK
- 188/1903 Loss of the western part of the Maxtore during the construction of the Parkhotel Maximilian in Maximilianstrasse
- 1889 Loss of the Dollingerhaus with the Dollinger Hall due to demolition
- In 1893/5 three medieval buildings on the east of the south side of Domstrasse were demolished: the Salzburger Hof , the Dompfarrhof and the Alte Post . The tower of the St. Ulrich church to the north was also demolished and planned, but not implemented, was the demolition of the St. Johann collegiate church to the northwest, which was badly affected by fire damage in 1887 . The aim of the demolition was to widen the then still narrow Domstrasse to allow a better view of the new cathedral towers from all sides. In addition, space had to be created for a new building, the New Dompost, set back to the south in the neo-renaissance style. After its completion, this new building was immediately adjacent to the 6th-century Herzogshof , the residence of the early Bavarian dukes, to the east of it .
- 1911 Demolition of the Franciscan Church on Franziskanerplatz and construction of a new residential building at Franziskanerplatz 10
- 2012 Demolition of the Hotel Karmeliten at the entrance to the Dachauplatz for the new “Palais Karmeliten am Dom” building with a supermarket and apartments. (Find of a Roman bronze horse).
time of the nationalsocialism
During the time of National Socialism, there were heavy losses of historical monuments on the southern cathedral square. Large areas of the old town between Bismarckplatz and Domplatz were briefly threatened by planned road breakthroughs. For the first time, house demolitions took place in an old town area west of the town hall. Both interventions in the structure of the old town were not implemented or stopped. Even before the outbreak of war, the construction work that had already started on the east-west A3 motorway and the A93 south-north motorway were discontinued. During the construction of several large settlements, the housing estates, which are now known as listed ensembles , arose in the northern, southern and eastern suburbs of the city . Some industrial companies (e.g. the Messerschmitt AG works in the west ) were settled outside of the old town. During the Second World War, this meant that the old town of Regensburg was spared extensive destruction. The destruction was limited - with a few serious exceptions - to the industrial plants in the suburbs, to railway systems, bridges and to port areas, some of which were in the eastern old town.
- From 1900 to 1934 consideration was given to tearing down the four-winged, Gothic patrician castle Heuporthaus for a road break from Bismarckplatz to Domplatz in order to better develop the old town . The plan was not carried out. Instead, the Heuporthaus was renovated and - initiated by the museum director and monument curator Walter Boll - regotified by installing a Gothic facade. The aim was to upgrade the house and protect it from further demolition plans.
- From 1934 the first attempt at urban redevelopment was made north-west of the town hall, the necessity of which had been known since the turn of the century. There was the most densely built-up residential area in the city, which was to be loosened up by demolition measures. When it became apparent that the entire remaining house stock was statically endangered by the demolition of the house, the renovation measures were canceled.
- From 1936, only 40 years after the Dompost was rebuilt, its Neo-Renaissance decor was removed again. An extension was also decided because 40 years ago the post office building was planned much too small. For the extension, the neighboring Herzogshof was purchased for demolition. The planned total demolition of the Herzogshof could be prevented by resistance from monument conservator Walter Boll. However, the western parts of the building of the Herzogshof were partially demolished and the remainder of the building in which the Ducal Hall was preserved was remodeled by Boll.
- In November 1938, the Jewish synagogue at the Brixner Hof was destroyed in the course of the Reichspogromnacht
- From 1940/1960: Construction work on the two motorways A3 and A93, for which bridge structures had already been built outside the city, ceased. The route of the west-east autobahn should only touch the city area and accordingly runs far south of the old town today. In contrast, the originally planned route of the south-north motorway A93 followed the course of Galgenbergstrasse and Dr. Martin Luther Street. This route thus ran through the middle of the old town, crossed the Danube at the Iron Bridge and then touched the Bavarian Salzstadel through Stadtamhof . After the resumption of construction planning around 1960, this route was a great threat to the old town and to Stadtamhof. However, the course of the route was changed in connection with the settlement of a large industrial company outside the old town in the west so that the route now runs approx. 1.5 km west of the old town, but also had to be enclosed there around 2000 because of unacceptable noise pollution. The southern, older part of Stadtamhof is only affected by noise, the northern part is also affected by feeder traffic.
- 1943: The first heavy air raid during the Second World War took place in August, killing 402 people and destroying the Messerschmitt factories in the western suburbs.
- 1944/5 The old town was hardly affected by further air raids. The following buildings were badly damaged by accidental bomb hits, but they were restored after the war: the north transept of the collegiate church to the old chapel on the old grain market and the Renaissance courtyard arcades of the Romanesque patrician house castle Neue Waag on Haidplatz . The garden palace Theresens Ruh in the palace gardens of St. Emmeram Palace was partially destroyed and then surprisingly quickly demolished . The collegiate church of Obermünster is almost completely destroyed and is now only preserved as a ruin . The single bell tower of this important monument has been preserved.
- 1945: The demolition of the Danube bridges by the German Wehrmacht did not prevent the city from being occupied by American troops.
Rise to modern large and university city
- 1946–1955: After the end of the war, the number of inhabitants in Regensburg rose from 102,000 to 130,000 over the course of a year. With a strong influx of refugees and displaced persons, Regensburg is becoming a big city. The new residents will be housed in divided apartments in the large old town houses. In the old town there was a population density that could not be found anywhere else in Germany.The living conditions in the old town were also characterized by inadequate sanitary and hygienic conditions, the poor state of construction of the buildings, the deterioration of historically valuable buildings and a high risk of fire.
- 1955–1960 Ten years after the end of the World War it became clear that the decisive course had to be set for the preservation of the old town. A renovation of the old town had to begin and traffic planning had to be considered, although financing possibilities were not foreseeable. From 1955 to 1960, planning and implementation of the first large-scale old town redevelopment measure south of Keplerstrasse began, which involved the demolition of outbuildings and the gutting of old houses.
- To revitalize and strengthen the city financially, the establishment of a university was planned and the settlement of industrial companies outside the city center was promoted. Old traffic plans were taken up again and construction measures, which had already begun in 1936 but were discontinued in 1940, to build a west-east motorway and a north-south motorway to better connect the city to the cities of Nuremberg and Munich and the region. The west-east motorway reached Regensburg in 1971 and Passau in 1984. The north-south motorway reached Weiden in 1987 and Hof after 2000.
- The north-south motorway was originally intended to cross the old town of Regensburg at the level of today's university, then lead in the old town in place of the Iron Bridge over the Danube and run north through Stadtamhof in the Regen Valley. The route in the old town and the planned bridge construction developed into a violent and long-lasting inner-city controversy after the university was founded, although the route - but not the bridge construction - was soon abandoned in favor of the current route further west outside the old town. In preparation for the originally planned route, large-scale demolition measures for the houses in the old port area on the northern bank of the Danube were carried out as early as 1960, where, in addition to the north-south motorway, an inner-city east-west traffic axis was to be built parallel to the Danube. The so-called Danube Market, the current location of the Museum of Bavarian History , was created as a result of the demolition . In Stadtamhof, too, a section of the planned north-south motorway with the incongruous name of Bäckergasse was built, which is now just outside the World Heritage area.
- 1960: The construction of the east port was an important factor for economic development. Many new businesses settled here.
- 1965: The foundation of the 4th Bavarian State University was the initial spark for the preservation of the ensemble of the old town and the repair of the monuments. Now it was possible to set up many student accommodation in the old town.
- 1978: The Rhine-Main-Danube major shipping route was opened in the Regensburg-Kelheim section. Today it brings many river cruise tourists to the World Heritage city.
- 1992: The opening of the university clinic for outpatient and inpatient operations gave the university a boost in development.
- 2000: The world exhibition "Expo 2000" had decentralized projects in the program, including the renovation of the old town and the renovation of the cathedral.
- 2006: From September 11th to 14th, Pope Benedict XVI visited Regensburg and drew the world's attention to the city.
- 2006: On July 13th, Regensburg's old town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Rescue of the building ensemble Altstadt and Stadtamhof
Economic dynamism after the Second World War
Despite the economic development outlined below and the cultural enhancement as a city of science, the old town was spared major interventions. This was due to the fact that the plans for a car-friendly city in the old town area were abandoned, thereby avoiding interventions in the substance of the ensemble.
The foundation stone of the university was laid in 1965 and the associated hospital opened in 1992 . The university of applied sciences was added in the early 1970s . The Osthafen opened in 1960 and the Main-Danube Canal in 1978 . The Siemens Group has permanently expanded its Regensburg site, including building a factory for chip production (today Infineon AG). In 1986 the BMW plant at Harting started production. From 1989 Toshiba produced laptops and notebooks in Regensburg, but closed its Regensburg location again in 2009. For it settled u. a. on the former Toshiba site, the company Osram , which produces and researches classic and novel light sources here.
Functioning monument protection
The historic city center of Regensburg with its narrow streets, numerous patrician houses and chapels from all artistic eras of the Middle Ages was largely preserved and thus became Germany's largest medieval old town. It also has the largest number of family towers north of the Alps, which has earned it the nickname “ Italy's northernmost city ”. Careful renovation measures supported by the population have secured the existence of over 1,000 protected monuments to this day.
World Heritage Site since 2006
On July 13, 2006, UNESCO added the "Regensburg Old Town with Stadtamhof" ensemble to the World Heritage List as a World Heritage site. The entire ensemble "Old Town Regensburg with Stadtamhof" corresponds to the expansion of Regensburg after the last medieval city expansion around 1320. The individual monuments, adjacent ensembles and the buffer zone are listed. The buffer zone comprises the area that is optically in the field of vision of the observer of the zone intended for nomination. The boundaries of the buffer zone are of course defined by the heights of the Danube valley in the north and south of the city, otherwise by the course of the railway and main roads. This gives the buffer zone a clear and memorable extension.
In 2006 the World Heritage Committee included the “Old Town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof” on the basis of criteria (ii), (iii) and (iv) in the list of World Heritage sites.
- Criterion (ii): Regensburg's architecture reflects the role of the city as a medieval trading center and its influence on the area north of the Alps.
Regensburg was an important hub on the continental trade routes to Italy, Bohemia, Russia and Byzantium. In addition, the city had many connections to the intercontinental silk roads. This enabled an important exchange of cultural and architectural influences that shape the cityscape to this day.
- Criterion (iii): The old town of Regensburg is an extraordinary testimony to cultural traditions in the Holy Roman Empire.
In the High Middle Ages, Regensburg was the preferred venue for imperial assemblies, but the city also made its contribution to recent European history as the seat of the Perpetual Reichstag from 1663 to 1806. The remains of two imperial palaces from the 9th century and the numerous well-preserved historical buildings bear witness to the city's former wealth and political importance.
- Criterion (iv) The old town of Regensburg is an outstanding example of an intra-European medieval trading town, the historical stages of which have been well preserved. Above all, the development of trade from the 11th to the 14th century is particularly well illustrated.
World Heritage Center
After Regensburg's old town and Stadtamthof were recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on July 13, 2006 , the city set up a World Heritage Center in 2007, which is housed in the historic Salzstadel at the entrance tower of the Stone Bridge . There, detailed information on the city's history is given at a central point (~ 2000 years) and current exhibitions are carried out.
- Karl Bauer: Regensburg. Art, culture and everyday history. 6th edition. MZ-Buchverlag, Regenstauf 2014, ISBN 978-3-86646-300-4 .
- Peter Schmid (Hrsg.): History of the city of Regensburg. 2 volumes. Pustet, Regensburg 2000, ISBN 3-7917-1682-4 .
- Wolfgang Schöller: Urban planning and preservation of monuments in Regensburg 1950-1975 (Regensburger Studien, Volume 15, edited by the archive of the city of Regensburg), Regensburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-935052-84-9 .
- Eugen Trapp: Regensburg World Heritage. An art and cultural history guide to the old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof. 2nd updated edition. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-7954-2064-2 .
- Siegfried Wittmer: Jewish life in Regensburg. From the early Middle Ages to 1519. Universitätsverlag, Regensburg 2001, ISBN 3-930480-54-9 .
- At first different names were used for street and quarter, like Neue Straße and Napoleonsquartier . After Regensburg fell to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1810, the street was named after the first King Maximilian . The western part of the two-part Maxtor complex built in 1820 was demolished again in 1889 because it stood in the way of the construction of the Parkhotel Maximilian . The eastern part served as a shelter for the tram stop for a long time and was only finally lost in 1955 when modern post-war buildings were built there.
- 1970 the hotel in restoration was bought by the city of Regensburg in order to build a business center (city center) on the entire site after the building was demolished. The project failed due to popular resistance and the intervention of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation. The building was bought privately in 1977, extensively restored and is now used as a hotel again
- 1597 the Bäbingerhaus was owned by the iron trader Roither (Ruder); after which the fountain in front of the house was named. Some pieces of the building sculpture have been preserved in the museum
- The contents of the chest were auctioned in Leipzig in 1889.
- The city paid 10,000 marks to the owner for this and financed the new Goliath painting
- Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof on the website of the UNESCO World Heritage Center ( English and French ).
- Homepage of the city of Regensburg
- Link catalog on Regensburg at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Fontes Civitatis Ratisponensis Online ( Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz - Documentary sources of the imperial city of Regensburg from the Middle Ages to the early modern period)
- Regensburg Imperial City Library Online (digital copies)
- Presentation of Regensburg on the German UNESCO World Heritage website , accessed on June 15, 2018.
- Harriet Rudolph: Reichsstadt, Reich, Europa. The Reichstag in historical research: Comparative perspectives, presence of European states . Ed .: Harriet Rudolph, Astrid von Schlachta. Schnell & Steiner GmbH, Regensburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-7954-2972-0 , p. 11-37 .
- Dominik Weiß: From the train station to the old grain market. In: Bernhard Lübbers , Staatliche Bibliothek Regensburg (Ed.): Years of quiet change, Regensburg around 1910 . 1st edition. tape 3 . Universitätsverlag Regensburg, Regensburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-86845-069-9 , p. 25-48 .
- Georg Köglmeier, Bernhard Lübbers, Foreword Years of Stillen Wandels, Regensburg around 1910, Universitätsverlag Regensburg 2010, Catalogs and Writings of the Regensburg State Library, Volume 3, ISBN 978-3-86845-069-9 , p. 7.
- Michael Hermann: The red heart stain - exemplary refurbished . In: 40 years of urban development funding in Regensburg - a success story . City of Regensburg, Planning and Building Department, Office for Urban Development, Regensburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-935052-96-2 , p. 53 f .
- Karl Bauer: Regensburg Art, Culture and Everyday History . 6th edition. MZ-Buchverlag in H. Gietl Verlag & Publication Service GmbH, Regenstauf 2014, ISBN 978-3-86646-300-4 , p. 31 f .
- Karl Bauer: Regensburg Art, Culture and Everyday History . 6th edition. MZ-Buchverlag in H. Gietl Verlag & Publication Service GmbH, Regenstauf 2014, ISBN 978-3-86646-300-4 , p. 221 f .
- Eugen Trapp: The most elegant landmark in the city. Conservation notes on the history of the Regensburg Goliath fresco . In: City of Regensburg, Office for Archives and Preservation of Monuments (ed.): Preservation of monuments in Regensburg . tape 12 . Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-7917-2371-6 , pp. 80-97 .
- Karl Bauer: Regensburg Art, Culture and Everyday History . 6th edition. MZ-Buchverlag in H. Gietl Verlag & Publication Service GmbH, Regenstauf 2014, ISBN 978-3-86646-300-4 , p. 83-85 .
- Raffael Parzefall: Coal market square, Rathausplatz, Haidplatz, Arnulfsplatz, Bismarckplatz. In: Bernhard Lübbers, Staatliche Bibliothek Regensburg (Ed.): Years of quiet change, Regensburg around 1910 . 1st edition. tape 3 . Universitätsverlag Regensburg, Regensburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-86845-069-9 , p. 103-126 .
- Karl Bauer: Regensburg Art, Culture and Everyday History . 6th edition. MZ-Buchverlag in H. Gietl Verlag & Publication Service GmbH, Regenstauf 2014, ISBN 978-3-86646-300-4 , p. 58-60 .
- Harald Gieß: Forty years of urban redevelopment in Regensburg . Ed .: City of Regensburg planning and construction department. Erhardi Druck GmbH, Regensburg 1995, ISBN 3-925753-45-1 , p. 99-101 .
- Eugen Trapp: Domplatz, The return of the king . In: City of Regensburg, Office for Archives and Preservation of Monuments (ed.): Preservation of monuments in Regensburg . tape 12 . Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-7917-2371-6 , pp. 134 .
- Karl Bauer: Regensburg Art, Culture and Everyday History . 6th edition. MZ-Buchverlag in H. Gietl Verlag & Publication Service GmbH, Regenstauf 2014, ISBN 978-3-86646-300-4 , p. 58-60 .
- Rainer Ehm: Bavaria, especially Regensburg, in the focus of the French and British air forces 1939-1941. In: Negotiations of the historical association for Upper Palatinate and Regensburg. Volume 155 (2015), , p. 268.
- Siegfried Körmer: 40 years of old town renovation in Regensburg . Ed .: City of Regensburg planning and construction department. Erhardi Druck GmbH, Regensburg 1995, ISBN 3-925753-45-1 , p. 33-85 .
- Günter Stöberl: The renovation of Regensburg's old town - 40 years in a city of 1800 years . Ed .: City of Regensburg planning and construction department. Erhardi Druck GmbH, Regensburg 1995, ISBN 3-925753-45-1 , p. 11-18 .
- On the importance of Regensburg in the history of the Reformation, see Reformation City of Regensburg. A city with charisma - Reformation in the Danube region. In: reformation-cities.org/cities. accessed on February 16, 2018.
- Explanation of the World Heritage on the website of the City of Regensburg , accessed on June 15, 2018.