Self publication

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A self-publication ( also: self-publishing , self-publication , self- publication ) is a publication , the reproduction and distribution of which is the responsibility of the author or the originator (in the sense of copyright ) and in the narrower sense u. a. is also financially supported. For self-publications, an author can use various service providers who, for a fee, create publications in the form of e-books or as printed books after concluding a work contract and give the authors the opportunity to offer this in their own name, i.e. H. "To market without traditional publishers". (In contrast to this, publication by a publisher after the conclusion of a publishing contract , e.g. in accordance with a standard contract . See also the section: Delimitations )

The terms self-publication and self- publication are sometimes used in a broader sense, according to which they can also mean any form of publication without claiming a copyright (possibly also anonymously ) by you, especially on the Internet , such as B. in blog comments or internet forums . The term self-publication can also be used in a broader sense, e.g. For example, in contrast to the takeover of programs from other broadcasters, they mean their own production of a program within a broadcasting company or, within a book publisher, the difference between the publication of publications by “own” authors and the publication of possibly also translated licensed editions from other publishers.

A relatively new word creation for authors of self-publications is the sometimes misleading term indie author , whose defining word indie is the short form of independent and, according to Duden, actually refers to a small company that sees itself as the opposite of the culture industry "regardless of the general taste of the time" - An "indie author" is not an author of an independent publisher , but publishes his texts independently or without a publisher, e.g. B. via a self-publishing platform . With reference to the now established term “self-publishing”, authors of self-publications are usually referred to as “ self-publishers ”.



Publishing something as self-publication is in contrast to publications that are supervised and paid for in accordance with the contract :


An author who publishes himself seeks in personal union like a publisher (s) a book project on the way to bring and must therefore calculations do, the cost to what extent it also through the sales and possibly rewarded readings exceeded it - which in turn into The relationship to the willingness to pay of an optional readership or buyer of a self-published book is to be brought. (The autobiographers who only want to put their life stories in book form for private use are excluded from such a calculation .)

Did you have to pay the cost of a z. If, for example, an offset print run of at least 500–1000 copies is to be calculated, this cost factor has decreased considerably thanks to the possibilities of digital printing in the print-on-demand process. In particular, self-publishing platforms offer z. In some cases, even to create publications of print editions and e-books free of charge - which, however, demands a higher amount of work from the authors (including for the print templates ) and more than basic computer knowledge . (→ see also in the article: To create self-publications )

marketing & Distribution

As with economically managed publishers, sales of self-publications depend not least on the author's marketing opportunities and his networking with potential buyers and / and bookstores. In an article in the Tagesspiegel about a doctoral student as a user of a self-publishing platform , it says, for example, For example, the fact that his dissertation can be found in bookshops using the ISBN assigned by it, but that he “now has to take action himself and promote his book”. Regardless of whether printing companies , cost publishers or self-publishing platforms have been commissioned to create the self-publications , the requested services are profitably pre-financed for them when the contract is concluded. The Hamburg Academy for Distance Learning (HAF) explains that not least the so-called “printing cost subsidy publishers” “are not (are) dependent on making money from the sale of books to the same extent as the traditional publishing house. After all, they have already collected a considerable amount of money from the author. "

Social networks, websites and blogs of the authors, on which the potential readership are to be addressed, have become standard marketing tools for self-publications. If a book is also to be available in retail bookstores, it can be provided with an ISBN for a fee - usually included in the self-publishing platforms - and (with the exception of, for example , titles created via ) in the " Directory of Deliverable Books "(VLB) must be entered. Without ISBN and registration in the VLB, internal university publications or purely private books are usually produced as self-publications for a fixed group of customers.

Authors of self-publications use direct sales for their distribution, e.g. B. following events with them such as readings or as part of their own homepage. This also applies to book copies produced via self-publishing platforms , for which an “author's discount ” is usually granted. In addition, some authors also try to offer booksellers in their immediate vicinity copies of their work for sale on commission .

Self-published publications, whether in the form of offset printing or book-on-demand , are rarely ordered by retail bookshops on their own initiative, but they can, provided they have an ISBN, as well as via the " online shops " booksellers or online bookstores . E-book editions per se are downloaded exclusively from these “online shops” or from online retailers who specialize in e-books and / or the devices for this purpose . Sales via “online shops” can also reach relevant target groups without the representatives of a publisher . In the first week of August 2012, around a third of the books on the 25-title e-book bestseller list of the New York Times were self-published for the first time. The new manufacturing processes and "online shops" thus offer the added advantage of indirect sales - with correspondingly favorable pricing on the part of the service providers used. However, because of the immense rates of increase in new publications presented in this way, this advantage is almost canceled for the vast majority of self-publications.

Some documented uses of the term

The determinative compound self-publication is made up of the basic word “ publication ” and the determinative word “ self ”, for which in this combination so far no conceptual or lexical narrowing z. B. on a subset of the meanings of the word "publication" can be proven.

Since, apart from “self-publishing”, the terms “self-published”, “self-published” and “self-published” have not yet been looked up in any lexicon or dictionary , some examples are listed below in which the terms were used in the sense of the introductory definition.

For self-publication

Official publications

Peter Exner states under LEO-BW for official publications in the section on source criticism and evaluation options: “Nevertheless, official publications such as the state gazettes or the legal and ordinance gazettes, as official official publications at the highest state level, have an essential secondary value. As self-publications by government institutions, they contribute significantly to the understanding of the rest of the tradition of state and non-state provenance. "


The Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) presupposes: “One of the constituent characteristics of copyright as property within the meaning of the constitution is the fundamental assignment of the financial result of the creative achievement to the author by way of private law standardization and his freedom to dispose of it on his own responsibility. "And Wolfgang Lent from the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich explains in his study book on copyright for book scholars :" Two aspects of intellectual property are protected in particular: On the one hand, the author's right of disposal is protected, which means that an author can publish his own Romans or the granting of rights of use to his novel to publishers. On the other hand, the author's right to remuneration associated with the right of disposal is protected, which allows an author to demand an author's fee for granting rights to the publisher. "

Monopoly Commission

The Monopolies Commission used on 29 May 2018 the term as follows: "With the publication of their works in the self-published authors can so-called. Self-publishing platforms use that support different services, the self-publication and take over some functions of the traditional publishers, such as the Proofreading. An important platform is kindle direct publishing from Amazon, through which authors can distribute their works both as printed and digital books. There are also a number of competing offers for e-books, such as tolino media . Authors of e-books can interpose so-called distributors who distribute the e-book to the various e-book platforms and take over the fee accounting. The sale of printed books that have been self-published often takes place via so-called print-on-demand providers who only print the copy as soon as it has been ordered from the retailer. "

Study on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection

In a study on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection on copyright and innovation in digital markets using the example of 40 selected (nameless) startups with internet-based business models from a technical, economic and legal point of view, it says: “As a service provider for self-publication, Startup [40] Authors can offer e-books in their own name. The range of services includes various services, some of which can be used individually, from editing and the technical creation of an e-book to distribution via online booksellers. ”And elsewhere:“ In the book market, too, disintermediation enables authors to write their books directly, that is, without traditional publishers to market through so-called self-publishing. This is possible for both e-books and printed books. In the years 2006 to 2014 the number of directly published books increased by almost 300% and today exceeds the number of traditionally published books. In recent years, more and more self-published works have made it into bestseller lists and in 2013 already accounted for a tenth of the bestselling works. These changes challenge existing publishers and have an impact on customers by reducing costs and increasing offers. "

Comment in the market paper on Amazon

In a comment by Börsenblatt editor Michael Roesler-Graichen it says: “And so it happens that an online retailer like Amazon, which enables authors to self-publish and makes good money from it, removes a guide for pedophiles from its website because it is within Recently appeared in the bestseller section. "

to fanzines

A “Renate Comics” notes in its taz event notice about a zine festival organized for and by fanzines in the Werkstatt der Kulturen : “In the meantime, the most diverse cultural and political subcultures have discovered the format of self-publication of texts and images in small editions . "

master thesis

Barbara Weber for her master's thesis in special education at the Intercantonal School of Special Education uses the term as follows:
"The teaching material is published in book form as described later self-publication (see Section 8.4.7..) And is divided into modules."
"The picture book like the didactic material are published as self-publishing. "

to open access

Rainer Kuhlen, information scientist at the University of Konstanz , said in an article for the University of Barcelona in June 2007: “Just as in the case of serious application documents for professorships, a distinction is made between what is done via peer-review procedures, what is in other academic publications, what is through the media of the Public markets (e.g. daily newspapers), what internal research reports are and what ultimately is self-publication in the narrower sense, a clear subdivision of the publications produced by the university's scientists should also be made in the institutional repositories, which are proceeding according to the green way from which the information that is important for assessing the quality of the work can be taken. It must not happen that theses, habilitation theses, own publications, peer-reviewed papers, pre- or post-prints are made available as quasi equal and indistinguishable. "

For self-publication

to the (new) possibilities of e-books

In an article in the daily newspaper , reference is made to “the business with e-books ”, which “rights holders” open up: “In addition, it is possible for well-known writers to market their works directly with little effort - both Amazon and competitor Apple (“ iBooks ") offer rights holders the option of self-publication."

as a non-fiction topic

In the non-fiction book Scientific Work with Word 2007 by Microsoft Press Verlag , the table of contents contains chapters on "Self-published self-published (with or without ISBN)", "Self-published without ISBN", "Self-published with ISBN (full print publication)", "Self-published with the help of a print-on-demand provider ”.

to an open source software

Regarding historical and cultural information processing, the following is stated on a website of the University of Cologne : “The open source software EPrints has been developed and maintained since 2000 by the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton, England. It is suitable for setting up institutional open access repositories, but is geared towards self archiving, i.e. the self-publication of researchers. "

to changes in the scientific publication system

Walther Umstätter stated in an abstract on the occasion of the Society for Science Research's meeting on March 27, 2015 at the Institute for Library and Information Science at the Humboldt University in Berlin : “In many areas of science, the delay caused by an outdated publishing system is reflected in self-publication on the Internet accelerated in order to lose as few copyrights as possible . "

For self-publication

Dissertation on self-publishing

Jong-Rak Shin used the term “self-publication” in his 2007 dissertation Self-publishing in the literary life of exile in the years 1933–1945 about twenty times - he quotes Josef Wintje at one point with “Every young poet probably knows the unsatisfactory feeling, to write for your own drawer. The incentive and upswing usually only arise when one sees some or more of his poems published somewhere. ”And then explains:“ According to Wintjes, the self-publication approach is based on the psychological drive to present something. ”It is stated elsewhere for him: "The exiled authors who saw no more chance for their works with the established publishers due to economic, political and other constraints, turned their attention to the possibility of self-publication."

Note for compulsory dissertation copies

The law faculty of the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel puts u. a. for the preparation of dissertations: "In the case of self-publication, all 80 copies should be equipped in this way."

to self-publishing platforms

In an article in 2009, the Börsenblatt referred to emerging self-publishing platforms as well as generally to the possibilities of the Internet under the heading: "The Internet as an opportunity for self-publication"

In a broader sense

This section relates to the use of the Lemma terms "in the broader sense" see introduction above.

to electronic networks

In his answers of October 28, 2010 to the “Questionnaire of the Enquete Commission Internet and Digital Society” of the German Bundestag , Karl-Nikolaus Peifer, Director of the Institute for Media Law and Communication Law at the University of Cologne , said about the development of copyright law in the digital world Society : "Self-publication via electronic networks has become easily possible in almost all areas of production."

in contrast to open access

Rainer Kuhlen, information scientist at the University of Konstanz , thinks in his article Open access - a paradigm shift for the public provision of knowledge. Developments in Germany for the University of Barcelona in June 2007 also: " Open Access is by no means to be equated with self-publication, as it has become possible for everyone through the World Wide Web, but is part of the quality-assuring practice of science." The footnote to this sentence also reads: “The form of self-publication, i.e. the publication of the author himself without a previous quality assessment by others, should by no means be devalued, especially not if it is connected with collaborative processes, as is the case with Wikipedia is practiced on a large scale. "

Self-publication by an illustrator within a publishing house

As the co-editor of a manga anthology, a note under Spiegel Online deals with their “latest self-published publication”, which was published by a book publisher.

For creating self-publications

Own (preliminary) services

With the help of a personal computer and a printer , texts and / or images can either be printed out in small numbers or data sets of texts and images created on the PC can be used as a basis for publishing them as a book or / and e-book . For self-publication or self-publishing (see different definitions in the article self-publishing ), the entire process of book publication is to be controlled and responsible. In addition to writing or selecting content, proofreading , the choice of equipment ( font , type of paper, cover, etc.) as well as costing , effective public relations , marketing and sales must be taken care of or organized.

Service company for self-publications

For all or part of the prerequisites for the creation of a self-published book publication listed under Own (preliminary) services , service providers can also be commissioned who, among other things, "provide services that (..) take over some of the functions of classic publishers, such as editing" or as "so-called Distributors "the distribution and billing of fees for sold copies of a self-publication. The service companies listed below for self-publications are usually mandatory for the actual creation of a book or / and e-book edition:

See section Autobiographers , some authors have their self-publications created for a target group that is strictly limited from the outset without any further connection to the book trade. In addition, there are the author or literature platforms that have been set up on the Internet since around 2000 , on which unknown authors can usually post their texts for discussion exclusively on the Internet and in the portals forums free of charge .

A criminal variant, which leads to the creation of self-publications without the knowledge of its authors, is so-called predatory publishing . The companies of such an “offer”, sometimes referred to as “ predatory publishers ”, pretend to publish full-fledged scientific journals and demand the publication fees ( article processing charges ) customary in the open access segment from the authors , without the editorial and journalistic services to provide that are expected from reputable journals, such as B. a proper peer review .

In addition to self-publications in the form of book publications also can be similar conditions disk with music recorded by home recording manufactured and marketed as "self-publication". Since 1997 there have been video portals on the Internet for films and video clips that you have created yourself, but where you often do not remain the sole owner of the rights or you have to assign many rights of use.

Justification connections

The information provided by the publishers on the number of manuscripts submitted to them for review varies and does not need to be substantiated, but it is unanimous that only a tiny fraction of these manuscripts is included in the publisher's program. A publication to transfer itself is therefore often the only way to ever publish something. The reasons for the publication of a work as self-publication are varied and are not always based on the previous rejection of a manuscript by a publisher.

Self-publication of individual authors (books etc.)


Quite a few self-publications have their own life stories as content. Their authors often include " vanity publishers " but also those who, as hobby authors, want to consider family and friends alone with these autobiographies that have become books - they usually forego the assignment of an ISBN and save themselves all the services that have to do with marketing and sales. Sometimes some autobiographers also use service providers who support them in writing their life stories for a fee.

( For a differentiation, see the differing conditions for private printing .)

Authors in the political resistance

Insofar as publications in publishers stand in the way of political reasons, as in the past the "Law against the Public-Dangerous Endeavors of Social Democracy" on October 21, 1878 or during the time of National Socialism . B. exile literature in the years 1933–1945.

PhD students

According to Gemma Pörzgen in the Tagesspiegel of February 18, 2014, doctoral students from some faculties, such as political science, in particular use the self-publishing platforms for self-publication of their dissertations , since in one of the cases described, only the printing subsidy required by a specialist publisher for a 400-page doctoral thesis It would have cost 4,000 euros and then the costs for editing would have to be paid. For a publication in Jura , the printing subsidy can therefore cost doctoral candidates a total of 10,000 euros, after some “so-called science publishers ” have “long exploited” their market position.

Professional authors (hybrid authors)

Even professional writers who a. can refer to publications in recognized publishers and / or high esteem through literary criticism , sometimes resort to self-publications by either setting up a self-publisher or starting their own publishing house (such as Erich Loest ) or using self-publishing platforms . For example, more and more professional authors are already relying on a “hybrid model” from the outset, according to which they consciously opt for the two-pronged strategy between publishing and self-publishing titles and only publish some of their titles as self-published e-books. Sometimes such authors refer to themselves as hybrid authors .
In addition, professional authors use self-publications in particular (then):

  • for new editions , provided that the book by an author is " out of print " and therefore no longer available in bookshops. It is not uncommon for titles to be removed from the publisher's program after just one year, which is particularly unfortunate for those authors who earn part of their income from readings and then no longer refer to available copies of their books and can sell them (see also book series - Offers from the self- publishing division of Allitera Verlag or the label Edition Gegenwind , under which a group of authors publishes their self-published titles).
  • as soon as a work with high demands and little suitability for the mass taste is aimed only at a small circle of recipients and thus does not meet the economic requirements of a publisher;
  • as long as an author wants full control of the content and he tries to avoid content-related interference through editing that goes beyond the formal - or an author generally does not trust publishers (any longer) in terms of correct contract processing;
  • if they hope for higher profits from it. Publishers usually reward with a percentage of the retail price . This percentage is usually ten percent for hardcover editions and five percent for paperback editions . In absolute numbers this depends on the number of copies sold in an edition a. in turn correlated with the publisher's use of advertising material for the individual title . This point was discussed critically as early as the 18th century and warnings were given that the production of a self-publication could be expensive and, in addition to the writing of a manuscript, would also require a lot of work. However, especially when using free providers among the self-publishing platforms , this argument only applies to a limited extent, at least with regard to costs.

Vanity publisher

In the case of authors who, despite multiple rejections from the publishers, etc. a. from vanity (Engl. vanity ) their work but want to see necessarily printed, it is called in English of "Vanity publishers" and refers to activities within their self-publish their publications cost publishers in English as "Vanity press". Thanks to the book-on-demand process and the possibility of producing e-books , their number has multiplied at an immense rate of increase.

Institutional self-publications

Libraries, universities

I.a. Scientific publications with a circulation for a fixed but only small group of customers (e.g. libraries and universities ) can only rarely be calculated profitably for publishers .

Institutions reacted in part to this problem by setting up their own publishing houses, such as B. the "Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin" ( publisher number 7983), the "Institute for Housing Policy and Urban Ecology e. V. ”(publisher number 89215) or a science transfer agency such as the“ Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning ”(publisher number 87994).

Otherwise, institutions of this kind as well as the individual authors (including doctoral students ) often made use of subsidy publishers that were to be appropriately rewarded for the technical handling of self-publications , which then took care of production, marketing and - possibly also by commissioning commission publishers  - sales. In the meantime, self-publishing platforms are on the advance as much more cost-effective providers who create titles using the book-on-demand process and / or sell them as e-books . (In the meantime, universities are increasingly recognizing dissertations in the form of digital online publications .) Another form of self-publication that is at least institutionally funded are among others. a. the establishment of open access networks in the university sector and for libraries for dissemination and a. of scientific self-publications.


If institutions z. For example, to create a gift or a self-publication in connection with a company anniversary, one sometimes speaks of a private print .

Reception of self-publications

Literary self-publications

Title page of the first print by Johann Heinrich Voss : Homers Odüßee (1781) with
subheading : "At the expense of the author"

The appreciation of literary publications in the form of self-publication are currently subject to the same criteria as publications by publishers, i. H. their success is measured by copies sold and perception by literary criticism . By these standards, there have been very successful self-published publications over the centuries. B. the self-publishing platform Books on Demand refer to several titles published by him that have appeared on his bestseller lists . And see the following section, Examples of self-published bestsellers, there are also some titles that were first published themselves and then taken over by regular publishers because of their resounding success. Since 2013, the self-publishing platform neobooks has also been offering an indie author award at the Leipzig Book Fair .

However, the lack of “selection” by a regular publisher and the associated lack of a qualified editing department encourages the majority of “ vanity publishers ” or “hobby authors” to try self-publication. Most of the self-published titles are therefore - but also because of the often very limited marketing and advertising opportunities of their authors - neither a literary criticism nor are they kept in stock in bookshops even as a single copy. The Friedrich Bödecker Circle excludes anyone who can only refer to self-financed book publications from being accepted as a new member. In addition, the difference to a professional author also has an effect in front of German tax offices , if a "hobby author" and others. a. Publication costs totaling several thousand euros cannot be deducted from tax as losses or advertising expenses , since he “could not have achieved a total profit with his writing activity” and “the willingness to take on not inconsiderable printing costs suggests that primarily private interests and inclinations are the cause of the activity have been ".

This skeptical attitude towards self-publications as well as the mostly unfavorable margins for self-publishing platforms for bookstores who purchase books via bar assortments are definitely in the economic interests of the established publishers. However, since more than a few public publishers have made personnel savings in their proofreading and ( see section: Professional authors (hybrid authors) ) have even taken titles by renowned authors out of the program after a short time and thus virtually force their authors to self-publish, this is possibly the case at least a more differentiated view. In the meantime, a community of authors under the label Edition Gegenwind “avowed” itself proactively to the creation of their out of print titles in the form of self-publications and was also given positive reviews under this sign . And the Association of German Writers has now fundamentally changed its position on this: It is true that the admission requirements still state that a “certificate of professional ability” must be adequately proven, such as B. by “publishing a book that cannot be bought through the use of own funds”, but since February 16, 2019, several publications “also as a self-publisher or self-marketer” are sufficient.

Examples of self-published bestsellers

Successful book titles are listed below, at least the first edition of which was self-published:

Scientific self-publications

Scientific self-publications are of little importance among scientists, especially if the peer review usual for scientific publications is missing. In the case of institutional self-publications or self-publishers , however, renowned editorial groups and / or advisory boards are involved in the publication.

See also


Individual evidence

  1. a b Duden : Selfpublishing , online at
  2. a b Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition (Ed.): Copyright and Innovation in Digital Markets , study on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection , PDF file, see p. P. 35 and 81 of 235 pages, online at
  3. a b Indie authors and self-publishers of e-books: “We have nothing to fear but fear itself” ., September 20, 2011
  4. Indie .
  5. Definition of terms (under “Publisher”) ( Memento from March 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) in the alliance for fair publishers
  6. a b c d 5 steps to self-publishing . Hamburg Academy for Distance Learning (HAF) ; with the headings: 1. baptism of the publisher, 2. registration, 3. book design and office equipment, 4. calculation, 5. advertising and sales as well as successful self-publishers - do they exist? , available online at
  7. a b c Gemma Pörzgen: Doctor Digital - Bringing your own dissertation to a publishing house gives her prestige. But the Internet is cheaper and faster. Digital publishing also depends on the subject . In: Der Tagesspiegel , February 18, 2014
  8. ^ Publisher is looking for an author . Hamburg Academy for Distance Learning (HAF); with the headings: Grant publishers: the reversal of the publishing principle and rip-off? Or a heart for unknown authors?
  9. How do you market your book? Self Publishing in Germany: How Self Publishers See themselves,, June 28, 2013; accessed on January 31, 2014.
  10. a b c What are the benefits of Book-on-Demand? Hamburger Akademie für Fernstudien (HAF): "Book-on-demand companies offer you as an author and self-publisher advantages, but also disadvantages compared to other publishing models ." Available online at
  11. Four self-published authors on New York Times ebook bestseller list . In: Guardian , August 2, 2012
  12. Peter Exner: Official publications , see section Source criticism and evaluation options in LEO-BW , quoted from: Peter Exner, Official publications , in: Südwestdeutsche Archivalienkunde, as of June 28, 2017, online at
  13. BVerfG , NJW 1971, p. 2163 - Church and school use
  14. ^ Wolfgang Lent: Copyright for book scholars , p. 16; PDF file p. 41 of 217 pages, in the Open Publishing LMU series , online at
  15. a b 2.2.1 The author: Creative creator and starting point of the book market In: Fixed book prices in a changing market environment , explanation of May 29, 2018, PDF file, p. 17 of 97, online at
  16. Michael Roesler-Graichen: Internet censorship : openness as a principle . In: Börsenblatt , November 17, 2010
  17. ^ Renate Comics: Event information . In: taz , November 26, 2011; for the zine festival in the Werkstatt der Kulturen
  18. Barbara Weber: 8.3.1 Form of didactic material a . 8.4.7 Verlag , In: Strengthening the self-image through a teaching project around a picture book - concept development for "Darius Farbtupf" for 7- to 9-year-old lower school children , master's thesis at the Intercantonal University for Curative Education , Zurich Department 1, 2014, PDF file p 65 u. 72, online at
  19. a b c Open access - a paradigm shift for the public provision of knowledge. Developments in Germany , in textos universitaris de biblioteconomia i documentació of the “Facultat de Biblioteconomia i Documentació University of Barcelona ”, No. 18, in June 2007
  20. Larsson's “Millennium” mark cracked . In: taz , July 29, 2010
  21. Markus Hahner, Wolfgang Scheide, Elisabeth Wilke-Thissen: Scientific work with Word 2007 , bibliographical information about the book available online from the German National Library
  22. Contents of pages on scientific work with Word 2007 . (PDF; 6 pages) German National Library, p. 6
  23. Information processing in historical and cultural studies . ( Memento from April 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) University of Cologne
  24. Walther Umstätter : On the observable changes in the scientific publication system through the World Wide Web ( Memento from April 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 2 pages); Abstract at the conference of the Society for Science Studies on March 27, 2015 at the Institute for Library and Information Science at the Humboldt University in Berlin; Topic: Structure and function of scientific publications on the World Wide Web , p. 2
  25. Jong-Rak Shin: Self-published in the literary life of exile in the years 1933-1945 . (PDF; 793 kB; 220 pages) Dissertation , June 2007
  26. Quoted by Jong-Rak Shin (pp. 23, 23) from: Günther Emig u. a. (Ed.): The alternative press . Ellwangen 1980, p. 228
  27. Jong-Rak Shin, p. 51
  28. Design of the deposit copies . Advice from the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel for the preparation of dissertations
  29. Björn Bischoff: The network as an opportunity for self-publication . In: Börsenblatt , June 4, 2009
  30. ^ Karl-Nikolaus Peifer: On the development of copyright law in the digital society . (PDF) Answers to the questionnaire of the Internet and Digital Society Enquete Commission of the German Bundestag, October 28, 2010
  31. Comics Advent Calendar: Silent Night, Starry Night . Spiegel Online , December 9, 2010; with reference to a "most recent self-publication"
  32. What is the difference between an author contract and a book contract? , online at
  33. Hamburg Academy for Distance Learning (HAF): Book-on-Demand: Publisher or printer? ; see section “With Book-on-Demand you are self-publisher”; available online at
  34. Research "Fake Science": Science on the wrong track. Retrieved on July 28, 2018 : "The phenomenon [has] been known for several years under the term 'predatory publishers'."
  35. YouTube Terms of Use
  36. ^ Vimeo Terms of Use
  37. For 1878 see page 34; on exile literature in the years 1933–1945 see pages 53f. In: Jong-Rak Shin: Self-published in the literary life of exile in the years 1933–1945 . (PDF; 793 kB; 220 pages) Dissertation , June 2007
  38. Marcus Schuster: Hybrid Authors - Second Life . In: Börsenblatt , June 1, 2015
  39. Maike Albath : As authors publish today - No more permanent contact persons , interview with Thomas Fuchs about his life as a “hybrid author” in the program Lesart - Das Literaturmagazin , Deutschlandradio Kultur on September 7, 2015
  40. ^ A b Jong-Rak Shin: Self-published in the literary life of exile in the years 1933–1945 . Pp. 18, 19, 25-33
  41. ^ Vanity press in the English language Wikipedia; to Vanity press or Vanity publisher including receipts
  42. ^ Vanity publishing , see
  43. Publishing dictionary - V ( Memento of November 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) of the Autorhaus Verlag : “Vanity Press: Companies that let the author (vanity = vanity) pay for the printing of his work. ↑ pseudo-publishing "
  44. Definition of terms (under “Pseudo- publishing ”) ( Memento from March 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) in the alliance for fair publishers
  45. See BoD in numbers were z. According to the provider Books on Demand, for example, five million printed books were published from 1997 to 2006 through this company alone and over 18 million by the beginning of 2014. These numbers far exceed the number of publications by “professional authors” in a single general-interest publisher .
  46. Sabine Sasse: The self-publishing industry is booming , online in Der Tagesspiegel on July 11, 2014 at
  47. Indie Author Award at the Leipzig Book Fair . ( Memento from December 20, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  48. Applications for inclusion in the FBK author database , online on the Friedrich-Bödecker-Kreis website
  49. Hobby author cannot deduct losses for tax purposes ( memento of January 30, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 23 pages) referring to a final judgment of the Rhineland-Palatinate tax court of August 14, 2013 (file number 2 K 1409/12). In: Client circular 07/2014 , Märkische Revision GmbH (auditing company), p. 10
  50. Hope for "discovery" is not enough - amateur author doesn't get any money from the tax office . , ino / dpa , October 8, 2013.
  51. Helma Nehrlich: Contribute to the narrative of society , article from February 18, 2019 in kunst + kultur (online magazine of the VS ) on the 5th Federal Expert Group Conference on Literature, which met on February 16, 2019 as part of the four-day VS Congress, online at
  52. Association's own information on: " Become a member of VS"