In the case of cultural goods, restoration is the restoration of an old condition, which has often been lost over time. The subject areas to be involved in a restoration depend on the objects to be restored (e.g. monuments , panel paintings , wall paintings , archaeological finds , musical instruments , vintage cars , films ) and the materials used ( wood , textiles , paints , stone , ceramics , paper , Leather , metal , glass ) and the techniques used.
In addition to academic restoration , the field of handicraft restoration is established as a purely professionally trained, economically oriented field of activity in the handicrafts . Craftsmen play an important role in the renovation of old buildings and monument preservation, but also in object restoration ( musical instruments , books , archives , vehicles and other technical objects) in the private market, where they perform restoration services based on professional training with the help of traditional craft techniques . Academic and artisanal restoration each have specific areas of application and methods, but often complement one another.
According to the definition of the international museum association ICOM, the term “restoration” describes all actions that promote the perception, appreciation and understanding of the object. These measures are only carried out if an object has lost parts of its meaning or function due to past changes or destruction. The principles of respect for the original and its history as well as reversibility apply. Examples of restoration include putting together a broken sculpture and reshaping a basket.
Restoration differs from conservation, which includes all measures that are intended to stabilize the condition of an object and slow down the occurrence of future damage. Above all, suitable environmental conditions play a role here. Furthermore, z. B. cleaning represent a conservation measure.
In addition, there are measures that can include both areas, e.g. B. the desalination of a ceramic, the deacidification of paper or the application of a protective coating.
The guidelines for restoration and conservation are laid down in the internationally valid Code of ethics .
History and Restoration Theory
Development of the guiding principles
In the beginning of the restoration one understood the restoration of a building or a work of art to an earlier state than originally considered. The idea of this state was based partly on the material inventory, but partly also on a meaning ascribed to the object, which should be conveyed in a new design (redesign of the Speyer Cathedral in the 2nd half of the 19th century). This idea of restoration, which was valid well into the early 20th century, ultimately led to the expansion of the Cologne Cathedral or the Ulm Minster , but also numerous less prominent objects. In the context of this view, meaning and aesthetic evaluation were closely linked.
The term was coined in the 1830s by the "father of restoration" Eugène Viollet-le-Duc . According to this, restoration was a process of restoring an originally intended, perfect state that may have never existed ( "Restoration - Le mot et la chose sont modern. Restaurer un édifice, ce n'est pas l'entretenir, le réparer ou le refaire, c'est le rétablir dans un état complet qui peut n'avoir jamais existé à un moment donné. " Quotation from: Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène Emmanuel: Dictionnaire raisonné de l'architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle ; 1886 ). For Viollet-le-Duc, the aim of the restoration was to (re) restore the originally planned statement of a monument. The English scholar John Ruskin contradicted this view in the 1840s . He saw in the restoration the falsification of the found condition and thus the monument value of a building ( “Do not let us talk of restoration, the thing is a lie from beginning to end. That spirit which is given only by the hand and eye of the workman , can never be recalled " Quotation from: Ruskin, John: The Seven Lamps of Architecture ; 1849). According to Ruskin, conservation should make restoration unnecessary. His opinion shaped art historians and preservationists: "Preserve, not restore" was Georg Dehio's request around 1900 , who played a key role in the development of monument preservation in Germany.
Nevertheless, the conception of the work as a historical source only slowly gained acceptance in monument conservation . It was only after the Second World War that restoration was gradually understood as conservation . The aim of conservation is to secure the existing stock and, if necessary, to develop it. The meaning of the object is no longer measured only in terms of its aesthetic component, rather an attempt is made to keep the object open for as many approaches to assigning meaning as possible. This view was laid down in the Charter of Venice in 1964 , which formulated and bindingly established the objectives of modern restoration.
Preservation of the original substance
The object of the restoration is the original substance of the object. The term is relatively clear in practice, but not easy to narrow down in theory. Modern monument preservation does not see an original - inevitably hypothetical - state at a certain point in time, be it the moment when the artist may have said the work “is finished”, be it the moment when it becomes part of the collective memory as “typical”, nor the “valuable” parts of the object - even if such evaluations are undisputed in the execution of the restoration. Strictly speaking, the term simply describes the work as it is presented to the restorer at the moment when the restoration begins.
Reconstruction of the work history
One of the central work steps here is object research , i.e. the reconstruction of the work's history . From this it can be decided in individual cases which parts are absolutely worth preserving, which can and should be sacrificed in order to enable access to earlier versions, what - to remove - dirt, and what - as evidence of the times - is the patina of the object and which Parts as disfiguring foreign bodies or irregular changes should not be accepted.
Reversibility of the intervention
The aim of modern restoration is to improve the conditions of preservation by interfering with the object as far as possible. The reversibility of the intervention is one of the main requirements today : This strict requirement draws the lessons from the restorations of the 19th and 20th centuries, which consistently showed serious negative consequences: For example, in a current restoration, in general, the undoing of earlier interventions in the work makes up most of the work, and a large part of the losses are not due to "natural" aging, but rather well-intended interventions at the time. The enormous developments in the materials and methods of restoration have shown that every restoration, including today's restoration, that introduces substances into the work or touches it mechanically, can only be regarded as a “contemporary compromise” after a few decades. Where reversibility is not possible, precise documentation is required in order to at least keep the work history closed by means of a report.
Ideally, an object to be restored would remain completely untouched if the main goal of any preservation were not to stop the aging-related signs of deterioration and thus to preserve the work itself. On the other hand, because the aging phenomena of all kinds in today's understanding, according to which all changes and losses have become part of the object as a work history, a restoration cannot be the "freezing" of a status quo. The central concern is therefore to keep the plant under control in its aging process - in whatever way - even if it is only to enable future generations to implement what is technically not feasible today on the object and to cause them as few problems as possible. but get as much as possible.
Legibility of the work
According to today's understanding, the end result of a restoration should - in addition to the conservation carried out with the best conscience of theoretical requirements and according to the state of the art - be the most comprehensive legibility of the work possible . This term probably includes the statements that were intended by an object, be they the contemporary primary occasion or secondary reinterpretations and reinterpretations. Rather, however, readability means understanding the current situation based on the history of the work. Furthermore, he urges the restorer not to take any interpretative measures, but to enable every viewer to understand the work from within - be it material science studies that must not be falsified, be it art-historical conclusions or aesthetic considerations . The restorer includes his own work in particular: all steps that he takes should be legible for posterity as far as possible from the work itself in order to prevent later misinterpretations. A classic example of this is neutral retouching or tratteggio , a retouching method that was developed by Cesare Brandi in the Istituto superiore per la conservazione ed il restauro in Rome in order to reduce imperfections in the original to the extent that they do not distract the viewer from the actual image content. but become immediately apparent to those who look closer. The presentation methods are derived from this today, which by no means conceal the "painful" losses in the original, but document them soberly, but nevertheless show a coherent picture of the state in which the original substance itself is the primary impression.
Outdated guiding principles
Terms such as faithfulness to the original or an understanding of the work no longer play a role - they imply speculations that cannot be the task of a restorer. At most, one speaks of faithfulness to the work and means a certain naive approach to the object, the work, creator of the work and later contributions from their time respects and forbids making “improvements” unless they serve the primary goals of preservation and legibility. Even a focus on original materials or original methods , as was pursued in the years after the Venice Charter as a counterpoint to earlier deviations in restoration, is no longer relevant today. Wherever their inadequacies are known, as well as where the smell of some kind of counterfeit threatens, contrasting material and the most modern methodology are the means of choice.
Constraints: intactness and accessibility
While the academic and museum restoration can work very closely to the Venice Charter, the commercial restorer is exposed to the tension between these models and the client's desire for an intact work - a large part of all restorations is privately financed, and financed even for listed objects the owner about 30–60% of the restoration, depending on the public interest.
As before, there is still no popular distinction between restoration and reconstruction , and far too seldom a distinction is made between renovation and refurbishment . The guiding principle of the public - whether painting or building - is still formulated today in the sentence “shines with a new splendor”, a concept that, according to the paradigm of the history of the work, is not tenable and is seldom practicable. The restoration is limited to what is already there , it does not "restore" (lat. Re-construct ) what is lost, nor does it "renew" (lat. Re-novare ) basic components, and it does not try to to “heal” the “wounds” of time (lat. sanare ).
In addition to the objects that are only used as historical documents in museums, a distinction must be made between primarily decorative objects (pictures, sculptures, wall paintings and the like) and functional objects (furniture, vehicles ): If the use value is to be preserved, must reconstructive measures are usually unavoidable even in an academically strict restoration. These areas of tension are typical, for example, in the restoration of church buildings, which on the one hand require enormous financial expenditure and are therefore exposed to great "success" pressure, and on the other hand are a useful object for the community, but a museum object for art history. This is even more pronounced in utility buildings: Here, real restoration is often limited to individual assemblies that are incorporated into new constructions. The restoration of historical data carriers (from clay tablets to manuscripts of literature and music to film material, but in a broader sense also all artistic works) cannot avoid taking into account the primary legibility of the original, not of the restored object.
Another area of tension arises from optimal conservation and making the object accessible - even if it is only from the pragmatic practical obligation to finance the preservation of old valuable objects. Most of the objects could be better preserved under the lock and key of controlled environmental conditions, but on the other hand the pieces should also be able to do justice to their original purpose in large areas (e.g. for pictures, to be viewed). The demand for unspoiled nature can be implemented ideally in modern archeology , for example , where ground monuments, provided that they are not required to be salvaged as emergency excavations or for investigation purposes, can be returned to the ground after precise documentation as they have been preserved over centuries or millennia to have. The problem of robbery excavations calls this into question, and in many other areas compromises of the most varied kinds must be found between conservation and presentation.
- See also: Restorer - on workshop and training
Scope of a restoration
Restoration today is generally made up of
- Assessment of the substance present
- Development of a concept about the procedure, objectives and methodology
- Cleaning and, if necessary, exposure of relevant versions
- the protection (conservation in the strict sense)
- the presentation of the substance in the context of the imperfections and the other surroundings of a work
- as well as the comprehensive documentation of the restoration process
In addition to carrying out restorations, there is restoration advice . Here the concept for restorations is drawn up, similar to the work of an architect.
Areas of work and specialist areas
- Architecture and space -making
- Archaeological excavation and archaeological heritage
- Components ( stairs , doors , windows , floors )
- Fittings and other decorative elements
- Audio , video and other data carriers ( data tapes)
- Ethnographic objects, folklore and ethnology
- Photography, film
- Painting , painting painting
- Glass objects , glass windows and ceramics
- Graphics and hand drawings , painting on paper
- Wooden objects
- Handicraft objects
- Clothing and historical jewelry
- Chandeliers and historical hangings
- Metal objects: art cast , handicraft objects
- Furniture and other interior design
- Modern materials and media ( media art )
- Musical instruments and other clay monuments (bells)
- Paper, written material , graphics, books and book illumination
- Upholstery , covering and saddlery
- Restoration history and theory
- Stone sculpture and stone architecture
- Stucco and stucco sculptures, plaster cast
- Panel painting and wood sculpture
- Wallpapers and tapestries (picture wallpapers ) on textiles and paper supports
- Technical cultural asset
- Textiles , carpets , leather
- Clocks by Rhabilleur
- Wall and ceiling painting
- Vehicle restoration
- Video art
Special case: automobile restoration
According to more recent definitions, automobiles are objects of cultural history ( oldtimers ). What is called an automobile restoration is almost always a renovation, i.e. a renewal. It is not carried out in the sense of preservation for museum viewing and cultural-historical observation, but to preserve the historical motor vehicle in its driving function or to lead it back. In the process, technical details and historical materials are lost as material sources of the history of technology and science: It is the legislation that has been changed and adapted since the vehicle was built and used on a daily basis, which also entails numerous technical and material changes during renovation. About 20-30 years ago, traces of use ( patina ) were largely removed as an indication of the long use of a vehicle. Today we pay attention to the preservation of signs of use whenever possible. The scientific conservation and restoration of historical vehicles ensures that traces of the aging of the materials and the use and conversion of a historical vehicle are preserved in the same way as on other valuable cultural assets. Restorers specializing in the restoration of technical cultural property carry out such work. The classic car restoration geared towards drivability is carried out in specialized car workshops; Often other trades specializing in historical craft techniques, such as coachbuilders and upholsterers, are connected to these. In these workshops, spare parts that are still available are built into the vehicles or assemblies are elaborately reconstructed based on historical models. To do this, it is necessary to master specific historical technologies.
The museum preservation and restoration of historical motor vehicles (automobiles and two-wheelers / motorcycles) becomes more and more important, the more technology and material are lost from the construction period of vehicles or from the different phases of their use and maintenance. Preserving the layers and traces that have arisen on the vehicle over the course of a long time so that they are all visible at the same time makes a vehicle preserved in this way interesting. You can feel a historical space that lets you discover a lot. The task of interdisciplinary, scientifically trained restorers is to open up this historical space for the user and viewer. Knowledge of the history of culture and technology as well as automotive technology, a feel for surfaces and their effect on people, and precise scientific methodology for working on the original materials are required. Responsible collectors and museums place increasing importance on the preservation and authenticity of the vehicles. The use in the original sense of the object “vehicle” takes a back seat, the preservation of historical materials and the stopping of the decay of irretrievable historical details are becoming more and more important.
Motor vehicles were not recognized as a cultural asset for a long time; this has changed. Historically correct restorations are no longer only carried out in car workshops, but in highly qualified restoration companies or a restoration studio. When it comes to driving skills, close cooperation between the two types of service provider is ideal, even if it is still quite rare at the moment.
The culturally significant technical functional objects of the 19th and 20th centuries, such as "automobiles", "railway vehicles" etc., which have so far mainly been considered from the point of view of their usefulness, are increasingly seen in their cultural significance and are therefore conserved and restored according to scientific criteria. A degree program that prepares students for this social task is offered at the HTW Berlin.
Associations and Organizations
- VDR - Association of Restorers (D)
- BfR - Association of Independent Restoration Workshops e. V. (D)
- BDA - Federal Monuments Office (A)
- ÖRV - Austrian Association of Restorers (A)
- SKR - Swiss Association for Conservation and Restoration (CH)
- FT - Textile Section of the SKR, Switzerland (CH)
- AIC - American Institute for Conservation (US)
- FFCR - Fédération Française des Conservateurs Restaurateurs (F)
- ICON - Institute of Conservation (GB / SCO)
- IMAI - Inter Media Art Institute Düsseldorf, conservation and restoration of media art
International umbrella organizations:
- ECCO - European Confederation of Conservator-Restorers 'Organizations ( Association of European Restorers' Associations )
- ENCoRE - European Network for Conservation Restoration Education
- IADA - International Association of Archive, Library and Graphic Restorers
- ICOM - International Council of Museums (International Council of Museums)
- ICOMOS - International Council on Monuments and Sites (International Council on Monuments and Sites)
- IIC - International Institute for Conservation
Faculties and institutes in German-speaking countries
- Berlin : Degree in conservation and restoration / excavation technology at the Berlin University of Applied Sciences
- Bern : Department of Conservation and Restoration at the Bern University of the Arts
- Dresden : degree course in art technology, conservation and restoration of art and cultural assets in the fields of wall painting and architectural colors; Painting on mobile picture carriers ; Polychrome sculpture, panels and reredos. ( Dresden University of Fine Arts )
- Erfurt : Faculty of civil engineering and conservation / restoration of the Erfurt University of Applied Sciences
- Hildesheim : Faculty of building and maintenance of the HAWK Hochschule Hildesheim / Holzminden / Göttingen with the Hornemann Institute
- Cologne : Institute for Restoration and Conservation Science in the Faculty of Cultural Studies at the Technical University of Cologne
- Mainz : Dual course of study at the RGZM ( Roman-Germanic Central Museum ) in Mainz and the Institute for Prehistory and Early History at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
- Munich : Chair for Restoration, Art Technology and Conservation Science at the Technical University of Munich
- Munich: State-recognized specialist academy for training restorers
- Potsdam : Degree in conservation and restoration at the Potsdam University of Applied Sciences
- Stuttgart : Degree courses in conservation and restoration: paintings and mounted sculptures; Archaeological, ethnological and handicraft objects; Works of art on paper, archival and library material; Wall painting, architectural surface and stone polychromy; Conservation of New Media and Digital Information (MA) at the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart .
- Vienna : Institute for Conservation and Restoration, University of Applied Arts Vienna
- Vienna: Institute for Conservation-Restoration of the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna
Concept and characteristics
Analogous to the academic restoration, which in their professional networks ICOM-CC and ECCO has developed their own description and models for the academic side of restoration, various committees of the chambers of crafts and craft associations have dealt with their craft side as representatives of vocational training . The focus is on tacit knowledge, years of practicing and passing on craft techniques, and operational know-how that is imparted in a practical and economically relevant way in vocational training and further education. The characteristics of craft restoration were worked out and coordinated by the German craft organizations in 2015-2016:
- Artisanal restoration is carried out by professionally trained craftsmen who work as entrepreneurs or employees in craft companies or in cultural institutions such as construction works or museums.
- The basis are craft restoration techniques and traditional craft techniques.
- The necessary techniques are learned, deepened and perfected through regular craft practice in vocational training and further education.
- The exercise not only gives craftsmen specific motor skills and sharpens their action-related thinking. She also refines her knowledge of the materials and techniques used. As specialists, craftsmen can easily recognize and interpret craft-specific findings and damage patterns.
- Restoring craft companies are approved and monitored in Germany by the locally responsible craft chambers. As master craftsmen's businesses, they are subject to trade tax and are subject to collective bargaining agreements that have professional equipment, must comply with labor law standards and are subject to warranty.
- Artisanal restoration is particularly suitable for maintaining the serviceability of historical buildings and objects and enabling them to be used. Above all, it can preserve important historical information about the function of objects.
- It preserves not only the material, but also the intangible cultural heritage by practicing, practicing and developing traditional handicraft techniques. Incremental innovations are often used here.
- In the preservation of monuments , which is subject to special legal provisions, artisanal restorers always work together with other specialist disciplines.
While academic restoration, which draws its work-related point of view from the aesthetic theory of the 19th and early 20th centuries and, since the 1920s and 1930s, especially from the field of museum painting and sculpture restoration, has become a technical teaching profession in museums, from the 1980s Years of professionalization into an academic course of study, the classic craft restoration continued to exist as a craft-commercial branch of restoration. When, after the Second World War, under the sign of industrial construction, many traditional craft techniques were no longer taught in regular training, many artisanal restoration techniques fell into oblivion. After the European Year of Monument Protection in 1975, the Council of Europe therefore gave the impetus to establish the training center on the island of San Servolo in Venice. The principles of professional training and further education for restoration and monument preservation were also adopted in the 1980s in the dual training system, the master craftsman examination pictures and the examination regulations for restorers in the craft in Germany. In 2008 the Council of Europe emphasized the importance of handicraft restoration for the preservation of cultural goods and pointed out the need to support European handicraft organizations in their efforts to provide vocational training and further education in this field and to promote their European networking.
Artisanal restorers understand the traditional artisanal techniques, which require special skill and constant practice, as part of the intellectual or immaterial cultural heritage to be preserved with the material cultural heritage , which must not be lost any more than the material heritage. In it, they refer to the discussion promoted by the San Antonio Declaration of 1996, which cast doubt on the doctrine that Europe had at the time to focus solely on the material. Under the impression of the cultural turn in the humanities and a globally growing sensitivity for the findings of the cultural sciences , this led to a new understanding of cultural heritage at the end of the last millennium. Today the concept of cultural heritage no longer only includes material cultural assets. Intangible cultural assets are living, “intangible” customs, representations, forms of expression, but also technical knowledge and skills with the associated tools. With the UNESCO Convention for the Preservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage, which was signed in 2003 and came into force in 2006, traditional handicraft techniques, arts and traditions are internationally recognized as an essential prerequisite for the creation of material cultural heritage.
The Federal Republic of Germany has been keeping a nationwide register of intangible cultural heritage since 2014 , which includes organ building and the painting, barrel and gilding techniques used by church painters , Hessian scratch plaster and the preparation and use of traditional lime mortar . Artisanal restoration thus serves to preserve both the tangible and intangible cultural heritage.
Towards the end of the last millennium, there was also increasing criticism of a conservation philosophy that wanted to treat even technical cultural goods and vehicles in operation like objects from art collections. Declarations of principle, charters and guidelines for the preservation of technical cultural assets and historical means of transport, such as the European Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Traditional Ships in Operation ( Charter of Barcelona, 2003 ), which European Charter for the Preservation and Restoration of Operational Railway Museums (Conservation Guidelines for Operational Railway Museums = Charter of Riga, 2005), the Charter of Turin for the Preservation of Historic Vehicles (Turin Charter on historic vehicles, 2013), and the Charter of Braunschweig for Aviation preservation of historical aircraft (Braunschweig Charter on aviation heritage, 2015) emphasize the importance that the continued operation and use of cultural assets has for their fundamental understanding and preservation. They therefore demand that the usability of these cultural goods must be maintained, that they should be preserved through operation and use in order to avoid damage to the stand, and they demand the use of the corresponding traditional craft techniques. Such cultural assets, which are often privately owned, are usually restored by hand.
Restoration craft branches
A study on handicrafts in the cultural and creative industries carried out on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology in 2010–2011 names the restoration and preservation of cultural heritage as one of seven major fields of activity of culturally active handicrafts. With around 7.5 billion euros p. a. handicraft restoration and monument preservation achieve around 1.3% of total handicraft sales.
Artisanal restorers are only active in the craft they have learned, so the areas of activity are not subdivided into overarching material or object groups, but according to the craft they have learned. In 2017, more than 50 branches of craft were active in the field of restoration / preservation of cultural heritage, for example:
- Concrete and reinforced concrete constructors
- Picture carver
- Boat builders , shipbuilders
- Gemstone cutter
- Vehicle technician
- Fine bag maker
- Wattle designer
- Patchwork manufacturer
- violin maker
- Glassblowers , glass apparatus builders
- Hand-drawn instrument maker
- Woodwind instrument maker
- Wood and building protectors
- Body builder , vehicle builder
- Piano and harpsichord maker
- Lampshade manufacturer
- Bespoke tailor
- Metal and bell foundries
- Brass instrument maker
- Organ and harmonium builder
- Parquet layer
- Porcelain painter
- Interior decorator
- Stonecutters , stone sculptors
- Fabric painter
- Textile designer in the craft
- Wax puller
- Ashlar manufacturer
- Plucked instrument maker
Vocational education and training
The basics of manual restoration are laid in three to three and a half years of manual training. Artisanal restorers are trained or further educated in more than 50 craft trades at the apprenticeship or master level; The training ordinances such as the master craftsman's examination are regulated nationwide in Germany, d. H. they are issued as ordinances that apply uniformly throughout the federal territory. In 10 professions, especially in the building trade, there is regulated training to become a journeyman / specialist for restoration work. In 15 branches of the trade, various training centers and chambers of crafts offer specialization training for restorers in the respective trade. For artisan restorers, their experience on the three-year journeyman hike often plays an important role .
Since the end of the 1970s, craftsmen have had the opportunity to take part in the monument preservation course at the Centro Europeo per i Mestieri di Patrimonio in Italy as part of a scholarship program. The European Center was located on the island of San Servolo in Venice from 1976 to 2007 , and in 2008 the facility moved to the mainland in Thiene near Vicenza to the Villa Fabris of the craft organization Confartigianato Vicenza.
At the European level, the training centers for craft restoration merged in 2012 to form the “Fédération européenne pour les métiers du patrimoine bâti” (FEMP) at the La-Paix Dieu center in Belgium.
Training centers in German-speaking countries
Vocational training for craft restoration / monument preservation is offered today by a number of training centers for craftsmen of different ages and experience groups. For example in:
- Berlin : Chamber of Crafts Berlin. Restoration Center Berlin e. V.
- Biberach (Riß) : Competence Center for Timber Construction & Expansion
- Erfurt : · Chamber of Crafts Erfurt
- Frankfurt (Oder): Berufsförderungswerk e. V. of the Berlin-Brandenburg Building Industry Association e. V.
- Fulda : Propstei Johannesberg gGmbH
- Görlitz : Görlitz Training Center for Crafts and Monument Preservation e. V.
- Halle (Saale) : Halle Chamber of Crafts
- Hanover : Chamber of Crafts Hanover, Academy for Design and Design in the Crafts Lower Saxony e. V.
- Herrstein : Koblenz Chamber of Crafts, Center for Restoration and Monument Preservation
- Kassel : Federal training center for the carpentry and finishing trade gGmbH
- Klingenthal : Vogtland vocational school center , Klingenthal school section
- Königslutter : Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Stade Chamber of Crafts, training center for the stonemasonry and sculpture trade
- Leipzig : Chamber of Crafts in Leipzig
- Leonberg : Berufsförderungs-GmbH
- Ludwigsburg : Oscar Walcker School
- Mittenwald : State vocational school
- Munich : State capital Munich, municipal master school for the painting and varnishing trade, municipal master school for the gilding trade
- Neu-Anspach (Taunus) : Hessian watchmaking school "Karl-Geitz-Schule" in Hessenpark
- Raesfeld : Academy of Crafts at Raesfeld Castle
- Schwerin : Schwerin Chamber of Crafts
- Stuttgart : Buchbinder Colleg. Chamber of Crafts Region Stuttgart
- Wunsiedel : European training center for the stonemasonry and stone carving trade
Associations and Organizations
- ZDH - Central Association of German Crafts
- DHKT - German Chamber of Crafts
- UDH - Association of German Craftsmen
- ARGE - Working group of advanced training centers for the preservation of handicrafts
- RiH eV - Restorer in the craft e. V.
- Specialist group for church painters, restorers and gilders in Bavaria
- Federal guild association for the musical instrument trade
- Parquet restorers specialist group in the Central Association of Parquet and Flooring Technology
- Association of restorers in the carpentry trade
- Specialist group restorers in the professional association of plasterers for interior work and facade
- Federal association of restorers in the interior decorating trade
- UEAPME - Union Européenne de l'Artisanat et des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises - European Association of Craft, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (association of European craft organizations)
- FEMP - Fédération européenne pour les métiers du patrimoine bâti - European Federation for Architectural Heritage Skills (Federation for Craft Restoration and Monument Preservation)
- EMH - European Maritime Heritage (Association for historic ships in operation)
- Centro Europeo per i Mestieri di Patrimonio - Fondazione Villa Fabris (European Center for Artisanal Restoration)
in alphabetical order by authors / editors
- Office of the Lower Austrian Provincial Government (Hrsg.): To the restoration 3rd part: Of toys, clocks and motorcycles . = Preservation of monuments in Lower Austria 18 and communications from Lower Austria 8 (1996). Druckhaus Grasl, Bad Vöslau undated .
- Cesare Brandi : Theory of Restoration. Siegl, Munich 2006. ISBN 978-3-935643-32-0 .
- German Restorers Association eV (Hrsg.): History of restoration in Europe . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 1991:
- Johannes Gfeller, Agathe Jarczyk, Joanna Phillips: Compendium of image disturbances in analog video . Scheidegger and Spiess Verlag , Zurich 2013. ISBN 978-3936185348 .
- Norbert Huse (Ed.): Preservation of monuments: German texts from three centuries . Verlag CHBeck 2006. ISBN 978-3-406-40544-0 .
- Friederike Klemm (Ed.): Restorers Handbook 2006 (Restauro - Forum for restorers , conservators and preservationists ) . Callwey Verlag , Munich 2006. ISBN 3-7667-1654-9 .
- Hans Joachim Leithner : Knowledge store for restorers - materials , self-publication Hans-Joachim Leithner, Weimar 2012.
- Klaus Müller, Michael Söndermann, Sebastian Markworth: The craft in the cultural and creative industries (Göttinger Handwerkswirtschaftliche Studien 84). Mecke, Duderstadt 2011. ISBN 978-3869440514 . 
- Knut Nicolaus: Handbook of painting restoration . Könemann Verlag, Cologne 1998, 2001. ISBN 3-89508-921-4 .
- Restoring craft - skilled workers and specialists for the preservation of cultural heritage (published by Central Association of German Crafts), Berlin 2017. 
- The SAGE Handbook of Social Anthropology . Edited by Richard Fardon, Loivia Haris, Trevor HJ Marchand, Mark Nuttal, Cris Shore, Veronica Strang and Richard A. Wilson. Sage, Los Angeles, London, Dew Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC 2012. Volume 2. ISBN 978-1847875471 .
- Arnulf von Ulmann (ed.): Anti-aging for art. Restoring - dealing with the traces of time. (= Publication by the Institute for Art Technology and Conservation in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. 7). Nuremberg 2004 (= cultural-historical walks in the Germanic National Museum. Volume 6). ISBN 978-3-936688-01-6 .
- Gerald Unterberger : Restoration - Restoration. A modern differentiation of terms and the original meaning of a word in a mythical-cultic context . In: Mother tongue 122.3 (2012).
- Paper restoration or since 2009 Journal of PaperConservation , ed. by the International Working Group of Archive, Library and Graphic Restorers (IADA) - appears four times a year, http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/iada/
- VDR contributions to the preservation of art and cultural assets: Die Fachzeitschrift des VDR , ed. from the Association of Restorers (VDR) - appears twice a year, as well as other monographs on special topics, http://www.restauratoren.de .
- Restauro - specialist publication for restorers, conservators and preservationists, Callwey Verlag Munich, , http://restauro.de
- Journal for Art Technology and Conservation (ZKK) has been published since 1987, 2 issues per year, Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, , 
- Restoration and archeology. Conservation, restoration, technology, archaeometry (multilingual), appears annually, volume 1 appeared in 2008, Verlag des Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseums - Research Institute for Prehistory and Early History Mainz, http://web.rgzm.de/655.html?&L= 0 .
- Restorer in the craft - trade journal for restoration practice, ed. from the Federal Association of Restorers in the Crafts V., appears four times a year, http://www.restaurator-im-handwerk.eu . ,
- Sistine Chapel. Vatican Museums , accessed December 10, 2019 .
- A festival of under the patina of centuries . In: Der Spiegel . No. 3 , 1985 ( online ).
- ICOM - International Museum Council (ed.): Ethical guidelines for museums by ICOM. Revised 2nd edition of the German version, ISBN 978-3-9523484-5-1 (PDF, 848 kB)
- restoration, the restoration [esp. of works of art and historical objects] (Der Große Duden, VEB Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1978)
- Restoration ... (restoration of a work of art; restoration of the old order after an overturn); Duden, spelling of the German language and foreign words, 18th, revised and expanded edition, Bibliographisches Institut Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich, Dudenverlag 1980, ISBN 3-411-20925-9
- web links , Romoe restorers network - there also further entries
- Members ( memento of September 29, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), ECCO
- www.bfr-ev.de Association of Independent Restoration Workshops e. V.
- www.skr.ch Swiss Association for Conservation and Restoration
- www.textilkonservierung.ch Textile group of the SKR, Switzerland
- aic.stanford.edu The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works
- ffcr-fr.org Fédération Française des Conservateurs Restaurateurs
- icon.org.uk The Institute of Conservation
- imaionline.de imai - inter media art institute
- CoOl Conservation OnLine - Resources for Conservation Professionals , palimpsest.stanford.edu
- ecco-eu.org European Confederation of Conservator-Restorers' Organizations
- encore-edu.org European Network for Conservation Restoration Education
- iiconservation.org , ICC - International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works
- CICS - Institute for Restoration and Conservation Science - TH Köln. Retrieved March 30, 2018 .
- The dual bachelor's degree in "Archaeological Restoration" in Mainz. Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, accessed on December 10, 2019 .
- Cf. Trevor HJ Marchand: Knowledge in Hand: Explorations of Brain, Hand and Tool , in: The SAGE Handbook of Social Anthropologe. Edited by Richard Pardon et al. Sage, Los Angeles, etc. 2012. Volume 2, pp. 261-272.
- Restoration craft - skilled workers and specialists for the preservation of cultural heritage. Edited by the Central Association of German Crafts. Berlin 2017 , p. 6 f.
- Paolo D'Angelo: A Brief Philosophical Introduction to the Theory of Restoration by Cesare Brandi. In: Cesare Brandi: Theory of Restoration. Munich 2006, p. 17-20, here p. 17 f.
- Giuseppe Basile: Cesari Brandi, the work of art and the restoration - an approximation , in: Cesare Brandi: Theory of restoration. Munich 2006, p. 11–15, here p. 12. Cf. Katrin Janis: Restoration ethics in the context of science and practice. Martin Meidenbauer Verlagsanstalt, Munich 2005, pp. 24–61.
- Restoration craft - skilled workers and specialists for the preservation of cultural heritage. Edited by the Central Association of German Crafts. Berlin 2017 , pp. 9–11. Website of the Central Association of German Crafts. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Resolution 1638 (2008) , v. November 28, 2008; ders., Parliamentary Assembly, Recommendation 1851 (2008) , v. November 28, 2008; see. ders., Parliamentary Assembly, Doc. 11761, Crafts and cultural heritage conservation skills, CDPADEP (Culture Committee) report by Baroness Gloria Hooper, UK , v. 23 October 2008. Council of Europe website. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- See Declaration of San Antonio.
- See UNESCO Convention for the Preservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage with reference to the previous work program “Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity” from 1997.
- See Nationwide Verseichnes des intangible cultural heritage of the German Commission for UNESCO.
- Restoration craft - skilled workers and specialists for the preservation of cultural heritage. Edited by the Central Association of German Crafts. Berlin 2017 , p. 9.
-  ; see. Ingo Heidbrink (ed.): The Barcelona Charter, European Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Traditional Ships in Operation. Hauschild, Bremen 2003.
- See the Riga Charter on the website of the European Federation of Museum and Tourist Railways . See the Riga Charter on the Council of Tramway Museums of Australasia website . Retrieved February 26, 2018
- See the Turin Charter on the website of the Fédération internationale des véhicules anciens. See also the glossary of the charter. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- Braunschweig Charter . Website of the German Aero Club. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- Klaus Müller, Michael Söndermann, Sebastian Markworth: The craft in the culture and creative industries (Göttinger Handwerkswirtschaftliche Studien 84). Duderstadt 2011, pp. 28-35, 80-83, et passim.
- Deutsches Handwerksinstitut - Economics Institute for Medium-Sized Enterprises and Crafts, "The craft generates annual sales of 7.5 billion euros in the field of restoration", special evaluation of the survey on the cultural and creative industries, September 12, 2012 Website of the Economic Institute for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Crafts. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- See overview in Klaus Müller, Michael Söndermann, Sebastian Markworth: The craft in the culture and creative industries (Göttinger Handwerkswirtschaftliche Studien 84). Duderstadt 2011, p. 241 f.
- See restoration craft - skilled workers and specialists for the preservation of cultural heritage. Edited by the Central Association of German Crafts. Berlin 2017 , pp. 12 and 38. Website of the Central Association of German Crafts. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- Restoration craft - skilled workers and specialists for the preservation of cultural heritage. Edited by the Central Association of German Crafts. Berlin 2017 , p. 38.
- Restoration craft - skilled workers and specialists for the preservation of cultural heritage. Edited by the Central Association of German Crafts. Berlin 2017 , p. 13.
- Restoration craft - skilled workers and specialists for the preservation of cultural heritage. Edited by the Central Association of German Crafts. Berlin 2017 , pp. 10 and 30 f. See website of the European Center for Professions in Monument Preservation in Thieme, Italy. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- website of the FEMP. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- Overview of the Central Association of German Crafts . Accessed on February 26, 2018. See Restoration Crafts - Skilled Workers and Specialists in Preserving Cultural Heritage. Edited by the Central Association of German Crafts. Berlin 2017 , p. 28.
- Berlin Chamber of Crafts 
- Restoration Center Berlin e. V. 
- Competence Center for Timber Construction & Expansion 
- Chamber of Crafts Erfurt 
- Berufsförderungswerk e. V. of the Berlin-Brandenburg Building Industry Association e. V. 
- Propstei Johannesberg gGmbH 
- Görlitzer Training Center for Crafts and Monument Preservation e. V. 
- Halle Chamber of Crafts 
- Chamber of Crafts Hanover, Werkakademie für Gestaltung in Handwerk Niedersachsen e. V. 
- Koblenz Chamber of Crafts, Center for Restoration and Monument Preservation 
- Federal Education Center for the Carpentry and Finishing Trade gGmbH 
- Part of the vocational and vocational school "Vogtländischer Musikinstrumentenbau" Klingenthal in the Vogtland vocational school center
- Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Stade Chamber of Crafts, training center for the stonemasonry and sculpture trade 
- Chamber of Crafts in Leipzig 
- Berufsförderungs-GmbH 
- Oscar Walcker School 
- State vocational school 
- State capital Munich, municipal master school for the painting and varnishing trade, municipal master school for the gilding trade 
- Hessian watchmaking school "Karl-Geitz-Schule" in Hessenpark 
- Academy of Crafts at Raesfeld Castle
- Schwerin Chamber of Crafts 
- Bookbinder College 
- Chamber Stuttgart region 
- European training center for the stonemason and stone carving trade 
- Central Association of German Crafts
- German Chamber of Handicrafts
- German Craftsmen
- Working group of the advanced training centers for handicraft preservation
- Restorer in the craft e. V.
- Section for church painters, restorers and gilders in Bavaria
- Federal Guild Association for the Musical Instrument Craft
- Section parquet restorers in the Central Association of Parquet and Flooring Technology
- Association of restorers in the carpentry trade
- Specialist group restorers in the professional association of plasterers for interior work and facade
- Federal Association of Restorers in the Interior Decoration Craft
- Union Européenne de l'Artisanat et des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises
- Fédération européenne pour les métiers du patrimoine bâti
- European Maritime Heritage
- Centro Europeo per i Mestieri di Patrimonio - Fondazione Villa Fabris