Augustinian monastery in Regensburg
The Augustinian monastery in Regensburg is a former monastery of the Augustinian hermits built in the middle of the 13th century in Regensburg in Bavaria in the diocese of Regensburg. It was located on the southwest side of Neupfarrplatz . The monastery buildings were largely demolished in the course of the 19th century. The associated church was demolished in 1838 because it was in disrepair.
In March 1255, the citizens of Regensburg built a wooden Salvator Chapel at the intersection of Gesandersstrasse and Bachgasse within three days, which was consecrated by Bishop Albert I in the same year . The building was the result of the Regensburger host miracle that had happened on the bridge over the Vitus Bach , who was then flowed through the open Bachgasse. Because the bridge led into the Jewish quarter of Regensburg , it was called the Judensteg and a priest had lost consecrated hosts on this Judensteg , which were immediately saved by angels. A pilgrimage movement developed, the income of which made it possible as early as 1260 to replace the wooden chapel with a stone structure and to build a large new church next to the chapel. In July 1267, the city council handed over the church and chapel to the Augustinians , who had been in Regensburg for a long time and had papal permission to settle in cities. At the same time, the Augustinians also received adjacent land for the construction of monastery buildings. As a donor, the city took over the patronage and granted tax exemption “for eternity” .
The income of the monastery from legacies of citizens and donations developed so well that the church could be expanded to the west as far as Bachgasse in the 13th century. At the end of the 14th century, the church could also be extended to the east with a Gothic choir. A relatively low bell tower with a gallery was added to the north facade, which can be recognized in the contemporary image to the left of the much higher Golden Tower (also named after the owner: Peuchels Thurm ) by the Augustin Clost award . The original Salvatorkapelle was preserved and was named Kreuzkapelle because the citizens worshiped a precious crucifix there. In the following period the monastery became the most important Augustinian monastery in Bavaria and the mother monastery of other Augustinian monasteries in Munich , Niederviehbach , Taus , Ramsau and Prague . A religious college for the Bavarian province was operated in the monastery, specializing primarily in philosophical and theological studies. In the 16th century, a time of crisis began for the monastery with financial and structural difficulties. It turned out that the church threatened to collapse because the building site at Vitusbach proved to be unstable. At the beginning of the Reformation in Regensburg, the number of monks fell sharply and the monastic discipline also reached a low point, which was later improved again by the influence of the Regensburg bishop. In 1538 Albrecht Altdorfer was buried in the church.
From 1731, with the help of the Munich city architect Ignaz Anton Gunetzrhainer , the church was structurally strengthened, which eliminated the danger of collapse. Then began the remodeling of the church in the Baroque style with the participation of the Asam brothers . After the monastery fell to Bavaria in the course of secularization in 1810 , it was dissolved and the buildings were temporarily used for military purposes. Books and archival materials were handed over to the archivist General Carl Theodor Gemeiner , while works of art and pictures were to be handed over to the State Collections in Munich or auctioned off. The Regensburg freelance artist Joseph Franz von Goez was commissioned to inspect the church's paintings before they were auctioned off and to requisition the best pieces for the museums in Munich . He made a list of the pictures, which ended with the request to leave some pictures in Regensburg after all and also to bring some pictures to Regensburg from the overflowing depots in Munich in order to offer the citizens the opportunity to learn about art and to please.
After 1824, the buildings were temporarily used as accommodation by a community college, but building damage increased. In 1830 the entire monastery grounds were sold to Joseph Anton von Maffei and part of the building was demolished. The church was also demolished in 1838 due to its dilapidation and from 1855 the new buildings were built, which are still preserved today. In the course of this construction work, the cruciform chapel from 1255 was also torn down.
- Theodor Grünberger (1756–1820), composer, Augustinian monk and priest; created his first composition, Opus 1, in the Augustinian monastery in Regensburg.
- Karl Bauer: Regensburg Art, Culture and Everyday History . MZ-Buchverlag in H. Gietl Verlag & Publication Service GmbH, Regenstauf 2014, ISBN 978-3-86646-300-4 , p. 156 ff .
- Karl Bauer: Regensburg Art, Culture and Everyday History . MZ-Buchverlag in H. Gietl Verlag & Publication Service GmbH, Regenstauf 2014, ISBN 978-3-86646-300-4 , p. 248 .