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Ladies hat shop around 1900 as a doll shop

Modist ( male / female ), formerly a cleaning worker , is a state-recognized training occupation in Germany according to the Vocational Training Act and the former craft regulations . Millers make all kinds of headgear for general clothing and costume production. Until well into the 20th century, milliners limited themselves to female customers, while hat makers made headgear for men. The profession is predominantly carried out by women. In 2013, all around 48 trainees in Germany were female; in 2011 there was one male trainee in Baden-Württemberg.


Two-piece straw hat with a wide brim (Germany, 2012)

The milliner's profession used to include other fields of activity. In the second half of the 18th century in particular, she also dealt with the fashionable features of clothing. Due to the time-consuming and expensive production, it made economic sense to have a dressmaker reworked in its fashionable details by a milliner while it was being worn, even several times.

The profession was first regulated by the state in Germany in 1938 as dual training. During this time, the apprenticeships for hat garnishers, hat and cap makers (1939) and plasterers were created. These three professions were combined in 1959 in the common apprenticeship as a plasterer and updated in 1969 as a milliner apprenticeship. On this occasion, the training regulations in the milliner's trade were also integrated. The last reorganization took place in 2004. Changes in technical qualifications in the field of pattern technology were added as well as the independent development and elaboration of model designs. In Germany there are only a few vocational schools for the training of milliners, after the regional vocational training center of the Steinburg district in Kellinghusen no longer offers this branch, the training has been taken over by the Upper School Center for Clothing and Fashion in Berlin since 2013. Here milliners from all over Germany are trained in block lessons. There is also the Kerschenstein School in Stuttgart and the German Master School in Munich .

Products of a milliner

The product range of a fashion studio mainly includes headgear made of various materials, such as felt, fabric, fur and straw. The shapes range from hats to caps and caps to headdresses, such as the fascinator , and specialties for a wide variety of occasions (weddings, mourning, celebrations) and occasions (sports, work, weather protection, etc.).

Known milliners

Well-known milliners were Rose Bertin , whose most important customer was the French Queen Marie Antoinette , Goethe's wife Christiane von Goethe (née Vulpius), August Bebel's wife Julie Bebel (née Otto) and the actress Evelyn Meyka . Probably the best known today was Coco Chanel . There are also internationally known hat designers today, such as Philip Treacy , Fiona Bennett and Rachel Trevor-Morgan .

See also

Web links

Commons : Modists  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Training regulations for modists on, (PDF; 57 kB), accessed on May 22, 2012.
  2. Data sheet on the modist on, (PDF; 30 kB), (deadline December 31, 2013). (Due to data protection regulations, the data sheet only shows rounded figures. As a result, there were one to five male trainees in Germany as of the 2012 reporting date.) Accessed on June 24, 2015.
  3. Modist - Information on the background to the reorganization. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 4, 2015 ; accessed on May 4, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. Development of explanations for the modist training regulations. Retrieved May 4, 2015 .
  5. Training profile for the milliner on, accessed on May 22, 2012.
  6. Website of the vocational school in Kellinghusen ( memento of the original from March 5, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed on May 22, 2012. In 2014 this is no longer proven. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. Philip Treacy's Rebellion of Hats In: Spiegel Online . dated April 17, 2004, accessed May 22, 2012.