Printing allowance

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The term printing subsidy, which is used in the publishing industry, cannot be clearly defined. More general terms are cost subsidies and publication fees . The common denominator is that the author shares the costs with the publisher, which varies in terms of its share of the costs and, if necessary, can be borne by third parties through funding. A distinction is made between printing costs (or production costs) and publication costs. In the field of science, this is a necessary procedure for scientific works that, due to their high degree of specialization and limited circulation, could not even appear without financial support. or where, as with dissertations, there is usually a publication requirement and demand cannot cover the costs either. Outside of science, such grants are also possible for lesser-known or young authors in order to publish their works and to protect themselves in the event of failure or to minimize the financial losses in advance.

Some models of Open Access also belong to these models by nature: The works are made freely accessible by the publisher and publication fees are to be paid to the publisher. These fees can also be funded by third parties. The publisher misses out on income from a sale, but the income risk for the publisher is minimized.

Types of grants

It can include a grant for the creation of a publication in the form of:

  1. a compulsory acceptance of author's copies against payment, which must be handed over to libraries, for example for dissertations.
  2. a partial or full assumption of the costs for printing or production only
  3. assuming all costs, including those that go beyond printing
  4. assumption of all costs for the creation including a previously calculated profit margin for the manufacturer

In the age of digital publication, a “publication fee” is often used instead of a “printing subsidy”.

The ambiguity of the term results not least from the fact that the costs for printed products can vary considerably due to the printing processes that have been used for this purpose since the middle of the 20th century, such as lead type , offset and digital printing , and a calculation is therefore not subject to uniform requirements. In addition, the (proportionate) assumption of these costs is usually negotiated on a project-by-project basis. As with the self-publishing platforms, cost estimates are not available in advance. B. can be taken from transparently detailed tables and therefore not comparable with each other.

In his dissertation, Jong-Rak Shin quotes Eduard Schönstedt from Der Buchverlag , according to which he differentiates between “ printing cost publishing ”, “manufacturing cost publishing ” and “ cost publishing ” in view of the large amount of subsidies to be paid .


Grantee / Giver

These grants, known as “printing subsidies”, were and are being collected from publishers or other forms of business that

These grants, known as "printing subsidies", have been and will be provided:


The Federal Ministry of Finance in Austria has decided that (z. B. by foundations) funded by a third party printing costs as authors of work done in the future just as printing costs , the total sales tax rate should be subject. (Valid from publication in the Federal Tax Gazette, if the Publishers' Committee of the Börsenverein does not raise an objection, supported by the University Association with a statement from a professor of tax law.)

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ Funding requirements - printing and publication costs at the Science Support Center of the University of Duisburg-Essen
  2. VG Wort Science Promotion Fund on
  3. Holger Höge: Written work in studies and work: a guide . Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart (3rd edition) 2006. ISBN 978-3-17-019176-1 ; P. 117
  4. printing costs on
  5. What does an author need a printing subsidy for? on
  6. a b Which publishers and literary agents we can recommend Literatur-Café-Redaktion, 23 January 2009
  7. a b Armin Ayren : The business with the poets . In: Die Zeit , No. 48/1975, November 21, 1975, accessed on February 3, 2013.
  8. a b c d e See pages 21 u. 22 in: Jong-Rak Shin: Self-published in the literary life of exile in the years 1933–1945 ; Dissertation , June 2007, PDF file with 220 pages (793 kB)
  9. Gemma Pörzgen: Doctor Digital - Bringing your own dissertation to a publishing house gives her prestige. But the Internet is cheaper and faster. Digital publishing also depends on the subject. online in Der Tagesspiegel from February 18, 2014
  10. ^ Eduard Schönstedt: Der Buchverlag , Stuttgart 1991, pp. 60-62 .; see page 21 and 22, footnote 44 in Jong-Rak Shin: Self-published in the literary life of exile in the years 1933-1945
  11. See also the use of the term “Selbstkostenverlag” in Hans Natonek : Selbstkostendichtung , Die Weltbühne in the 25th year, second half of 1929, online via the Internet Archive
  12. a b Publishing Dictionary - D of the Autorhaus Verlag: “Druckkostenzuschussverlag: Incorrectly used term for companies that allow themselves to be paid by the author to print his work, but usually take far more than a subsidy towards the printing costs. ^ Service provider publisher ^ Pseudo-publishing ^ Vanity Press. ” , Available online at
  13. Publishing dictionary - Z of the author publishing house : "subsidy publishing, printing costs ^ Verlag" , available online at
  14. ^ Publishing dictionary - P of the author house publishing house: " Pseudo-publishing : company for prints paid for by the author. Practices the reverse of the publishing principle: It is not the publisher who submits (word origin of publishing), but the author. ^ Vanity Press, also known as ^ Druckkostenzuschussverlag. Usually the books of such companies are rarely offered in bookshops. (Permissible statement according to OLG Munich Az 6 U 2250/09) " , available online at
  15. Definition of terms: publisher, printing costs subsidy publisher / self-payer publisher, pseudo-publishing ( Memento of March 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), action alliance for fair publishers
  16. See page 99 in: Hans Widmann: Tübingen als Verlagsstadt , JCB Mohr (Paul Siebeck) , Tübingen 1971 ISBN 3-16-933021-7