Cost publishing

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term " Selbstkostenverlag ", which is used in the publishing industry ( in Austria and Switzerland: self-payer publishing), refers to a publisher that charges a so-called " printing subsidy " for the creation of a book from third parties or the authors themselves , which in this business model covers all costs for the creation including a previously calculated profit margin . So is cost publishing a company (or part of a company), which after closing a contract for work extensive services for self-published books and e-books offering. Such a company is therefore “not a publisher in the true sense of the word” because, as a service provider for self-publications , it does not conclude any publishing contracts per se with its clients (e.g. in Germany according to Section 1 of the Publishing Act ).

In addition to numerous self-names deviating from this, the characterizations paid publishing house or pseudo-publishing house are also common for cost publishers.

To the subject

In two scientific papers from 2007 and 2012, including a dissertation , Eduard Schönstedt is quoted from his book Der Buchverlag (1991), which is regarded as a standard work , which subdivides the so-called grant publisher into “cost, manufacturing and printing cost publishers ”.

The so far earliest evidence of a multiple use of the term is found in the cost seal overridden post by Hans Natonek in the anthology. "25 Year, second half of 1929 “of the world stage . In it he discusses “touchingly narrow volumes” that were published by Xenien Verlag in Leipzig, the “largest publisher in Germany”. And in a letter from Ernst Rowohlt to Alfred Richard Meyer : “With what pride you showed me, for example, one of the first books by Heinrich Mann , whom we loved so much , which was published by a so-called self- publishing house against payment of the production costs by the author . "

Since the 1980s in Germany cost publishers have been using a term connection with "publishing house" for their self-designation, as in "printing costs subsidy publisher", "private publishing house" or "service provider publishing house".

In German-speaking countries, such companies are sometimes referred to as pay publishers . This term corresponds to terms for it in other languages ​​such as the French Édition à compte d'auteur and the Italian Editoria a pagamento . In English, on the other hand, the term “vanity press” refers to the authors (vanity = vanity) who pay for the printing of their works themselves.

But the term “cost publishing” has also been used more recently, e. B. when a self-publishing platform such as generally differentiates itself with its business model as a service provider for the creation of self-publications from self-publishers . Furthermore he was u. a. still used in articles from Die Zeit (1983) or Tagesspiegel (2012)

Possible assignments and delimitations

The cost publishing differs according to Eduard Schönstedt of other business models of a subsidy publisher , either as " cost of printing publishing " only partial or complete takeover of the cost of printing or "Herstellkostenverlag" a takeover of all, even beyond the beyond for the printing costs for the manufacturer to raise.

Since in practice the terms subsidy publisher as well as printing costs publisher , production cost publisher and cost publisher do not appear as self-designations, but all of these companies - in some cases wrongly - appear as publishers , a clear assignment is difficult. In a Zeit article from 1975, Armin Ayren reported how he had requested several offers for volumes of poetry that were generally difficult to sell and was then only able to refer to a single one that would have met the criteria of a printing company.

Book publishers in the “traditional” sense or public publishers define themselves precisely by the fact that they assume the entire entrepreneurial risk and consequently do not demand any printing subsidies from their authors . To classify cost publishers as a publisher , especially in relation to the authors , presupposes that they conclude a publishing contract with the authors (e.g. in Germany according to § 1 of the Publishing Act ) and provide them with the requested “subsidies”, e.g. B. grant a comparatively higher share of the profit on copies sold and assume the costs of editing , storage (if fixed editions, e.g. in offset printing ), sales and advertising at your own risk . But without these characteristics they are “not a publisher in the strict sense of the word”.


Even if cost publishers are already documented for 1929, their beginnings cannot be precisely determined. However, they cannot be compared with the more distant beginnings of the publishers , which are also defined according to the definition . The article published by Armin Ayren in 1975 , The Business with Poets in Time , does not yet assign this business model a separate term such as “cost publishing”, but speaks of “publishers”. He refers u. a. to the German-Austrian JG Bläschke Verlag , which, like a regular general- interest publisher, published works by authors who were as popular as possible at its own expense. From the 1970s, however, this publisher expanded its business to include the acceptance of works by unknown authors, to whom he as a " grant publisher " only received a " printing subsidy " for the publication of their works , but soon until his bankruptcy in 1985 as a "self-payer publisher" (so referred to by Günter Navky, 2005) had demanded all production costs as well as additional fees for services such as consulting and editing etc.

In Germany, from February 28, 1983, the Frieling publishing house marked the beginning of a new upswing for cost publishers with the slogan "Verlag sucht Autor" and the self-label "Privatverlag".

Due to the introduction of the book-on-demand process, which was far cheaper to calculate than the usual book production , the market for cost publishers experienced a further boom at the end of the 1990s, which has been growing in the German-speaking area since around 2005 due to the ever-increasing popularity of e-books -Reader and the e-books that can be produced even more cost-effectively than the book-on-demand print media have received renewed impetus. In particular, the resulting expanded sales and communication options on the Internet brought about a general change in the book market.



  • As a service provider for the creation of self-publications , the quality of the texts produced and distributed by them is irrelevant per se and therefore not a criterion for rejecting an order - so in principle anyone can order a book from self-publishing houses . (There are only restrictions insofar as the publications may not create illegal facts, such as copyright infringement or sedition .)
  • Technically take cost publishers "one-stop" or part of the same tasks as a regular publishing ( → see z. B .: trade book publisher ), only that they are not just in one author invest ( embarrassed = present ), but the author any Performance - u. a. Advice including corrections and proofreading , creation of the print template through to production, marketing and advertising of the ready-to-sell book - billing for yourself with a more or less large profit margin .
  • As far as the forms of publication are concerned, commercial publishers offer book printing in the book-on-demand process and / or offset printing with certain print runs and / and as an e-book.
  • There are also different and variable offers for equipping a book and the like. a. as paperback and / or as hardcover as well as in black and white or / and color printing .

Costs and estimates

See also: Calculation in the article self-publication

The price-performance ratio of the cost publishers diverges considerably, as is the way in which their fee claims for further services are collected. The cost estimates of the cost publishers and their respective informative value are not subject to uniform standards , which generally makes it difficult to compare the providers.

Providers such as Frieling Verlag Berlin are very cautious about this, do not provide any specific figures on their website, but only grant “free delivery” of a brochure on request and only submit an “individual offer” after viewing the manuscript. With this provider, at least several thousand euros, if not several tens of thousands of euros, are to be estimated for the creation of a book title.


See also: Reasons in the article Self-publication

Customers or clients of the self- publication services provided by cost publishers are individual authors who, depending on their needs and previous knowledge, may also request several of the offers associated with costs. There is no evidence that institutes (including libraries , universities ) also use or have used self-publishing houses in the sense of “institutionally determined” self-publications .


→ See also: Reception of self-publications under self-publication

For the time being, the appreciation of literary publications via a self-publishing house is subject to the same criteria as publications by publishers, i. That is, their success is measured in terms of copies sold and perception by literary criticism .

In principle, however, the book trade of its own accord orders almost no books from the programs of the cost publishers, and their titles are not noticed by literary criticism or “by the literary public” without the author's own commitment. Authors who can only present self-financed book publications in cost publishers will not be accepted by the Association of German Writers . The same applies to the application for inclusion in the author database of the Friedrich-Bödecker-Kreis . In addition, the difference to a professional author also has an impact in front of German tax offices if a hobby author u. a. Publication costs totaling several thousand euros cannot be deducted from tax as losses or advertising expenses , since he “could not have achieved a total profit with his writing activity” and “the willingness to take on not inconsiderable printing costs suggests that primarily private interests and inclinations are the cause of the activity have been ".

To the business model

Ultimately, every company can u. a. In connection with a printing company, also act as a cost publisher and offer corresponding services. While cost publishers made their offers up until the 1990s, primarily on the basis of the offset printing process and the production of different print runs, digital printing has been increasingly used since the beginning of the 21st century in the form of book-on-demand - and e -Book process including " online shop " sales.

From around the 1980s onwards, with slogans such as “publisher looking for authors”, the so-called “printing cost subsidy publishers ” or simply “ subsidy publishers ” - succeeded in getting numerous hobby authors and “ vanity publishers ” to be published to encourage them to write their first book.

The pioneer in Germany for this is the company Frieling-Verlag Berlin , founded in 1983 , which still summarizes its services today (as of 2014) as follows: “Thanks to our diverse program and our many years of experience in the publication of books, we offer every author the opportunity to Realizing a dream and approaching us with a manuscript. Because every author needs a publisher who supports him. You are looking for support for your book project and we are looking for writers who would like to publish. "

While regular publishers generally react positively to far less than one percent of manuscripts sent in, a “publisher” is even “looking” for new authors. However, the provider then also asks: “What is the risk of a new publication? Is it necessary to contribute financially to the publication of the initial edition? ”And replies with“ In order to preserve the freedom to promote new, as yet unknown authors, Frieling-Verlag uses the risk-sharing principle for the first edition of a book. In this way, new authors can actively help make their dreams come true, with the professional help of a private publisher. "

What is called here "risk sharing" in the services of a "private publisher" was previously referred to as a " printing cost subsidy" or just as a "subsidy", which, according to the company, "based on experience" is also necessary for the majority of the senders of a manuscript proves.

Criticism of cost publishers


The criticism of cost publishers relates, among other things, to the fact that companies in this area consciously use the self-designation “publisher” in a modified form and a. such as “grant publisher”, “Druckkostenzuschussverlag” (“DKZV”), “service provider publisher”, “literary publisher” or “private publisher” to disguise the fact that these are service providers for the creation of self-published media and thus the publishing risk solely from Client is borne. Critics therefore often refer to this company model with the English term vanity press or as a pseudo-publishing company . The public use of this term for such a company was also confirmed by the Munich Regional Court I and, in the second instance, the Munich Higher Regional Court, who ruled: “(this term) characterizes and describes the difference between the services of the service publisher and those of the usual public publishers , which in particular submit the financial expenses for the publication of a manuscript as a book. ”The judgment also states:“ The service provider publishers, like those of the plaintiff, are not publishers like the conventional publishers, as understood by the interested public are known to the general public. "

This refers to the fact that self-designations such as service provider publishing are intended to suggest to customers that the companies would take care of the interests of each individual client or author like a regular ( public ) publisher. This is sometimes underlined by the fact that they actually publish a fraction of their publications under the auspices of a publisher as editions they are responsible for. How little such companies care about the form and content of the manuscripts of customers in their main line of business was also shown by the action of the Internet poet group “42erAutoren”, who filled a manuscript on 842 pages with “word garbage” and “incoherent stuff” under a pseudonym Checks sent - which companies like Frieling and RG Fischer-Verlag were "very impressed with", not least because of "the urgency of their presentation and the way they speak".

Another major point of criticism is the intransparent cost structure of cost publishers. On the web portals of so-called "printing cost subsidy publishers" there are often no openly visible cost estimates , which in turn does not allow direct comparability. So complete information on the prices of their services z. B. only published after a fee-based and / or apparently all-covering flat rate has been paid, which can, however, be followed by further fee claims, or even a fee-based brochure from a company manager acting as a publisher has to be acquired in order to get more detailed information about the Cost to get. Other offers, which apparently provide all services free of charge, make these services u. a. dependent on an expensive "club" or "association membership" with monthly membership fees.

The campaign alliance for fair publishers made the following comparison with well-known public publishers with regard to the “risk shares” or “grants” demanded by such companies : “Renowned public publishers are already celebrating a five percent return on sales, grant publishers can expect returns of between 25 and 30 percent. Some come up with annual operating results of half a million euros before tax. ”And it goes on to say:“ In view of these profits, the statements of some of these publishers can be heard, who claim to authors that there is no funding for the respective manuscript due to alleged publisher financing would be more ready for them. The author must therefore pay a “grant” himself. In fact, not only does everyone pay a "subsidy", but everything in full. "

A clear allocation of cost publishers is made more difficult by the critics themselves, who often undifferentiated equate such companies with “grant publishers”. So the action alliance is not always uniform in its terminology, i. i.e. it uses B. on his pages often "Druckkostenzuschussverlag" and "grant publisher" like a synonym . On its “Definition of Terms” page, it then differentiates between “Printing cost subsidy / self-payer publishing” and “Pseudo-publishing”. According to the old definition, a “printing subsidy publisher ” would be roughly equivalent to a subsidy publishing house: “According to the definition, such a publisher would involve the author or a third party in the costs of the first edition and thus reduce his business risk - in some cases considerably. The author bears part of the costs. This means that the publisher shares the entrepreneurial risk. ”At the same point, it says again under“ Pseudo-publishing ”:“ In contrast, a pseudo-publishing company charges the author all the costs incurred, plus a profit margin. ”However, it is also unclear or it seems questionable whether at all still and how many so-called “grant publishers” only demand the pure printing cost subsidy and thus, as a printing cost publisher, still take their own publishing or entrepreneurial risk. (See also the note on doctoral students in the article self-publication .)


In April 2008, the action alliance for fair publishers (abbreviated to Fair lag) was founded, which includes the Association of German Writers (VS) in ver.di , the Federal Association of Young Authors (BVjA), the IG Authors Authors (IGAA) from Austria and the Association of Authors of Switzerland (AdS). The core of the action alliance is the Fairlag declaration “And everything is paid for yourself! Dangers of publication in so-called printing cost subsidy publishers / self-payer publishers and pseudo-publishers ”, which was signed by a large number of other literature institutions, including all three German-speaking PEN centers from German-speaking countries. Even before the declaration was published, signatories of the Fairlag Declaration received injunctions and threats of legal action from the operators of pseudo and grant publishers . Markus Hänsel-Hohenhausen, who describes himself as an "old publisher" and was CEO of the Frankfurter Verlagsgruppe until 2003 , published an "eleven-page memorandum" in which he accused the alliance of "discrimination against new authors" and its demands for "exclusion and censorship" in the "intellectual stream of the persecution of authors of the time of National Socialism and Communism".

Conversely, efforts were also made in the industry to improve its reputation. In addition to the authors and publishers, the self-publishing platforms as service providers for self-publications also tried to differentiate themselves from self- publishers : On January 23, 2013, the Monsenstein and Vannerdat publishing group , which, among other things, had to cease operations due to insolvency in 2016, had the self- The publishing platform was part of the company, the FAIR public certificate was launched in order to put an end to the trade with the new seal of “dubious pseudo-publishers” and the so-called “vanity press”. According to this, participating companies should commit themselves to standards with regard to author rights, information about their offers and sustainability and fairness. A review committee made up of industry experts would have had to award the seal and, if necessary, withdraw it again. There is currently no evidence as to whether this “FAIR public” certificate was ever awarded or whether it will still be awarded after the Monsenstein and Vannerdat publishing group went bankrupt .


No publishing contract is concluded between cost publishers and their clients (e.g. in Germany according to Section 1 of the Publishing Act ). Even if a cost publisher in the imprint z. B. is named as the manufacturer, the entire copyrights remain with the client. The clients, however, necessarily grant the cost publishers a restricted distribution right for the distribution services they usually also want .


  • Armin Ayren : The business with the poets . In: The time. No. 48/1975, November 21, 1975, accessed February 3, 2013.
  • Hans Natonek : Self-cost seal. In: The world stage . Volume 25, second half of 1929, pp. 171, 172. In
  • Jong-Rak Shin: Self-published in the literary life of exile in the years 1933–1945, author, publisher and reader . Sequence, Fuchstal 2007, ISBN 978-3-940190-21-5 (Dissertation University of Kassel, Department of German Studies (Literary Studies), 2007, 301 pages, 22 cm full text online PDF, free of charge, 220 pages, 793 kB, DNB 988036525 ).
  • Eduard Schönstedt , Thomas Breyer-Mayländer: The book publisher: history, structure, economic principles, calculation and marketing , 3rd, completely revised and expanded edition. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2010, ISBN 978-3-476-02258-5 .
  • Verena Huber, Ursula Rautenberg , Axel Kuhn (Eds.): On the typology of the current German publishing landscape (= all books: Studies of Erlangen Book Studies , Volume 46), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 2012, ISBN 978-3-940338-27- 3 OCLC 888288008 ( full text online PDF, free of charge, 114 pages, 1 MB).
  • Sandra Uschtrin , Heribert Hinrichs (eds.): Handbook for authors: information and addresses from the German literature business and the media industry . 8th, completely revised and expanded edition. Uschtrin, Inning am Ammersee 2015, ISBN 978-3-932522-16-1 .
  • Sylvia Englert : Author's Handbook: How to Find a Publisher for Your Manuscript. Step by step to your own publication. 7th edition. Authors' House, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-86671-103-7 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b Fairlag declaration by German, Austrian and Swiss authors' associations ( Memento of March 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), on the "dangers of publication in so-called printing subsidy publishers / self-payer publishers or pseudo-publishers" , action alliance for fair publishers
  2. a b c d Eduard Schönstedt: The book publisher. Stuttgart 1991, pp. 60-62 .; Jong-Rak Shin: Self-published in the literary life of exile in the years 1933–1945. Dissertation . 2007, p. 21 u. 22, footnote 44. ( PDF file, 793 kB); Furthermore, Schönstedt and the term self- publishing house used by him are cited several times and explained in: Verena Huber: On the typology of the current German publishing landscape. (.pdf) In: Ursula Rautenberg, Axel Kuhn (Hrsg.): Alles Buch - Studien der Erlangen Buchwissenschaft XLVI. Book Studies / University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 2012, ISBN 978-3-940338-27-3 .
  3. See paragraph 4 of the judgment of the Cologne Regional Court in the case law database NRW: LG Cologne, AZ: 28 O 334/07, May 14, 2008
  4. Ursula Rautenberg : Reclam's dictionary of the book: from handwriting to e-book. 3, completely revised. and updated edition, Reclam, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-15-011022-5 , Stw. Bezahlverlag; limited preview in Google Book search
  5. a b Publishing Dictionary - D ( Memento from November 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) of the Autorhaus Verlag : “Druckkostenzuschussverlag: Incorrectly used term for companies that allow themselves to be paid by the author to print his work, but usually far more than one Take a subsidy towards the printing costs. ^ Servicerverlag ^ Pseudoverlag ^ Vanity Press. ”(See also under 'Z' on grant publisher ), available online at
  6. a b See also the use of the term “Selbstkostenverlag” in: Hans Natonek : Selbstkostendichtung. In: The world stage . 25th year, second half of 1929, pp. 171, 172
  7. ^ Voices about Alfred Richard Meyer , online on the website for "Munkepunke" alias Alfred Richard Meyer in the second section with the heading Ernst Rowohlt writes the following on Munkepunke's 70th birthday in 1952: at
  8. Duden : Origin of the verb “to lay” , available online at
  9. a b c d e Definition of terms: publisher, printing costs subsidy publisher / self-payer publisher, pseudo-publisher. ( Memento from March 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: Action alliance for fair publishers .
  10. Use of the term “Bezahlverlag” in the glossary of the Börsenblatt
  11. a b Applications for inclusion in the FBK's author database , online on the Friedrich-Bödecker-Kreis website
  12. Use of the term “paid publisher” in Peter Lückemeier: crime writer Nele Neuhaus - sausage and murder and manslaughter. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . online, September 5, 2011.
  13. Use of the term “ pay publisher ” in Carsten Holm: Pay publishers: The nicest sides of nonsense. on: Spiegel Online . Culture, August 27, 2009.
  14. ^ Vanity publishing , see
  15. ^ A b Publishing Dictionary - V ( Memento from November 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) of the Authors' House Publishing House : "Vanity Press: Companies that let the author (vanity = vanity) pay for the printing of his work. ^ Pseudo publishing , available online at
  16. Is Lulu a cost publisher? ( Memento of April 26, 2014 on the Internet Archive ), online on the website
  17. ^ Dusseldorf authors - Lore Schaumann ; see “Pressestimmen” and here the 3rd article Raimund Hoghe: A neutral authority for self-publishers: Literaturbüro Düsseldorf. In: The time . May 27, 1983.
  18. Erhard Schütz: Remembrance literature: The Sirens of Cologne. online In: Der Tagesspiegel . July 30, 2012.
  19. a b c Armin Ayren : The business with the poets . In: The time . No. 48/1975, November 21, 1975, accessed February 3, 2013.
  20. See paragraph 4 of the judgment of the Cologne Regional Court in the case law database NRW : LG Cologne, AZ: 28 O 334/07, May 14, 2008
  21. See Stephan Füssel: Schiller and his publishers . Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 2005, ISBN 3-458-17243-2 .
  22. ^ Hans-Jürgen Heise: Nobel Prize and Novices. A publisher as a patron: Young authors have a chance at Bläschke . In: The time. No. 14/1980, March 28, 1980, accessed February 3, 2013.
  23. See notes on JG Bläschke Verlag In: Günter Navky: Aspects of National Socialism in poetry volumes from 1980 . Röhrig Universitätsverlag, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-86110-373-7 , pp. 58-60. ( Full text in google book search)
  24. a b c d See the website of the Frieling-Verlag Berlin : Verlag is looking for authors ( Memento from August 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  25. Since the middle of the 17th century, “publishers have become especially popular for those who take on the costs and distribution of printing works”. ( Grimm's Dictionary )
  26. Frieling's 7 steps ( Memento from August 25, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Example of a procedure for a cost estimate at Frieling Verlag Berlin
  27. a b See 9. What costs do I have to expect in the event of a publication? the reference in answers to the most frequently asked questions to the Frieling-Verlag Berlin ( memento of July 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) - price information from the Frieling-Verlag Berlin : “Experience has shown that all authors have to contribute to the cost of publishing their own book in our house calculate in the amount of several thousand euros. "
  28. Susann Sax, Gertrude Schildbach: Human Rights Book - At Frieling (almost) everything is printed. In: Scheinschlag . 2-2003.
  29. a b c Munich Higher Regional Court defines pseudo-publishing. using the example of Frankfurter Verlagsgruppe Holding AG August von Goethe on: , 7 August 2009.
  30. HAF Hamburger Akademie für Fernstudien : What does book-on-demand bring you? ; "Book-on-demand companies offer you as an author and self-publisher advantages, but also disadvantages compared to other publishing models ." Available online at
  31. Service: Become a member of VS , VS - Association of German Writers at
  32. Hobby author cannot deduct losses for tax purposes ( memento of January 30, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) referring to a final judgment of the Rhineland-Palatinate tax court of August 14, 2013 (file number 2 K 1409/12) in: Client circular 07/2014 , Märkische Revision GmbH (auditing company), PDF file, p. 10 of 23
  33. , ino / dpa : Hope for "discovery" is not enough - amateur author does not get any money from the tax office , online at on October 8, 2013.
  34. a b c Inventory analysis and goals ( memento of March 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), action alliance for fair publishers
  35. a b Ronit Wolf: Exchange savings book for book. ( Memento from June 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) In: Die Zeit . February 20, 2009
  36. a b See website of the Frieling-Verlag Berlin : Risk participation ( Memento from December 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  37. a b Which publishers and literary agents we can recommend Literatur-Café-Redaktion, 23 January 2009.
  38. Carsten Holm: Pay publishers: The most beautiful pages of nonsense in Spiegel Online Kultur from August 27, 2009
  39. Tino Hemmann: My book printed as needed , 2008 ( PDF file; 1.7 MB);
    Anyone who wants more information on self-publications in the
    Engelsdorfer Verlag
    pseudo- publishing house is referred to the 81-page brochure by the company director, which costs EUR 7.80. For the flat rate and self-designation of the “Engelsdorfer Verlag” see p. 9, for the “Costs” chapter, which cannot be accessed either in the free sample or on the publisher's website, see “Contents” on p. 7.
  40. ^ Association of Freelance Writers (VfS) and AUTHORS WITHOUT PUBLISHING e. V. (AOV) ( Memento from March 22, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), quote on the homepage of the website: "We publish such manuscripts as a 'digital book' - usually free of charge for members!", Online at authors-without-
  41. Grant publishers u. a. Companies and associations online in the authors' magazine of the Autorhaus Verlag
  42. Imprint ( memento of March 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) of the website of the action alliance for fair publishers
  43. Fairlag Declaration “ And everything paid for yourself! ( Memento from March 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) "
  44. ^ In the name of Goethe: Verlag threatens writers with lawsuits ( Memento from September 7, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Linkszeitung from April 16, 2008
  45. Markus von Hänsel-Hohenhausen: Memorandum: Persecution and incitement in the current literature business. Archived from the original on April 29, 2016 ; Retrieved October 4, 2011 . from April 18, 2008 on a website of Brentano-Gesellschaft Frankfurt am Main mbH, which belongs to the Frankfurter Verlagsgruppe.
  46. a b “FAIRublicen” is supposed to put pseudo-publishers down ; Press release of the former Monsenstein and Vannerdat publishing group from January 23, 2013.
  47. a b For the business model of self-publishing platforms, see also the fair-public initiative ( memento of March 26, 2014 in the web archive ), which the Monsenstein and Vannerdat publishing group with participation u. a. by Sandra Uschtrin .